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Profiling Shakespeare

Profiling Shakespeare The title of this collection, Profiling Shakespeare, is meant strongly in its double sense. These...


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Profiling Shakespeare The title of this collection, Profiling Shakespeare, is meant strongly in its double sense. These essays show the outline of a Shakespeare rather different from the man sought by biographers from his time to our own. They also show the effects, the ephemera, the clues and cues, welcome and unwelcome, out of which Shakespeare’s admirers and dedicated scholars have pieced together a vision of the playwright, whether as sage, psychologist, lover, theatrical entrepreneur, or moral authority. This collection brings together classic pieces, hard-to-find chapters, and two new essays. Here, Garber has produced a book at once serious and highly readable, ranging broadly across time periods (early modern to postmodern) and touching upon both high and popular culture. Marjorie Garber is William R. Kenan, Jr., Professor of English and American Literature and Language and chair of the Department of Visual and Environmental Studies at Harvard University. Her recent book, Shakespeare After All (Pantheon, 2004), was chosen as one of Newsweek’s ten best non-fiction books of the year and was awarded the 2005 Christian Gauss Book Award from Phi Beta Kappa.

Profiling Shakespeare Marjorie Garber

First published 2008 by Routledge 270 Madison Ave, New York, NY 10016 Simultaneously published in the UK by Routledge 2 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 4RN Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business This edition published in the Taylor & Francis e-Library, 2008. “To purchase your own copy of this or any of Taylor & Francis or Routledge’s collection of thousands of eBooks please go to www.eBookstore.tandf.co.uk.”

© 2008 Taylor & Francis All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilized in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers. Trademark Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identification and explanation without intent to infringe. Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Garber, Marjorie B. Profiling Shakespeare / Marjorie Garber. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN13: 978–0–415–96445–6 (hbk) ISBN10: 0–415–96445–8 (hbk) ISBN13: 978–0–415–96446–3 (pbk) ISBN10: 0–415–96446–6 (pbk) 1. Shakespeare, William, 1564-1616. I. Title. PR2899.G33 2008 822.3'3–dc22 2007037786 ISBN 0-203-93098-3 Master e-book ISBN

ISBN10: 0–415–96445–8 (hbk) ISBN10: 0–415–96446–6 (pbk) ISBN10: 0–203–93098–3 (ebk) ISBN13: 978–0–415–96445–6 (hbk) ISBN13: 978–0–415–96446–3 (pbk) ISBN13: 978–0–203–93098–4 (ebk)

For Winthrop A. Burr, with gratitude

Contents

Acknowledgments ix A Note on the Text xi Shakespeare’s Profile 1 1 Shakespeare’s Ghost Writers 4 2 Hamlet: Giving Up the Ghost 29 3 Macbeth: The Male Medusa 76 4 Shakespeare as Fetish 110 5 Character Assassination 119 6 Out of Joint 130 7 Roman Numerals 151 8 Second-Best Bed 167 9 Shakespeare’s Dogs 182 10 Shakespeare’s Laundry List 195 11 Shakespeare’s Faces 214 12 McGuffin Shakespeare 228 13 Fatal Cleopatra 253 14 What Did Shakespeare Invent? 271 15 Bartlett’s Familiar Shakespeare 278 Notes 302 Index 336

Acknowledgments

Most of the essays in this book have been previously published, either in collections of my own work or in journals and occasional volumes. A few small alterations have been made, but otherwise the essays appear in their original form. I am grateful to Sara Bartel, Sol Kim Bentley, Marcie Bianco, Emily Filler, William Germano, Eliza Hornig, Annette Lemieux, Larry Switzky, and Beth Vesel for their support at various stages of the book’s development, and for their assistance in bringing it to fruition. “Shakespeare’s Ghost Writers,” “Hamlet: Giving Up the Ghost,” and “Macbeth: The Male Medusa” were all originally published in Shakespeare’s Ghost Writers (New York: Methuen, 1987). “Shakespeare as Fetish” was first published in Shakespeare Quarterly 41.2 (1990), “Character Assassination” in Media Spectacles (Eds. Marjorie Garber, Jann Matlock, and Rebecca L. Walkowitz. New York and London: Routledge, 1993), and “Out of Joint” was in The Body in Parts: Fantasies of Corporeality in Early Modern Europe (Eds. David Hillman and Carla Mazzio. New York: Routledge, 1997). “Character Assassination,” “Shakespeare as Fetish,” “Roman Numerals,” and “Second-Best Bed” were all published in Symptoms of Culture (New York: Routledge, 1998). “Shakespeare’s Dogs” was published in Shakespeare and the Twentieth Century: The Selected Proceedings of the International Shakespeare Association World Congress, Los Angeles, 1996 (Eds. Jonathan Bate, Jill L. Levenson and Dieter Mehl. Newark: U of Delaware P; London: Associated University Presses, 1998). “Shakespeare’s Faces” (as “Looking the Part”) was published in Shakespeare’s Face (Nolen, Stephanie, et al. Toronto: Alfred A. Knopf Canada, 2002). “Shakespeare’s Laundry List” (as “Historical Correctness”) was included in Quotation Marks (New York: Routledge, 2003) and in A Manifesto for Literary Studies (Seattle: Walter Chapin Simpson Center for the Humanities: Distributed in the U.S.A. by the University of Washington Press, 2003).

x

Acknowledgments

“MacGuffin Shakespeare” and “Fatal Cleopatra,” were also in Quotation Marks. “What Did Shakespeare Invent?” was presented as a lecture at the Shakespeare Association of America meeting in New Orleans, February 2004.

A Note on the Text

Unless otherwise noted, references in the text to Shakespeare’s plays are from the following Arden Shakespeare editions: Antony and Cleopatra, ed. John Wilders (London: Arden Shakespeare, 2002); As You Like It, ed. Agnes Latham (London: Methuen & Co. Ltd, 2000); The Comedy of Errors, ed. R. A. Foakes (Walton-on-Thames: Methuen & Co. Ltd, 1962); Coriolanus, ed. Philip Brockbank (London: Methuen & Co. Ltd, 2001); Cymbeline, ed. J. M. Nosworthy (Walton-on-Thames: Thomas Nelson & Sons Ltd, 1998); Hamlet, ed. Harold Jenkins (London: Methuen & Co. Ltd, 1982); Julius Caesar, ed. David Daniell (London: Arden Shakespeare, 2000); King Henry IV, Part 1, ed. David Scott Kastan (London: Arden Shakespeare, 2002); King Henry IV, Part 2, ed. A. R. Humphreys (Walton-on-Thames: Thomas Nelson & Sons Ltd, 1999); King Henry V, ed. T. W. Craik (London: Routledge, 2005); King Henry VI, Part 2, ed. Ronald Knowles (London: Thomas Nelson and Sons Ltd, 2001); King Henry VIII, ed. R. A. Foakes (Walton-on-Thames: Thomas Nelson & Sons Ltd, 1997); King John, ed. E. A. J. Honigmann (Walton-on-Thames: Thomas Nelson & Sons Ltd, 1998); King Lear, ed. R. A. Foakes (Walton-on-Thames: Thomas Nelson and Sons Ltd, 1997); King Richard II, ed. Charles R. Forker (London: Arden Shakespeare, 2002); King Richard III, ed. Antony Hammond (London: Methuen & Co. Ltd, 2006); Love’s Labour’s Lost, ed. H. R. Woudhuysen (London: Arden Shakespeare, 2001); Macbeth, ed. Kenneth Muir (Walton-on-Thames: Thomas Nelson & Sons Ltd, 1997); Measure for Measure, ed. J. W. Lever (Walton-on-Thames: Thomas Nelson & Sons Ltd, 1998); The Merchant of Venice, ed. John Russell Brown (London: Arden Shakespeare, 2003); The Merry Wives of Windsor, ed. Giorgio Melchiori (Walton-on-Thames: Thomas Nelson and Sons Ltd, 2000); A Midsummer Night’s Dream, ed. Harold F. Brooks (Walton-on-Thames: Thomas Nelson & Sons Ltd, 1997); Much Ado About

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Nothing, ed. A. R. Humphreys (Walton-on-Thames: Thomas Nelson & Sons, 1998); Othello, ed. E. A. J. Honigmann (London: Arden Shakespeare, 2006); Pericles, ed. F. D. Hoeniger (London: Arden Shakespeare, 2000); “The Phoenix and the Turtle,” The Poems, ed. F. T. Prince (Walton-on-Thames: Thomas Nelson and Sons Ltd, 1998); Romeo and Juliet, ed. Brian Gibbons (Walton-on-Thames: Thomas Nelson & Sons Ltd, 1997); The Tempest, eds. Virginia Mason Vaughan and Alden T. Vaughan (London: Arden Shakespeare, 2000); Titus Andronicus, ed. Jonathan Bate (London: Arden Shakespeare, 2003); Troilus and Cressida, ed. David Bevington (Walton-onThames: Thomas Nelson and Sons Ltd, 1998); Twelfth Night, eds. J. M. Lothian and T. W. Craik (London: Arden Shakespeare, 2005); Two Gentlemen of Verona, ed. Clifford Leech (Walton-on-Thames: Thomas Nelson and Sons Ltd, 1969); Two Noble Kinsmen, ed. Lois Potter (Walton-on-Thames: Thomas Nelson and Sons Ltd, 1997); The Winter’s Tale, ed. J. H. P. Pafford (London: Arden Shakespeare, 2001).

Shakespeare’s Profile

The title of this collection, Profiling Shakespeare, is meant to incorporate the varying meanings of “profiling” in use today, from the drawing or silhouette to the record of a person’s psychological and behavioral traits. The outline of a face or head; the biographical sketch of a public figure; the personality disclosed through responses to a social science questionnaire; the description of the probable characteristics of an unknown perpetrator, developed by investigators to help identify suspects. Each kind of profile will play some part in this book. These essays show the outline of a Shakespeare rather different from the man sought so earnestly and eagerly by biographers from his time to our own. And they also show the effects, the ephemera, the clues and cues, welcome and unwelcome, out of which Shakespeare’s admirers, fans and dedicated scholars have pieced together a vision of the playwright—whether as sage, pundit, lover, philosopher, psychologist, or successful businessman. My method here might be described as the obverse of biographical investigation: in each of these essays I follow the traces, inadvertencies, odd emphases and significant repetitions that have characterized the quest for Shakespeare, from the “authorship controversy” to the “second-best bed” he bequeathed to his wife in his will. Although many of these pieces have appeared before, the impact of seeing them all together is revealing: what is produced is, in fact, just what the title promises: a “profile” of Shakespeare, in the sense used by contemporary social science and law enforcement as well as the more traditional aesthetic and biographical sense. Profiling Shakespeare contains essays on “Shakespeare’s Faces” (the over- and under-interpretation of portraits of Shakespeare to make them match the viewer’s fantasies and fears), on “Character Assassination” (the quotation and unwitting

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misquotation of Shakespeare in public affairs), on the “Second-Best Bed,” on “Shakespeare’s Dogs,” and on “McGuffin Shakespeare” (the critical practice, here described in a term borrowed from Alfred Hitchcock, of pursuing phantom clues and phrases that have entered the texts through the imaginative emendations of editors). Like the discussion of portraits, the essays on “Shakespeare’s Ghost Writers” and “Shakespeare’s Laundry List” analyze the quest to find the man behind the plays, and read that age-old quest as a cultural symptom of transference, idealization, longing for stability and authority, and a variety of other needs and wishes. “Bartlett’s Familiar Shakespeare” pursues this theme by looking at the way the authorizing phrase “Shakespeare says” has become a mantra in venues from journalism to Congress to motivational speaking, and discusses both the desire for, and the impossibility of possessing, a knowledge of Shakespeare’s true opinions. “Shakespeare as Fetish” describes the phenomenon of Shakespearean celebrity in three disparate but telling instances; “Fatal Cleopatra” looks at the doomed quest for “character” behind the magniloquent language of the plays. Two other essays, “Out of Joint” and “Roman Numerals,” look at the cultural transition of terms and practices: “Roman Numerals” begins with a discussion of the way act, scene, and line numbers in editions of Shakespeare achieved their aura of canonicity because of the effect of a numeral system that no longer had practical value and had thus become iconic. “Out of Joint” discusses the surprising omnipresence and importance of such connections and disconnections—from knees and elbows to syntax, skeletons and dismemberment—on language, puppets, and plays. As with “Hamlet: Giving Up the Ghost,” this essay engages with contemporary literary theory to assess the ways in which Shakespeare creates the language, and the critical scenario, by which critics are then able to recognize and hail him. In the introduction to a previous collection of essays, Symptoms of Culture, I describe my critical practice in a way that has remained constant over time: “to read culture as if it were structured like a dream, a network of representations that encodes wishes and fears, projections and identifications, all of whose elements are overdetermined and contingent.” Another collection, Quotation Marks, stresses the attention to the word as a signifying detail: my essays often “take as their starting points, and frequently as their points of return, a word or phrase that is uttered in quotation marks—or perhaps one should write, ‘in quotation marks.’” Nowhere is this truer, or more indicative of cultural desire, than in the case of Shakespeare. Indeed, as I wrote then, “ ‘Shakespeare’ these days is a metaphor as well as a man, a belief system and a literary standard as well as a set of works: the word ‘Shakespearean’ is likely to appear as an adjective describing cataclysmic political events, or sports contests, or massive outpourings of grief, without any but the most general reference

Shakespeare’s Profile

3

to the playwright or his plays.” This is as much the case now as it was then: over the period of a few weeks the phrase “Shakespearean proportions” appeared in journalistic descriptions of the war in Iraq, the final season of the television series The Sopranos, and the denouement of a professional hockey game, to cite just three instances out of many. This “Shakespeare effect,” the conviction that Shakespeare is not of an age but for our time, has always fascinated me as a reader, a critic, and a “Shakespearean,” and informs the core quest of this book. At a time when many Shakespeare scholars are turning to biography for answers about the man Emerson said “wrote the text of modern life,” Profiling Shakespeare points in a different direction—toward the traces, hints, clues, and “evidence” (“real” and “forged,” persuasive and risible) that have led us on this high-stakes, high culture scavenger hunt to “know” Shakespeare. Returning to themes I set forth in Shakespeare’s Ghost Writers, several pieces of which are reprinted in this volume, I suggest that Shakespeare is indeed an “effect” in modern and postmodern culture. Yet Shakespeare is no less real, and no less fantasied, for being made of these disjecta membra. In fact the Shakespeare who emerges from these pages is the Shakespeare we write and cite, as well as the Shakespeare we act and read.

Shakespeare’s Ghost Writers

1

—Shakespeare? he said. I seem to know the name. James Joyce, Ulysses

I Who is the author of Shakespeare’s plays? To many scholars and admirers of Shakespeare, this question has the rhetorical status of the question “Who is buried in Grant’s tomb?” It is greeted by orthodox Stratfordians with umbrage, derision, and contemptuous dismissal of so intense an order as to inevitably raise another question: what is at stake here? Why, in other words, has the doubt about Shakespeare’s authorship persisted so tenaciously, and why has it been so equally tenaciously dismissed? The issue, as participants in the controversy see it, is whether the author of the plays is in fact the man who lived in Stratford, received with his father a grant of arms making him a propertied gentleman, prospered and bought New Place, one of the finest houses in Stratford, married Anne Hathaway, and bequeathed her his second best bed. No one denies that a man named William Shakespeare lived in Stratford; what is vigorously objected to in some quarters is that it was this same man who wrote the plays. It is argued that the very paucity of literary biographical material suggests that the authorship is in doubt, or, indeed, is itself a fiction, designed to obscure the “real” author, who by virtue of rank, gender, or other disabling characteristics could not with safety have claimed the plays for his (or her) own. Here, very briefly, is the case against Shakespeare as Shakespeare:

Shakespeare’s Ghost Writers

1.

2. 3.

4.

5.

5

We know relatively little about the life, despite a significant collection of legal or business documents. Surely the greatest poet of his time would have left a more vivid record, including the comments of his contemporaries. No one in his home town seems to have thought of him as a celebrated author. Most of the encomia for “Shakespeare” were written after the death of the Stratford man, and some, like Jonson’s famous poem affixed to the Folio, praise “Shakespeare” but may not identify him with the prosperous citizen of rural Warwickshire. The plays show a significant knowledge of the law, more than could have been acquired in a casual way. Francis Bacon was a lawyer; Bacon wrote the plays. The plays are clearly written by someone at home with the court and the aristocracy, and could not have been written by a plebeian. Edward de Vere, seventeenth Earl of Oxford, was a nobleman; Oxford wrote the plays. (If this belief held general sway, Stanley Wells would now be presiding over the publication of “The Oxford Oxford.”) The plays show a significant degree of classical learning, and also a certain witty detachment about university education. The Shakespeare of Stratford may have picked up his small Latin and less Greek at the Stratford grammar school, but we have no records proving that Shakespeare attended the school, and several rival claimants (Marlowe, Bacon, Oxford, the Countess of Pembroke, Queen Elizabeth) had demonstrably more rigorous training in both language and the classics. Finally, it is pointed out that there are extant only six signatures of Shakespeare, all of which are so crabbed and illegible as to suggest illiteracy or illness. Three of the signatures appear on his will and three others on business documents, none of them in a literary connection. One scene from Sir Thomas More, a play in six distinct manuscript hands, is said to be by Shakespeare: these 147 lines, ascribed to “Hand D,” have been subjected to much scrutiny, and have given rise to elaborate conjecture about Shakespeare’s process of composition. Yet even G. Blakemore Evans, who goes so far as to include the lines in The Riverside Shakespeare, and who describes them as “affording us a unique view of what Shakespeare’s ‘foul papers’ may have looked like,”1 admits that the evidence for the attribution, which was in fact not suggested until 1871, is inconclusive.

Against these latter two arguments, orthodox Stratfordians respond in a number of ways: first, by touting the excellence of the Stratford grammar school (according to James G. McManaway in the official Folger library pamphlet on the controversy, its headmaster made as much money as his counterpart at Eton, and a person with equivalent training today would, in his words, be “a Ph.D. at Harvard”2); second, by

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insisting that Shakespeare’s father would “never deny his first-born son the privileges of schooling to which his . . . position entitled him”;3 and third, by asserting that the nonsurvival of Shakespeare’s literary hand “has no bearing on the subject of authorship.”4 Manuscripts that went to the print shop prior to 1700 were universally discarded once the plays were set in type, and other English Renaissance authors (e.g., Spenser, Ralegh, and Webster) left similarly scanty paper trails. Yet no one quarrels about Spenser’s authorship, or Ralegh’s, or Webster’s, or Milton’s. This, of course, is precisely the point. Why is it different for Shakespeare? Why is so much apparently invested in finding the “real” ghost writer, or in resisting and marginalizing all attempts to prove any authorship other than that of “the poacher from Stratford” (to cite the title of a recent book on the Shakespeare authorship)? “Without possibility of question,” maintains the Folger ghost-buster, “the actor at the Globe and the gentleman from Stratford were the same man.”5 Then why does the question persist? That is the question, or at least it is the question that I would like to address. I would like, in other words, to take the authorship controversy seriously, not, as is usually done, in order to round up and choose among the usual suspects, but rather in order to explore the significance of the debate itself, to consider the ongoing existence of the polemic between pro-Stratford-lifers and pro-choice advocates as an exemplary literary event in its own right. One of the difficulties involved in taking the authorship question seriously has been that proponents of rival claims seem to have an uncanny propensity to appear a bit loony—literally. One of the most articulate defenders of the Earl of Oxford authorship is one John Thomas Looney. (An “unfortunate name,” commented Life magazine in an article on the authorship question—but, his defenders say, “an honorable one on the Isle of Man, where it is pronounced “Loney.”6 It was Looney, appropriately enough, who won Freud to the Oxford camp.) Nor is Mr. Looney the only contender for unfortunateness of name: a zealous Shakespearean cryptographer, who proves by numerological analysis that the real author could be either Bacon or Daniel Defoe, is George M. Battey (“no more fortunately named than Mr. Looney,” comments an orthodox chronicler of the controversy, and, “quite properly, no more deterred by it”7). Batty or loony, the ghost seekers’ name is legion, and they have left an impressive legacy of monuments to human interpretative ingenuity. It was not until the mid-nineteenth century that the full energies of the authorship controversy declared themselves, on both sides of the Atlantic, with the 1857 publication of Delia Bacon’s 675-page The Philosophy of the Plays of Shakespeare Unfolded, arguing the case for Francis Bacon (no relation) and of William Henry Smith’s Bacon and Shakespeare, shortly followed by the first impassioned defense, William Shakespeare Not an Impostor, by George Henry Townsend.8

Shakespeare’s Ghost Writers

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Out of these diverse beginnings has grown a thriving industry, which to this day shows no signs of abating. Some sense of its magnitude can be gleaned from the fact that when, in 1947, Professor Joseph Galland compiled his bibliography of the controversy, entitled Digesta Anti-Shakespeareana, no one could afford to publish the 1500-page manuscript.9 And that was forty years ago. The flood of publications has continued, culminating in the recent and highly acclaimed version of the Oxford case, The Mysterious William Shakespeare: The Myth and the Reality, by Charlton Ogburn, Jr. What, then, can be said about this strange and massive fact of literary history? It is significant that the Shakespeare authorship controversy presents itself at exactly the moment Michel Foucault describes as appropriate for appropriation: the moment when the “author-function” becomes, in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, an item of property, part of a “system of ownership” in which strict copyright rules define the relation between text and author in a new way. It is not until there is such a thing as property that violations of property can occur; it is not surprising that the claims for rival authorship arise at the moment at which, in Foucault’s words, “the transgressive properties always intrinsic to the act of writing became the forceful imperative of literature.”10 It may well be, therefore, that an analysis of the Shakespeare case will shed light on the general question raised by Foucault: “What is an author?” Instances of the appropriative, even mercantile nature of the controversy abound. Described by one observer as a kind of “middle-class affair,11 the debate has largely been waged by lawyers and medical men, followed by members of the clergy and retired army officers. Not surprisingly, it became a popular forensic topic and inevitably the subject of litigation. In 1892–93, the Boston monthly magazine The Arena sponsored a symposium which took testimony for fifteen months. Among the pro-Baconian plaintiffs was Ignatius Donnelly, a Minnesota Congressman who had written a book called The Great Cryptogram, in which he attempted at great length to apply a cipher invented by Bacon. Donnelly had come across the cipher in his son’s copy of a children’s magazine entitled Every Boy’s Book. By means of Bacon’s “Bi-literal cipher,” a secret “infolded” message could be placed within an innocent “infolding” text. The twenty-five-member jury in the case, which included prominent Shakespearean scholars and actors, found for the man from Stratford. A different verdict, however, was forthcoming in the 1916 courtroom battle on the tercentenary of Shakespeare’s death. Two convinced Baconians, the cryptographer Elizabeth Wells Gallup and her financial backer Colonel Fabyan, were sued by a motion picture manufacturer, William N. Selig, who hoped to profit from the tercentenary by filming some of the plays, and felt that the slur on the Stratfordian authorship would lessen the value of his product. In this case the judge, finding that “Francis Bacon is the

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author,” awarded Colonel Fabyan $5000 in damages. Although the verdict was later vacated, the case made legal history. Since both of these cases involved claims for a secret cipher, this may be the moment to say something about the role of codes and ciphers in the anti-Stratfordian cause. The purported discovery of a latent message encrypted in the manifest text provides the grounds for a startling number of cases for alternative authorship. The proliferation of ciphers can be seen as another transgressive correlative to the conception of literature as property. Here, the property violation happens not to the text but within the text. While copyright laws attempt to demarcate the bounds of literary property, cryptographers set out to uncover ghostlier demarcations, to show that the text itself is haunted by signs of rival ownership. Such codes, ciphers, anagrams, and acrostics can be as fanciful as Mrs. C. F. Ashmead Windle’s assertion that proof of the existence of a cipher was to be found in Othello: the island of Cyprus clearly was meant to be read by those in the know as “cipher us.”12 Or they can be as complex as Dr. Orville Ward Owen’s wheel, a remarkable contraption the size of two large movie reels, across which some 1000 pages of Renaissance literary texts could be wound and stretched for the better application of the cipher. Strictly speaking, Owen was not the inventor of the wheel—he credits that achievement to Bacon himself, in Bacon’s “Letter to the Decipherer,” which Owen found “infolded” in the text of the so-called Shakespeare plays. The letter to the decipherer, which is in code, contains instructions for cracking the code—useful, of course, only to one who has already done so. Owen’s commitment to the truth of his method ultimately compelled him to believe that Bacon was the author not only of the works of Shakespeare, Greene, Marlowe, and so on, but also of a posthumous translation of one of his own Latin works, heretofore credited to his literary secretary and executor, Dr. Rawley. During the writing of his book on Sir Francis Bacon’s Cipher Story, Dr. Owen received periodic visitations from Bacon’s ghost, thus becoming perhaps the first to pursue his research under the aegis of the ghost of a ghost writer. Convinced that tangible proof of Baconian authorship was to be found in a set of iron boxes, he obtained financial backing from the everoptimistic Colonel Fabyan, and began excavations for them in the bed of the River Wye. The search for buried treasure indeed often accompanies the unearthing of encrypted messages here, just as it does in Poe’s Gold Bug. Delia Bacon is notorious for having waited, shovel in hand, in Shakespeare’s tomb, suddenly assailed by doubts about what she was digging for. On that occasion, the ghost of Shakespeare (whoever he was) declined to unfold himself. But if, on the one hand, the isolated Looneys and Batteys always seem to be out there with their shovels, on the other hand examination reveals a significant degree of

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institutional as well as financial investment in the question. As recently as 1974, the most articulate contemporary spokesman for the Oxford case, Charlton Ogburn, Jr., created a scandal by publishing an article urging his views in Harvard Magazine, the alumni bulletin of his alma mater. The outcry was intense and prolonged. Harvard Professors Gwynne Evans and Harry Levin published a scathing reply in a subsequent number of the magazine, and letters deploring the threat to veritas continued to pour in for months. (“I’m amazed, shocked, and disgusted that THE magazine of the world’s greatest university should actually publish more of the stale old spinach on the Oxford lunacy”; “I am certain that Professor Kittredge is turning over in his grave”; “Charlton Ogburn is a fool and a snob,” and much more in the same vein.13) Reviving the notion of legal recourse to proof, Ogburn called for a trial to settle the issue. Philip S. Weld, a prominent newspaperman and former president and publisher of Harvard Magazine, offered to defray the costs of litigation, including “box lunches and sherry for the opposing players,” and proposed that “If no one at Harvard wishes to argue the case for the Stratfordian, perhaps you could engage someone from the Yale English Department.”14 In fact, a survey of the available literature on the “Shakespeare question” produces an uncanny number of references, often seemingly superfluous, to Harvard as an institution. The rhetorical role assigned to Harvard in the authorship controversy is not adventitious. The University itself becomes in effect a Ghost Underwriter, guaranteeing the legitimacy of whatever side invokes its name as a sign of power and authority. This is one reason why the outcry over Ogburn’s article in Harvard Magazine became so heated, moving one letter writer to characterize the published defense of the Stratford man by the Harvard professors as “paranoid, shrill, and even hysterical.”15 Something else is being defended—or attacked—here. What is the ghost that walks? At this point it might be useful to hazard a few conjectures about the kinds of investment that motivate the controversy on both sides: 1.

Institutional investments. Anti-Stratfordians accuse the “orthodox” of economic and egocentric commitment to such establishments as the Shakespeare Birthplace and the thriving tourist industry in Stratford, England; the Folger Shakespeare Library in Washington, with its handsome building, theater, and gift shop; and publishing projects like The Riverside Shakespeare, from which considerable financial benefit—as well as professional advancement—can be reaped. But there is institutionalization on the other side as well. Both Baconians and Oxfordians have established organizations to further their causes. The Bacon Society was founded in England in 1885; the Bacon Society of America in 1922;

10

2.

3.

4.

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the Shakespeare Fellowship, later the Shakespeare Authorship Society, promoting the claims for Oxford, was formed in London in 1922; and its American counterpart, the Shakespeare Fellowship, in 1939. The Shakespeare-Oxford Society Newsletter and the Shakespeare Authorship Review are going concerns. Professional investments. Related to such institutions is what might be called the guild mentality of the academic community. Professors who regularly lecture and publish on the plays of Shakespeare do not as a rule write books extolling rival claimants for authorship. A Shakespearean’s identity seems to hinge on the identity of Shakespeare. This produces a schism that can be read in a number of ways: either as representatives of sanity protecting scholarly seriousness against the Looneys and Batteys, or as guardians of the ivy tower protecting their jobs and reputations against true intellectual openness and the subversive ideas of outsiders. “Psychological” investments. For some combatants, “Shakespeare” represents a juggernaut, a monument to be toppled. Thus he is fragmented, marginalized into a committee (the group authorship theory) or even a conspiracy. As the author of An Impartial Study of the Shakespeare Title puts it, “No one man in the Sixteenth Century, or in any century before or since, leaving out the God-man, our Savior, could use as many words as are found in the plays.”16 A related phenomenon follows the pattern of Freud’s family romance, which involves the desire to subvert the father, or to replace a known parent figure with an unknown, greater one, in this case a member of the nobility instead of a country fellow from Stratford. S. Schoenbaum persuasively suggests this as one reason for Freud’s own belief in the Oxford candidacy.17 “Territorial” investments. By far the greatest number of contributions, on both sides of the question, have come from Americans; in an 1884 bibliography containing 255 titles, almost two-thirds were written by Americans. In 1895 the Danish critic Georg Brandes fulminated against the “troop of half-educated people” who believed that Shakespeare did not write the plays, and bemoaned the fate of the profession. “Literary criticism,” which “must be handled carefully and only by those who have a vocation for it,” had clearly fallen into the hands of “raw Americans and fanatical women.”18 Delia Bacon, often credited with beginning the whole controversy, was, of course, both. But while she was ultimately confined to a mental hospital, she had succeeded in attracting to her defense—though not necessarily to her point of view—such distinguished allies as Hawthorne and Emerson. Nor can we ignore the redoubtable Maria Bauer, who in the late 1930s received permission to excavate in Williamsburg, Virginia, for the proof of Bacon’s authorship, and who, in her book Foundations Unearthed, exhorted her fellow Americans: “Cast your vote for [Bacon as] the great Founder, the empire-builder

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of your Nation and your Culture” by digging up the treasure trove in the “Bruton Vault.”19 This was the democratization of authorship with a vengeance. Writers as different as John Greenleaf Whittier and Mark Twain, too, professed doubts about the Stratford man. Twain, who himself wrote under a pseudonym, and who had felt impelled to correct exaggerated reports of his own death, wrote an essay entitled “Is Shakespeare Dead?” in which he faults the Stratfordians for conjecturing a life story out of little or no evidence. Twain then goes on to declare himself a “Brontosaurian,” theorizing an immense body from a few ambiguous bones. “The Brontosaurian doesn’t really know which of them did it, but is quite composedly and contentedly sure that Shakespeare didn’t, and strongly suspects that Bacon did.”20 As Emerson wrote to his brother about the forthcoming publication of Representative Men: “Who dare print, being unlearned, an account of Plato . . . or, being uninspired, of Shakespeare? Yet there is no telling what we rowdy Americans, whose name is Dare, may do!”21 “We rowdy Americans” have had a variety of motivations for interest in the authorship question. First, there is what might be called an impulse to reverse colonization, a desire to recapture “Shakespeare” and make him new (and in some odd way “American”) by discovering his true identity, something at which the British had failed. Second, and in some sense moving in the opposite direction, there is an ambivalent fascination with aristocracy, as something both admired and despised. Thus the great democrat, Walt Whitman, declares himself “firm against Shakespeare —I mean the Avon man, the actor.”22 Those “amazing works,” the English history plays, could, he asserted, have only had for their “true author” “one of the ‘wolfish earls’ so plentiful in the plays themselves, or some born descendant and knower.”23 Charlie Chaplin, born in England but achieving success in America as the common man’s hero, declared in his autobiography: “I’m not concerned with who wrote the works of Shakespeare . . . but I hardly think it was the Stratford boy. Whoever wrote them had an aristocratic attitude.” Authorship of the autobiography is on the title page attributed to Sir Charles Spencer Chaplin.24 A third American motivation might loosely be described as mythic or “Unitarian”—the desire to believe in Shakespeare as a kind of God, transcending ordinary biography and fact. Thus, taking a gently ironic view of the efforts of “the Shakespeare Society” to find salient facts about the poet, Emerson asserts, “Shakespeare is the only biographer of Shakespeare; and even he can tell nothing, except to the Shakespeare in us.”25 “He was,” writes Emerson, “the farthest reach of subtlety compatible with an individual self—the subtlest of authors, and only just within the possibility of authorship.”

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But attachments to Shakespeare have not always remained on this side idolatory, as the pious reference to the vocabulary of the God-man (a Holy Ghost-writer?) attests. Another American, Henry James, confessing himself to be “sort of ‘haunted’ by the conviction that the divine William is the biggest and most successful fraud ever practiced on a patient world,”26 fictionalized the skepticism as well as the fascination provoked by such bardolatry in a late short story entitled “The Birthplace.” The story is often described as being about the tourist industry at Shakespeare’s birthplace in Stratford. But the proper names never, in fact, appear. The poet is referred to throughout as “Him” with a capital “H,” and his writings, similarly capitalized, as a “Set” of the “Works.” Far from casting doubt on the story’s referent, however, James’s typical indirection is here the perfect vehicle for his subject: no direct naming could have represented as well the paradoxes of the authorship controversy. As the story opens, Mr. and Mrs. Morris Gedge have just been hired as docents of the Birthplace. The Birthplace Trust appears in the story as the “Body,” the indwelling poet as the “Spirit,” the process of exhibition is known as the “Show,” and the “Show” includes the telling of certain “Facts” about which Gedge becomes increasingly dubious. He suggests to his wife a modification of discourse which amounts to an imposition of Jamesian style: “Couldn’t you adopt . . . a slightly more discreet method? What we can say is that things have been said; that’s all we have to do with. ‘And is this really’—when they jam their umbrellas into the floor—‘the very spot where He was born?’ ‘So it has, from a long time back, been described as being.’ Couldn’t one meet Them, to be decent a little, in some such way as that?”27

In search of enlightenment, Gedge haunts the “Holy of Holies of the Birthplace,” the “Chamber of Birth,” scene of the Primal Scene, which should contain the Fact of Facts—the fact that He was born there—or indeed, born at all. “He had to take it as the place where the spirit would most walk and where He would therefore be most to be met, with possibilities of recognition and reciprocity.28 But the ghost never appears. Like Gertrude in Hamlet, Gedge sees nothing at all. In a proto-New-Critical or proto-Foucauldian move, he finally confides to a pair of visiting Americans that the author does not exist. “Practically, . . . there is no author; that is for us to deal with. There are all the immortal people—in the work; but there’s nobody else.”29 The rest of Gedge’s career is instructive for academics, for he first makes the mistake of openly displaying his doubts—“giving the Show away,” as the representative of the Body says when he arrives to reprove him. But once reminded of his jeopardy, Gedge turns completely around, and, freed of the burden of an indwelling author, himself becomes one, gaining such fame as a raconteur that the Body doubles his stipend.

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The crucial point here is the independence—both in terms of entrepreneurship and of artistic freedom—conferred upon the Morris Gedges of the world by the absence of the author—by the hole at the center of things. In a similar spirit Mark Twain alleged rather gleefully about Shakespeare that “he hadn’t any history to record. There is no way of getting around that deadly fact.”30 Emerson, we can recall, likewise rejoiced in the picture of a Shakespeare “only just within the possibility of authorship,” and in his Journals he raises the question once more: “Is it not strange,” he asks, “that the transcendent men, Homer, Plato, Shakespeare, confessedly unrivalled, should have questions of identity and of genuineness raised respecting their writings?”31 This is in part what makes them transcendent. In fact, poets and writers who address the “Shakespeare Question” in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries tend to embrace the question as a question, preferring its openness to the closure mandated by any answer. This is as true in England as it is in America. Dickens remarks—in a letter much cited by anti-Stratfordians—that “It is a great comfort, to my way of thinking, that so little is known concerning the poet. The life of Shakespeare is a fine mystery and I tremble every day lest something should turn up.”32 With this splendid reversal of Mr. Micawber, Dickens aligns himself with the Gedge camp. Moreover, the most famous statements about Shakespeare as a creative artist— the ones we all grew up on—make very similar kinds of assertions. Coleridge characterizes him as “our myriad-minded Shakespeare.”33 Keats evolved his celebrated concept of “Negative Capability” to describe the quality “which Shakespeare possessed so enormously . . . that is, when a man is capable of being in uncertainties, mysteries, doubts, without any irritable reaching after fact and reason,”34 and wrote that “Shakespeare led a life of Allegory; his works are the comments on it.”35 Dryden, in a phrase equally familiar, calls Shakespeare “the man who of all modern, and perhaps ancient, poets had the largest and most comprehensive soul.”36 The suggestion in all of these cases is of a kind of transcendent ventriloquism. It is as though Shakespeare is beyond authorship, beyond even the “plurality of egos” that Foucault locates in all discourse that supports the “author-function.”37 Matthew Arnold’s sonnet on Shakespeare marks out the issue clearly: Others abide our question. Thou art free. We ask and ask—Thou smilest and art still, Out-topping knowledge.38

The “foiled searching of mortality” fails to disclose the answer: “Thou, who didst the stars and sunbeams know, / Self-schooled, self-scanned, self-honored, self-secure, / Didst tread on earth unguessed at—Better so!” (8–11). Better so indeed. We have

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described the investment in various answers, but a great deal seems invested in not finding the answer. It begins to become obvious that Shakespeare is the towering figure he is for us not despite but rather because of the authorship controversy. He is defined by that controversy, as, equally, he defines it, making Foucault’s use of him as an example almost tautologous. “Shakespeare” is present as an absence—which is to say, as a ghost. Shakespeare as an author is the person who, were he more completely known, would not be the Shakespeare we know. Formulations like “What is an author?” and “the death of the author,” which have engaged the imagination of contemporary theorists, draw much of their power and fascination from “the kinship between writing and death”39—a little less than kin and more than kind. Freed from the trammels of a knowable “authorial intention,” the author paradoxically gains power rather than losing it, assuming a different kind of authority that renders him in effect his own ghost. It begins to become clear that to speak about “ghost writing” is not merely to play upon words. As Foucault writes, we find the link between writing and death manifested in the total effacement of the individual characteristics of the writer . . . If we wish to know the writer in our day, it will be through the singularity of his absence and in his link to death, which has transformed him into a victim of his own writing.”40

If you want to know the author—in the text, as well as of or behind the text—look to see who’s dead. Consider, for example, the tradition that has grown up about Shakespeare as an actor in his own plays. Nicholas Rowe, in the Life printed with his 1709 edition of the Works, writes that “tho’ I have inquir’ed I could never meet with any further account of him this way, than that the top of his performance was the ghost in his own Hamlet.”41 Rowe’s edition was published ninety-three years after Shakespeare’s death—his information is hearsay, rumor, or better, but it is not an eyewitness account. It therefore belongs properly with the affect of the Shakespeare story rather than with its irreduceable facts. A less reliable account reports that Will Shakespeare’s younger brother, having been asked about the parts played by his celebrated sibling, described seeing him “act a part in one of his own comedies, wherein being to personate a decrepit old man, he wore a long beard, and appeared so weak and drooping and unable to walk, that he was forced to be supported and carried by another person to a table, at which he was seated among some company, who were eating, and one of them sung a song.”42 This part has been identified as that of Old Adam in As You Like It, who enters the scene in question (2.7) borne on Orlando’s shoulders, like Anchises borne on the shoulders of his son Aeneas.

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Both of these traditional accounts are suggestive. Each casts Shakespeare as a father figure advising his son, and placed at a disadvantage by age (or death) so that he requires the son to enact his will. Old Adam, in whom appears “the constant service of the antique world” (2.3.57) personates the dead Sir Rowland and his lost ways of civility. It is he who warns Orlando about treachery in the Duke’s court, and encourages him to seek safety in Arden. We may see this as appropriate to a playwright’s role, giving his protagonist motive for action, so that the casting acts as a kind of metadramatic shadow or reflection of the relationship between author, actor, and plot. But the role of ghost writer here is doubled. Each of these figures achieves his own erasure, first presenting or representing the imperative of the father, then disappearing from the play.

II We would search the “public” in vain for the first reader: i.e., the first author of a work. And the “sociology of literature” is blind to the war and the ruses perpetuated by the author who reads and by the first reader who dictates, for at stake here is the origin of the work itself. The sociality of writing as drama requires an entirely different discipline. Jacques Derrida, “Freud and the Scene of Writing”

Let us return, then, to our original question. Who is the author of Shakespeare’s plays? Is it possible that, in this already over-determined controversy, there is at least one more determining factor? Is there something in the nature of these plays that somehow provokes, as it responds to, the authorship controversy? Are there, in other words, explicit scenes of ghost writing in the plays themselves? It has long been noted that Shakespeare’s plays are full of questions of authority, legitimacy, usurpation, authorship and interpretation. Indeed, drama as a genre not only permits but also encodes the dissemination of authority. This is in part what authorizes such formulations as “negative capability” and “myriad-mindedness.” But can the more particular details of the authorship controversy as we have just documented it somehow be seen to be anticipated and overdetermined by the plays? Can the “Shakespeare Question” be situated within the text itself? Is the authorship controversy in part a textual effect? There are in fact an uncanny number of ways in which the plays can be seen to stage the controversy. Such scenes of encoded authorship encompass everything from ghosts that write and writers who function as ghosts, to handwriting analyses, signature controversies, the deciphering of codes, the digging of graves, the silencing of madwomen, the staging of plays that get away from their authors, and the thematizing of myriad other forms of doubt and discontinuity within authorial identity and

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control. Before I come to mention some specific instances in which ghost writing takes place in Shakespeare’s plays, however, it may be useful to set these remarks into a theoretical framework, and to give some idea of how I will be using the concept of a ghost here and in the chapters that follow. In Beyond the Pleasure Principle (1920), Freud discusses the ways in which the compulsion to repeat results from “the power of the repressed”—the ways, that is, in which that which has been repressed, because of its repression, keeps breaking through. Transference neurosis, the repetition of repressed memory as present experience, results from the retention of unconscious ideas, their refusal to become conscious and accessible to the patient and the analyst. The patient “is obliged to repeat the repressed material as a contemporary experience instead of . . . remembering it as something belonging to the past.”43 We might make use of a theoretical metaphor here, and describe such repetition as restaging or replaying. Freud himself explicitly refers to the unconscious as “another theater,” and compares the reenactment involved in repetition, with its apparently paradoxical yield of pleasure even in unpleasurable experience, to the experience of drama—and, specifically, tragedy: the artistic play and artistic imagination carried out by adults, which, unlike children’s, are aimed at an audience, do not spare the spectators (for instance, in tragedy) the most painful experiences and can yet be felt by them as highly enjoyable. This is convincing proof that, even under the dominance of the pleasure principle, there are ways and means enough of making what is in itself unpleasurable into a subject to be recollected and worked over in the mind.44

A tragedy is like an unpleasurable memory – or, rather, it is like the displacement of that repressed memory into the “working through” that is “artistic imagination” but also theatrical performance. This compulsion to repeat, this “perpetual recurrence of the same thing”45 that strikes us as uncanniness in life and as structure in art, is one of the functions performed in Shakespeare’s plays by the figure of the ghost. Another useful analogue for the concept of a ghost as I am using it here can be found in what Jacques Derrida has called the “logic of the supplement.”46 The word “supplément,” in French, means both a substitute and an addition. These terms, normally thought of as mutually exclusive, come together in the supplement in such a way that the binary logic of identity and noncontradiction is replaced by a different kind of logic. Barbara Johnson glosses that other logic as follows. In this chart, all statements are to be taken as equivalent to the statement, “A is a supplement to B.” 1. A is added to B. 2. A substitutes for B.

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3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16.

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A is a superfluous addition to B. A makes up for the absence of B. A usurps the place of B. A makes up for B’s deficiencies. A corrupts the purity of B. A is necessary so that B can be restored. A is an accident alienating B from itself. A is that without which B would be lost. A is that through which B is lost. A is a danger to B. A is a remedy to B. A’s fallacious charm seduces one away from B. A can never satisfy the desire for B. A protects against direct encounter with B.47

The ghosts in Shakespeare’s plays function as supplements in many, perhaps all, of these ways. The reader can test this out by selecting a ghost (or a character performing a ghost-function) and filling in the blanks. But if A stands for the ghost, who or what is B? If A is the Ghost of Old Hamlet, for example, is B the living Old Hamlet, Hamlet, Claudius, Ophelia, Horatio, Denmark, Hamlet, Shakespeare, the England—or the court—of Queen Elizabeth, a modern theatrical audience? Yes. Such is the promiscuous supplementarity of ghosts. Such, too, is the source of their power, and their danger. A ghost is an embodiment of the disembodied, a re-membering of the dismembered, an articulation of the disarticulated and inarticulate. “Were I the ghost that walked,” says Paulina to Leontes in The Winter’s Tale, discussing his “dead” wife Hermione, I’d bid you mark Her eye, and tell me for what dull part in’t You chose her: then I’d shriek, that even your ears Should rift to hear me; and the words that follow’d Should be ‘Remember mine.’ (5.1.63–7)

We might notice the similarity of this scenario to Hamlet, where the ghost of the dead spouse does walk and cries “Remember me,” the import of his words entering like daggers into his wife’s ears when Hamlet, like Paulina, transmits the message.48 In both of these dramatic cases, the appearance of the ghost comes at the time when the living spouse has effected, or is about to effect, a repetition and a substitution, through remarriage.

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The effect of uncanniness produced by the appearance of a ghost is related simultaneously to its manifestation as a sign of potential proliferation or plurality and to its acknowledgement of the loss of the original—indeed, to the loss of the certainty of the concept of origin. The representation of the fear of loss through multiplication is familiar from the interpretation of dreams and myths, as for example in Freud’s essay on “Medusa’s Head” (1922), where the proliferation of swarming snakes compensates for and covers over the fear of castration, or in the “The Uncanny” (1919), where he writes that “this invention of doubling as a preservation against extinction has its counterpart in the language of dreams, which is fond of representing castration by a doubling or multiplication of the genital symbol.”49 The dual question—of plurality and the lost original—is directly relevant to the phenomenology of ghosts. And it is equally relevant to the phenomenology of the work of art. It is here, in the overlapping status of the ghost and the art object, or the ghost and the text, that the further significance of Shakespeare as a ghost writer—as a writer of ghosts, and as their ghostly written—manifests itself. This peculiar characteristic of ghostliness—that the ghost is a copy, somehow both nominally identical to and numinously different from a vanished or unavailable original—has special ramifications for art forms which, like Elizabethan and Jacobean drama, are regarded by their contemporary cultures as marginal, popular, or contestatory. Consider the status of such analogous art forms as translation, photography, and film, forms that depend upon the production of “original copies.” In two important essays, “The Task of the Translator” and “The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction,” the cultural critic Walter Benjamin returns again and again to these two themes: multiplication and “the original.”50 For translation and mechanical reproduction are, precisely, means by which the original and its primacy are put in question. And thus they are ways of making—of calling up—ghosts. The two essays are uncannily concerned with the same issues, and the language in which Benjamin conducts his argument is itself suggestively ghostly—e.g., “A translation issues from the original—not so much from its life as from its afterlife,”51 or “Even the most perfect reproduction of a work of art is lacking in one element: its presence in time and space, its unique existence at the place where it happens to be.”52 “The technique of reproduction,” writes Benjamin, “detaches the reproduced object from the domain of tradition. By making many reproductions it substitutes a plurality of copies for a unique existence. And in permitting the reproduction to meet the beholder or listener in his own particular situation, it reactivates the object produced.”53 In fact, if we substitute the word ghost for translation or reproduction in any of these statements (“in permitting the ghost to meet the beholder or listener in his own particular situation . . .”) we can see how cognate the conditions of ghostliness and reproduction or nonoriginality really are. It may be objected that

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in the last passage quoted above, Benjamin refers to “a plurality of copies,” where in Shakespeare’s plays the ghosts of Hamlet’s father and Banquo and Julius Caesar are not multiply replicated, but are themselves possessed of “a unique existence.” This is certainly the case; but the “unique existence” each possesses is, I would contend, importantly different from the nonghostly existence of those characters as we encounter them (Banquo, Caesar) or hear about them (Old Hamlet) in the plays. I will have more to say about this gap between the ghost and its living “original” in the chapters that follow. For the present, though, I want to suggest that the idea of a “plurality of copies” does play an important role in the ghostly uncanniness of Shakespeare’s plays, as for example in the phenomenon of many men marching in the king’s coats (King Henry IV, Part 1 5.3.25; also King Richard III 5.4.11–12: “I think there be six Richmonds in the field; / Five I have slain today instead of him”); in the disturbing capacity of ghosts to move about (Hamlet 1.5.164: “Hic et ubique? Then we’ll shift our ground”); and in the profoundly uncanny sensation of doubleness experienced in and produced by the “twin” plays, The Comedy of Errors and Twelfth Night. In The Comedy of Errors the mechanism of textual effect is at work, as the concept of a ghostly double is transferred from that of the twin sons to their father: I see two husbands, or mine eyes deceive me. One of these men is genius to the other: And so of these, which is the natural man, And which the spirit? Who deciphers them? S. Dromio: I sir, am Dromio, command him away. E. Dromio: I sir, am Dromio, pray let me stay. S. Antipholus: Egeon art thou not? or else his ghost? (5.1.331–7) Adriana: Duke:

Perhaps the most instructive parallel suggested by Benjamin’s essay on mechanical reproduction is that of photography, and of the photographic negative, which is described as a shadow or reverse of a work that has no “original”: To an ever greater degree the work of art reproduced becomes the work of art designed for reproducibility. From a photographic negative, for example, one can make any number of prints; to ask for the “authentic” print makes no sense.54

In this connection it is interesting to recall that one of the familiar terms used in modern parlance to describe a faint, false, sometimes secondary photographic image is ghost—and that a ghost is also, in printing, a variation or unevenness in color intensity on a surface intended to be solidly tinted, a phenomenon often observed in the printing of newspapers. The photographic negative is in fact very like a ghost; it reifies

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the concept of an absent presence, existing positively as a negative image. In a negative we see light as dark and dark as light; we see, in effect, what is not there. Hamlet: Queen: Hamlet: Queen: Hamlet:

Do you see nothing there? Nothing at all, yet all that is I see. Nor did you nothing hear? No, nothing but ourselves. Why, look you there, look how it steals away! My father, in his habit as he lived! Look where he goes, even now, out at the portal! Exit Ghost. (3.4.132–8)

The analogy between a ghost and a photograph is made by Robert Lowell in a poem suggestively titled “Epilogue”: We are poor passing facts, warned by that to give each figure in the photograph his living name.55

Without the label of the “living name,” inscribed on the back of the photograph or beneath it in the album, such figures will become anonymous, dislocated from the context in which they are identifiable and identified. So writing fixes, pins down. This is ghost writing too, writing that calls up ghosts from the past, from the passing. In 1927 Abel Gance, who made the great film, Napoléon, predicted that “Shakespeare, Rembrandt, Beethoven will make films.”56 The study of films made of, or from, Shakespeare’s plays has by this time, of course, become a recognized subspeciality of Shakespeare studies, so that in that sense we can say Gance’s prediction has come true. “Shakespeare”—Shakespeare’s works—has made films. But in another sense, his words describe what Shakespeare had already achieved, in furnishing his plays with ghost writers, with writing ghosts and ghosts who demand to be written. Gance’s exultant claim for some Shakespeare of the future writes history backward, and describes not “Shakespeare” but Shakespeare, whoever he was. The appearance of ghosts within the plays is almost always juxtaposed to a scene of writing. Hamlet takes dictation from the Ghost of his father: “My tables, meet it is I set it down / That one may smile, and smile, and be a villain!” (1.5.107–8) Old Hamlet’s script is a revenge tragedy, perhaps the Ur-Hamlet. Hamlet will alter the script, will himself sign and seal what he will describe as a “play” on the voyage to England. But in this first encounter with the Ghost we see a further rewriting of authority as well.

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I’ll wipe away all trivial fond records, All saws of books, all forms, all pressures past That youth and observation copied there, And thy commandment all alone shall live Within the book and volume of my brain. (1.5.99–103)

“Thy commandment” (to revenge) replaces all the saws and pressures, or seals, of the past. In this post-Mosaic transmission of the law from father to son one kind of erasure (or “wiping away”) is already taking place. The Ghost himself is under erasure—“’tis here, ’tis here, ’tis gone”—visible and invisible, potent and impotent. But all ghosts are under erasure; that is their status.57 What Hamlet writes down in his tables is the doubled plot of the Mousetrap play, for to smile and smile and be a villain is not only a description of Claudius, but also of Hamlet, just as Hamlet glosses the figure of “one Lucianus, nephew to the King” in the Mousetrap as both a sign of his knowledge of Claudius’ guilt in the past, and a threat of his own revenge in the future. The integration of the Ghost into the composite figure of “Hamlet the Dane” begins with this scene of writing, as Hamlet writes himself into the story and writes the Ghost out, revising the revenge imperative (and the imperative of the revenge play). The ghost of Julius Caesar is appropriated as a ghost writer by Mark Antony in the funeral oration. It is clear from the moment of the assassination that the conspirators have killed the wrong Caesar, the man of flesh and blood and not the feared and admired monarch. They have, so to speak, killed the wrong author-function, the one associated with the proper name and not with the works. Brutus’s despairing cry, “O Julius Caesar, thou art mighty yet. / Thy spirit walks abroad and turns our swords / In our own proper entrails” (5.3.94–6) records his sense of Caesar as uncanny omnipresence, and conflates his two sightings of the Ghost with the self-destructive actions of the conspirators. Antony will himself become a “seizer” of opportunity, in the public reading of Caesar’s will, “under Caesar’s seal” (3.2.233), that leaves his money and pleasure-grounds to the people. In effect he makes Caesar, the dead and living Caesar of the author-function, his own ghost writer, the more effaced, the more powerful. Brutus, who actually sees great Caesar’s ghost, participates in a crucial scene of writing and authorial appropriation, an appropriation that occurs, significantly, before the assassination itself, as Brutus walks at night in his orchard. A letter is thrown in at his window, and, as he reads it, he writes it: “Brutus, thou sleep’st; awake, and see thyself. Shall Rome, etc. Speak, strike, redress.” “Brutus, thou sleep’st; awake.”

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Such instigations have been often dropped Where I have took them up. “Shall Rome, etc.” Thus must I piece it out: Shall Rome stand under one man’s awe? What Rome? My ancestors did from the streets of Rome The Tarquin drive, when he was called a king. “Speak, strike, redress.” Am I entreated To speak and strike? O Rome, I make thee promise, If the redress will follow, thou receivest Thy full petition at the hand of Brutus! (2.1.46–58)

Brutus supplies this anonymous document with what is in fact a dead (i.e., inanimate) author—“Rome.” “Rome” enjoins him to join the conspiracy. “Shall Rome, etc.”— like many of the Shakespeare ciphers—gives the interpreter considerable latitude to inscribe his own message (“thy full petition at the hand of Brutus”). The hand that rewrites here is of course also the hand that kills. The anonymity of the communication itself encodes authority—the importunings of a mere individual, like Cassius, are suspect because they are tied to a flawed human persona, and to personal motives. Receiving the letter, Brutus elects to ignore the possibility of a merely human agent, and to regard it instead as an uncanny answer to his own latent thought, about himself and his love-relationship to Rome. Here Brutus becomes his own ghost writer, and gives to the author he creates the pseudonym of “Rome.” Another kind of ghostly self-erasure can be seen in the famous “deposition scene” in King Richard II (4.1). There Richard, denying any possibility of a split between persona and role, the king’s two bodies (or the proper name of the author and his works, to use Foucault’s partition), sees himself as erased, tranformed into a shadow or ghost of himself, when he is deposed by Bolingbroke: I have no name, no title— No, not that name was given me at the font— But ’tis usurped . . . O that I were a mockery king of snow, Standing before the sun of Bolingbroke, To melt myself away in water-drops! (4.1.255–62)

A “deposition” is both a forced removal from office and a piece of testimony taken down for use in the witness’s absence (as well as the term describing the lowering of Christ’s body from the cross—Richard’s view of the event). Richard here deposes at his own deposition, figuring himself as a snowman whose whiteness and impermanence is tragically vulnerable to the kingly sun. He is already a voice from the past, and the disembodied voice, the ghost of Richard II, will haunt the rest of the tetralogy with increasing power.

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Bolingbroke had faulted the “skipping king” Richard for his availability to the people. He himself, by being seldom seen, will be more wondered at, more the stuff of legend, reverence, and fantasy. Like Arnold’s vision of a Shakespeare “unguessedat—Better so!”—this strategy locates power in absence: absence of personality, absence of fact, absence of peculiarity. But the question is also one of suitability, of fitting the role. Richard is the lineal king, the king by Divine Write, by Holy Writ. But Bolingbroke, like Bacon, fits the part, with his winning manners and his “fair discourse” (2.3.6). It is striking that one of his complaints against Richard is that the king has erased his name and coat of arms from the windows of the family estate, “leaving me no sign / Save men’s opinions and my living blood / To show the world I am a gentleman” (3.1.25–7). As with a “deposition,” so with a “will”—the dead hand is a living voice replacing the original author, and open to interpretation. Thus, in The Merchant of Venice, Portia complains that in the mandatory casket choice “the will of a living daughter [is] curb’d by the will of a dead father” (1.2.23–5). Shakespeare—if it is he—puns on his own name as an absent presence enforcing desire and authority (or failing to enforce them) throughout the Sonnets, and, as we have seen, Mark Antony makes of the “will” of the murdered Caesar read aloud to the plebeians a document that encodes his own “will,” his own authority over the original conspirators. But if ghosts are often writers, so too are writers often ghosts. The question of Shakespeare’s signature, especially as it appears (three times) on his will, can also be situated within the text. A signature, as Derrida has shown, is a sign that must be iterated to be recognizable, a sign of the simultaneous presence and absence of a “living hand,” which stands for its signator in that person’s absence. “By definition, a written signature implies the actual or empirical nonpresence of the signer.”58 A signature, then, is very like a ghost, as will become explicitly the case when Hamlet on shipboard takes his father’s signet, providentially carried in his purse, and signs the name of “Hamlet” to the letter he has forged in the careful calligraphy of a professional scribe. (“I once did hold it, as our statists do, a baseness to write fair . . . but, sir, now / It did me yeoman’s service” (5.2.33–6). The “changeling” letter that sends Rosencrantz and Guildenstern to their deaths is signed by Hamlet—but by which Hamlet? It is the underwritten script of the Ghost’s imperative superscribed by the son’s educated hand.

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III As the current affected the brachial plexus of the nerves, he suddenly cried aloud, “Oh! The hand, the hand!” and attempted to seize the missing member. The phantom I had conjured up swiftly disappeared, but no spirit could have more amazed the man, so real did it seem. S. Weir Mitchell, Injuries of Nerves

Again the plays are thematizing the authorship controversy: the question of the identification of signatures and handwriting (could Shakespeare write? could his parents? could his daughters? why have we no literary remains in his hand, or—if any—just the Thomas More fragment?) is a question configured in the plays not only in Hamlet and Old Hamlet, but in Edmund’s forged letter purporting to come from his brother Edgar. “You know the character to be your brother’s?” asks Gloucester, using the Renaissance term for handwriting, for letter of the alphabet, and also for cipher or code. “It is his hand, my lord; but I hope his heart is not in the contents” (King Lear 1.2.62; 67–8). The character, of course, is Edmund’s, the letter a forgery of his jealousy and not of Edgar’s. Likewise, Maria’s forged letter to Malvolio in Twelfth Night is made possible by an uncanny resemblance between her handwriting and Olivia’s. Indeed, the phenomenon of life imitating art has never been more amply demonstrated than in the proliferation of questers after the Shakespeare cipher. Their great model and predecessor, the most ingenious cryptographer of them all, is Malvolio, who opens Maria’s forged letter to discover not only ciphers and codes but an anagram as well: “Why, this is evident to any formal capacity. There is no obstruction in this. And the end: what should that alphabetical position portend? If I could make that resemble something in me! Softly! ‘M.O.A.I.’— . . . ‘M.’—Malvolio! ‘M’! Why . . . that begins my name! . . . ‘M’—But then there is no consonancy in the sequel; that suffers under probation: ‘A’ should follow, but ‘O’ does . . . ‘M.O.A.I.’ This simulation is not as the former: and yet, to crush this a little, it would bow to me, for every one of these letters are in my name” (2.5.117–41). Mrs. Windle, Dr. Owen, and Ignatius Donnelly are pale shadows of this strong precursor. In these forgeries the text itself becomes a ghost writer: the scriptwriting capacity takes on a power of its own, supplementing the plot and radically altering it. And once more, as in the plays, so in the authorized biography. Critics search in vain for the “speech of some dozen or sixteen lines” (2.2.535) that Hamlet inserts in “The Murder of Gonzago” as an indicator of his secret knowledge. In just the same way, editors have scrutinized the manuscript of Sir Thomas More for undoubted proof of Shakespeare’s authorship, and have fixed at last on the 147 lines written by “Hand D.”

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The spectral presence of the “hand” haunts the editorial tradition in another way as well, in connection with a particularly compelling example of authorial fragmentation. In Titus Andronicus Lavinia, who enters the stage with “her hands cut off and her tongue cut out, and ravished” (2.4. stage direction), is assigned the task of writing without hands. Urged by his brother Marcus to moderate his language of grief and despair, “teach her not to lay / Such violent hands upon her tender life,” Titus (who has himself been tricked into cutting off one of his own hands) retorts angrily: “What violent hands can she lay upon her life?”: Ah, wherefore dost thou urge the name of hands . . . O handle not the theme, to talk of hands, Lest we remember still that we have none. Fie, fie, how franticly I square my talk, As if we should forget we have no hands, If Marcus did not name the word of hands. (3.2.25–33)

In the next scene (4.1) Lavinia begins to rifle through her nephew Lucius’s books with her stumps, turning the leaves of Ovid’s Metamorphoses, to point to the “tragic tale of Philomel . . . of Tereus’ treason and his rape” (47–8) as the narrative of her own experience. But her audience is puzzled. “Give signs, sweet girl,” implores Titus (61), and Marcus devises a better plan. As so often in this play, the stage direction says it all: “He writes his name with his staff, and guides it with feet and mouth”: This sandy plot is plain. Guide, if thou canst, This after me. I have writ my name Without the help of any hand at all. (69–71)

Lavinia’s inscription on the “sandy plot” indicates the truth of her condition, identifying her rapists as the sons of Tamora. “There is enough written upon this earth / To . . . arm the minds of infants to exclaims” (84–6). In-fans, unable to speak, disarmed by her mutilation, Lavinia signs her deposition with a missing hand, a hand that is both “bloody and invisible.” Given this no-holds-barred approach to the act of writing in the play, it is unsettling to notice how often phrases like “on the one hand . . . and on the other” appear in criticism of the play. T. S. Eliot calls it “a play in which it is incredible that Shakespeare had any hand at all,” M. C. Bradbrook observes that in the play “Shakespeare was trying his hand at the high style,” and E. M. W. Tillyard points out admiringly that “the author holds everything in his head”—all textual effects of the play’s embarrassing power.59 J. C. Maxwell, the Arden editor of Titus Andronicus, writes of the authorship question that “in the palmy days of disintegration of the

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Shakespeare canon, almost all practising dramatists of 1585–95 were called in to take a hand in Titus”60; three times he mentions “Peele’s hand” (twice on p. xxv, and again on p. xxvi), and he comments about Kyd that “there is nothing in the writing to suggest that he had any hand in it” (xxvii). Twice in the introduction he uses the formulation “on the one hand . . . and on the other” (xxxiv; xxxviii), and in the textual apparatus of the play he is fond of the technical designation “headless line” to denote a line of verse with only nine metrical feet. Thus the footnote to 2.3.115 reads, “best read as a headless line,” and 5.2.62 is described as “an effectively solemn headless line” while Titus’s multiply overdetermined request, “Speak, Lavinia, what accursed hand / Hath made thee handless in thy father’s sight” (3.1.66) is likewise described as “a headless line.” Nor is Maxwell wholly unaware of these anatomical excrescences. In a note to Act 5 scene 2, when Tamora comes to Titus’s study and finds him writing “in bloody lines,” lamenting his loss of eloquence (“how can I grace my talk, / Wanting a hand to give it action?”), the Arden editor cites B. L. Joseph, Elizabethan Acting, who quotes in turn from John Bulwer’s Chironomia (1644): “The moving and significant extension of the Hand is knowne to be so absolutely pertinent to speech, that we together with a speech expect the due motion of the Hand to explaine, direct, enforce, apply, apparrell, & to beautifie the words men utter, which would prove naked, unless the cloathing Hands doe neatly move to adorne and hide their nakednesse, with their comely and ministeriall parts of speech.”61

Here body parts and parts of speech seem inextricably intertwined. Titus asks Tamora on this occasion, “Is not thy coming for my other hand?” (5.2.27), and she later comments to herself, “I’ll find some cunning practice out of hand / To scatter and disperse the giddy Goths” (77–8). At the close of the play Marcus urges that “the poor remainder of Andronici . . . hand in hand all headlong hurl ourselves” (5.3.131). It is tempting to add to this proliferating textual effect by pointing out that the style of Titus Andronicus, characterized by distortion of scale and perspective, has much in common with the late sixteenth-century expressive style known as Mannerism—a style that traces its etymology to the word “hand” (ME menere from Norman French, from OF maniere, from Vulgar Latin manuaria, “way of handling,” manner, from manuarius, of the hand, from manus, the hand). Literal ghosts, portentous Senecan stalkers from the revenge tradition, tend in Shakespeare’s plays to be male and paternal. But as the example of Lavinia suggests, there is another whole group of ghost writers in his plays who are similarly under erasure, and these ghost writers are women—women marginalized by their gender, by their putative or real madness, or by their violation. The story of Delia Bacon—overprotected by her brother, misled by a theology student into thinking he

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would marry her, gaining authority as a seer and prophetess from her rejection, and with it the license to go abroad and speak dangerous things, dying mad—this is the story of Ophelia. “Her speech is nothing,” says a Gentleman to Horatio and the Queen, Yet the unshaped use of it doth move The hearers to collection. They aim at it, And botch the words up fit to their own thoughts, Which, as her winks and nods and gestures yield them, Indeed would make one think there might be thought, Though nothing sure, yet much unhappily. (Hamlet 4.5.8–13)

To this statement, itself a foreclosure of judgment (“her speech is nothing”), Horatio adds an even more political warning? “’Twere good she were spoken with, for she may strew / Dangerous conjectures in ill-breeding minds” (14–15). The “unshaped use” of Ophelia’s speech—rather like the “questionable shape” in which the Ghost appears to Hamlet (1.4.43)—is an invitation to fill in the blank. Traditionally dressed in white, Ophelia is marked as “virginal and vacant,” as Elaine Showalter points out,62 her white dress in contrast to Hamlet’s suits of solemn black. If his costume is explicitly described (indeed, self-described) as an “inky cloak” (1.2.77), she is the blank page, the tabula rasa. But the white dress is also the sign, and the shroud, of a ghost. And just as Horatio’s word “strew,” in the passage we have just noticed, predicts Ophelia’s flower-giving, so Laertes’s description of the scene as “a document in madness: thoughts and remembrance fitted” (176–7) identifies the documentary evidence, the displacement of the written and the writable, that Ophelia’s subject position compels. The flower-giving scene and its “document” closely resemble Lavinia’s tracing on the “sandy plot.” Both incidents present women writing as ghosts. Both suggest that women’s writing is ghost writing. Similarly marginalized, similarly erased, moving through the events of her play like a ghost, Cassandra is dismissed by her brothers as “our mad sister” (Troilus and Cressida 2.2.98), but the design toward which she moves, the story she tells, is the story of the Trojan War. Cassandra’s authority is such that she speaks the truth and is not believed—and this is also the case with Ophelia and indeed with Lady Macbeth. Lady Macbeth’s sleepwalking places her physically in exactly the condition of present absence, marginal stance, and legible erasure we have come to expect of such ghosts. Indeed, perhaps the most threatening female authority of all in the plays is also the most effaced—Sycorax, Caliban’s mother, predecessor magician to Prospero, whose name is evoked as the justification for his authority and authorship on the island—and who never appears in the play. Like Claribel, who would be the next heir to Naples but is half a world away in Tunis, Sycorax exists beyond

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the play’s margins, and only Miranda remains as another figure of female selferasure in the present, eagerly accepting her father’s tutelage in the Elizabethan World Picture. Thus, again and again, the plays themselves can be seen to dramatize questions raised in the authorship controversy: who wrote this? did someone else have a hand in it? is the apparent author the real author? is the official version to be trusted? or are there suppressed stories, hidden messages, other signatures? As will become clear in the chapters that follow, the plays not only thematize these issues, they also theorize them, offering a critique of the concept of authorship and, in particular, of the possibility of origin. Authorship itself will be seen as a belated and disputable matter. When Troilus cites the fidelity of his love for Cressida as “truth’s authentic author” (Troilus and Cressida 3.2.176) for lovers “in the real world to come” (168), or when Brutus and Cassius view themselves as heroic regicides in the eyes of “ages hence” (Julius Caesar 3.1.111) they are not, as they think, standing at the beginning of the story, but somewhere in the middle. The histories of which they imagine themselves authors are already in process. Neither Troilus nor Cassius is “author of himself,” and the texts they so confidently envisage are inflected, ironically, toward tragedy. If it is a wise father that knows his own child, so it is a wise character who knows he is in search of an author. The undecidability of paternity, articulated again and again in the plays by putative fathers like Lear, Leontes, Leonato, and Prospero, is analogous to, and evocative of, the undecidability of authorship. Thus a play like Pericles, long thought to be the product of dual authorship, enacts its own family romance by dwelling insistently on the incest riddle with which it begins: He’s father, son, and husband mild; I mother, wife, and yet his child: How they may be, and yet in two, As you will live, resolve it you. (1.1.69–72)

And even this incest riddle, later rearticulated in the mystery of Marina’s parentage (5.1.90ff.) is qualified by Gower’s narrative prologue: “I tell you what mine authors say” (1.Chorus.20). The origin is always deferred. The search for an author, like any other quest for parentage, reveals more about the searcher than about the sought, for what is demanded is a revisitation of the primal scene.

Hamlet: Giving Up the Ghost

2

But the calling back of the dead, or the desirability of calling them back, was a ticklish matter, after all. At bottom, and boldly confessed, the desire does not exist; it is a misapprehension precisely as impossible as the thing itself, as we should soon see if nature once let it happen. What we call mourning for our dead is perhaps not so much grief at not being able to call them back as it is grief at not being able to want to do so. Thomas Mann, The Magic Mountain The phantom which returns to haunt bears witness to the existence of the dead buried within the other. Nicholas Abraham, “Notes on the Phantom” For here the day unravels what the night has woven. Walter Benjamin, “The Image of Proust”

A murder done in Vienna In the fall of 1897 Sigmund Freud’s mind was running on Hamlet. A letter he wrote to Wilhelm Fliess in October contained the first exposition of the Oedipus complex, later to be elaborated in The Interpretation of Dreams (1900) but here already fully articulated, both as it presents itself in Sophocles and, in a more repressed and hysterical fashion, in Hamlet: Everyone in the audience was once a budding Oedipus in fantasy, and each recoils in horror from the dream fulfillment here transplanted into reality, with the full quantity of repression which separates his infantile state from his present one.

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Fleetingly the thought passed through my head that the same thing might be at the bottom of Hamlet as well. I am not thinking of Shakespeare’s conscious intentions, but believe, rather, that a real event stimulated the poet to his representation, in that his unconscious understood the unconscious of his hero. How does Hamlet the hysteric justify his words, “Thus conscience does make cowards of us all?” How does he explain his irresolution in avenging his father by the murder of his uncle—the same man who sends his courtiers to their death without a scruple and who is positively precipitate in murdering Laertes? How better than through the torment roused in him by the obscure memory that he himself had contemplated the same deed against his father out of passion for his mother, and—“use every man after his desert, and who should ’scape whipping?” His conscience is his unconscious sense of guilt. And is not his sexual alienation in his conversation with Ophelia typically hysterical? And his rejection of the instinct that seeks to beget children? And, finally, his transferral of the deed from his own father to Ophelia’s? And does he not in the end, in the same marvellous way as my hysterical patients do, bring down punishment on himself by suffering the same fate as his father of being poisoned by the same rival?1

Less than a month before, Freud had written to Fliess the famous letter in which he reveals his “great secret”—that he has abandoned the seduction theory: “I no longer believe in my neurotica.”2 Persuaded by the surprising frequency with which such seductions by fathers of children seemed to occur in his patients, and by the fact that the unconscious contains no “indications of reality,” he had determined that such acts were plausibly to be considered as fantasies rather than as personal history: “surely such widespread perversions against children are not very probable”; “in all the cases, the father, not excluding my own, had to be accused of being perverse.”3 Reversing himself on so crucial a point, and in effect dismantling the theory he had counted on to bring him wealth and fame, Freud addresses himself, in the letter to Fliess, to his own emotions. He had expected to be “depressed, confused, exhausted,”4 but he feels just the opposite. “It is strange, too, that no feeling of shame appeared.”5 In fact, he feels impelled to take a journey, and now proposes to visit his friend in Berlin. “If during this lazy period I were to go to the Northwest Station on Saturday evening I could be with you by noon on Sunday,”6 or, if this does not suit their schedules, “do the same conditions obtain if I go straight to the Northwest Station on Friday evening?”7 The proposal for a visit is treated as a digression, from which Freud now recalls himself: Now to continue my letter. I vary Hamlet’s saying, “To be in readiness”: to be cheerful is everything! I could indeed feel quite discontent. The expectation of eternal fame was so beautiful, as was that of certain wealth, complete independence, travels, and lifting the children above the severe worries that robbed me of my youth. Everything depended on whether or not hysteria would come out right. Now I can once again remain quiet and modest, go on worrying and saving.8

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Yet this apparent digression, this detour via the Northwest Station, in fact takes him directly back to the subject: Hamlet, and the way in which “a real event” might make the unconscious understand the intentions of the hero. For in this passage Freud twice proposes a journey to the Northwest Station, a locus that suggests what is literally a new train of thought. It is Hamlet, of course, who announces that he is “but mad north-north-west” (2.2.374), feigning madness for a purpose. Freud’s slip into the Northwest Station will likewise confirm that he is not “depressed, confused, exhausted; afflicted with shame,” or “discontent,” as he might be, but actually in control of his daydreams of fortune and independence, however he appears to the outside world. His letter to Fliess concludes with the hope that he will soon hear “How all of you are and whatever else is happening between heaven and earth.”9 “There are more things in heaven and earth, Horatio, / Than are dreamt of in your philosophy” (1.5.174–5), says Hamlet to his confidant, conceiving the plan to “put an antic disposition on” (180), to present himself as mad north-north-west. Fliess is an appropriate Horatio figure, idolized as a man of superior learning. But we may even hear a faint reminder of another passage from Shakespeare’s play here, Hamlet’s halfsardonic, half-serious self-accusation to Rosencrantz and Guildenstern: “I am very proud, revengeful, ambitious . . . What should such fellows as I do crawling between earth and heaven?” (3.1.124–9). Freud’s projected journey to the Northwest Station has about it something of the same quality as the Italian walk he describes in his essay on “The Uncanny” in which time after time he arrived at the same place, “recognizable by some particular landmark”10—a “factor of involuntary repetition which surrounds with an uncanny atmosphere what would otherwise be innocent enough, and forces upon us the idea of something fateful and inescapable where otherwise we should have spoken of ‘chance’ only.”11 The recognizable landmark here is both the railway terminus and Hamlet. When he came to write up his ideas about Hamlet for The Interpretation of Dreams (1900), Freud himself made the same connection, bringing the quotation to the surface: The prince in the play, who had to disguise himself as a madman, was behaving just as dreams do in reality; so that we can say of dreams what Hamlet says of himself, concealing the true circumstances under a cloak of wit and unintelligibility: “I am but mad north-north-west.”12

Hamlet is a play not only informed with the uncanny but also informed about it. The Ghost is only the most explicit marker of uncanniness, the ultimate articulation of “uncertainty whether something is dead or alive.”13 In Hamlet, as we shall see, Shakespeare instates the uncanny as sharply as he does the Oedipus complex—or, to put the matter more precisely, Freud’s concept of uncanniness finds as explicit an

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expression in the play as does his concept of the complicated sexual rivalry between father and son. The essay on “The Uncanny,” as we have already several times noted, goes out of its way to deny the status of Shakespearean ghosts per se as instances of this phenomenon. We have seen that Hamlet is the subtext for some of Freud’s own self-analysis. It is also a powerful subtext for the essay on “The Uncanny,” despite (or because of?) the explicit disavowals of the relevance of Shakespeare’s ghosts. Thus the central literary work that provides Freud with his chief enabling example of uncanniness, Hoffmann’s story “The Sand-Man,” is described in terms that closely resemble the plot of Hamlet: In the story from Nathaniel’s childhood, the figures of his father and Coppelius represent the two opposites into which the father-image is split by the ambivalence of the child’s feeling: whereas the one threatens to blind him, that is, to castrate him, the other, the loving father, intercedes for his sight. That part of the complex which is most strongly expressed, the deathwish against the father, finds expression in the death of the good father, and Coppelius is made answerable for it.14

This division of the father into loving and threatening figures, one castrating and the other protecting, is accompanied by the presence of an apparently desirable young woman who turns out to be a mechanical creation of the bad father (Coppola / Coppelius) working in collusion with her supposed father, Professor Spalanzani: “But Olympia was an automaton whose works Spalanzani had made, and whose eyes Coppola, the Sand-Man, had put in.”15 This would be an unfairly reductive description of Ophelia, to be sure, but there are striking similarities in the structures of the two situations. In both the young woman is used as a bait or lure for a transaction involving the young man, the threatening father, and the “Professor,” his colleague or accomplice. As a consequence of these events (the death of his father, the threats of the Sand-Man, the discovery of the girl-doll’s true nature, the betrayal of the old men in league against him) the young student goes mad and kills himself. Thus in not talking about Hamlet Freud is in a sense talking about Hamlet, and Hamlet’s relationships with Claudius, Polonius, Ophelia, and the Ghost. Indeed the passage on the nonapplicability of the Shakespearean ghosts to the kind of uncertainty Freud calls “the uncanny” is introduced at precisely this point in his explication of “The Sand-Man,” as a way of turning from the apparent but unimportant uncanniness of Olympia’s status (“uncertainty whether an object is living or inanimate”16) to the centrality of the castration complex as figured in the Sand-Man’s threat to put out Nathaniel’s eyes. Two kinds of things cause a sensation of uncanniness: beliefs that have been surmounted, and repressed complexes.

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An uncanny experience occurs either when repressed infantile complexes have been revived by some impression, or when the primitive beliefs we have surmounted seem once more to be confirmed . . . these two classes of uncanny experience are not always sharply distinguishable. When we consider that primitive beliefs are most intimately connected with infantile complexes, and are, in fact, based upon them, we shall not be greatly astonished to find the distinction often rather a hazy one.17 The distinction between what has been repressed and what has been surmounted cannot be transposed onto the uncanny in fiction without profound modification; for the realm of phantasy depends for its very existence on the fact that its content is not submitted to the reality-testing faculty.18

Here we have returned to the distinction that Freud makes in his letter to Fliess rejecting the seduction theory, between what happened “in reality” and what happened in fantasy. In Hamlet, as I will want to suggest, such distinctions, insofar as they can be made, are presented in the guise of encapsulated artifacts, or what are often called “insets”: the play within the play, the story of Old Hamlet’s death (“sleeping within my orchard”—a dream? and if so, whose?), Ophelia’s disturbingly knowledgeable ballads with their disconcerting sexual references, so ambiguously (and ambivalently) applicable to her father, brother, and lover. But at the center of the question of uncanniness lies not only the castration complex but also the compulsion to repeat. “Whatever reminds us of this inner repetition-compulsion is perceived as uncanny.”19 Repetition, and the repetition compulsion, are figured throughout Hamlet: in the double play, dumbshow and dialogue, their double existence never satisfactorily explained despite the ingenuity of critics; in the Queen’s two marriages, the twin husbands (“Look here upon this picture, and on this, / The counterfeit presentment of two brothers” [3.4.53–4]); in the double murder of fathers, Hamlet’s father killed by Claudius, Laertes’ father killed by Hamlet. Every critical observation on doubling in the play, from the psychoanalytic (“the decomposing of the original villain into at least three father figures, the ghost, Polonius, and Claudius”; “The splitting of the hero into a number of brother figures: Fortinbras, Horatio, Laertes, and Rosencrantz-and-Guildenstern”)20 to the rhetorical (“the most pregnant and interesting of [the play’s] linguistic doublings is undoubtedly hendiadys”)21 is an implicit commentary on the compulsion to repeat. Moreover, Hamlet is a play that enacts the repetition compulsion even as it describes it. (1) The ghost of old Hamlet appears to young Hamlet and urges him to revenge; (2) the ghost of young Hamlet, “pale as his shirt,” “with a look so piteous in purport / As if he had been loosed out of hell / To speak of horrors” (2.1.81–4) appears to Ophelia in her closet and, in dumbshow, raising a sigh both “piteous and profound” (94), returns from whence he has come; (3) the ghost of Ophelia, mad,

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appears before her brother Laertes and incites him to revenge for the death of their father Polonius. What, indeed, is revenge but the dramatization and acculturation of the repetition compulsion?

The anamorphic ghost The agent of repetition here, clearly, is the ghost. And what is a ghost? It is a memory trace. It is the sign of something missing, something omitted, something undone. It is itself at once a question, and the sign of putting things in question. Thus Barnardo, one of the officers on guard duty, suggests that “this portentous figure / Comes armed through our watch so like the King / That was and is the question of these wars” (Hamlet 1.1.112–14). Onstage, as in the plot of a tale or story, a ghost is the concretization of a missing presence, the sign of what is there by not being there. “’Tis here!” “’Tis here!” “’Tis gone!” cry the sentries (1.1.145–7). Horatio’s learned disquisition, reminding his onstage hearers and his offstage audience simultaneously of events in classical Rome and in Shakespeare’s recent play Julius Caesar, offers an historical (and stage-historical) context for the ghost: In the most high and palmy state of Rome, A little ere the mightiest Julius fell, The graves stood tenantless and the sheeted dead Did squeak and gibber in the Roman streets. (1.1.116–19)

Horatio associates the appearance of a ghost with the death of Julius Caesar. Jacques Lacan associates it with the castration complex, the “veiled phallus”: The hole in the real that results from loss, sets the signifier in motion. This hole provides the place for the projection of the missing signifier, which is essential to the structure of the Other. This is the signifier whose absence leaves the Other incapable of responding to your question, the signifier that can be purchased only with your own flesh and blood, the signifier that is essentially the veiled phallus . . . swarms of images, from which the phenomena of mourning rise, assume the place of the phallus: not only the phenomena in which each individual instance of madness manifests itself, but also those which attest to one or another of the most remarkable collective madnesses of the community of men, one example of which is brought to the fore in Hamlet, i.e., the ghost, that image which can catch the soul of one and all unawares when someone’s departure from this life has not been accompanied by the rites that it calls for.22

What does it mean to say that the ghost takes the place of the missing signifier, the veiled phallus? The ghost—itself traditionally often veiled, sheeted, or shadowy in form—is a cultural marker of absence, a reminder of loss. Thus the very plot of Hamlet

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replicates the impossibility of the protagonist’s quest: “the very source of what makes Hamlet’s arm waver at every moment, is the narcissistic connection that Freud tells us about in his text on the decline of the Oedipus complex: one cannot strike the phallus, because the phallus, even the real phallus, is a ghost.”23 Thus, not only is the ghost the veiled phallus, but the phallus is also a ghost. Lacan takes as his point of departure Freud’s essay on “The Passing of the Oedipus Complex” (1925), which explores the dilemma of the child caught between his desires and his fear of castration. When the inevitable conflict arises between the child’s narcissistic investment in his own body and the “libidinal cathexis of the parent-objects,” writes Freud, the object-cathexes are given up and replaced by identification. The authority of the father or of the parents is introjected into the ego and there forms the kernel of the super-ego, which takes its severity from the father, perpetuates his prohibition against incest, and so insures the ego against a recurrence of the libinal object-cathexis.24

We might think that Freud’s “super-ego” and Lacan’s “Name-of-the-Father” would both be names for the Ghost in Hamlet. Yet this Lacan seems explicitly to deny when, writing on the subject of certainty in “The Unconscious and Repetition,” he remarks on “the weight of the sins of the father, borne by the ghost in the myth of Hamlet, which Freud couples with the myth of Oedipus.” The father, the Name-of-the-Father, sustains the structure of desire with the structure of the law—but the inheritance of the father is that which Kierkegaard designates for us, namely, his sin. Where does Hamlet’s ghost come from, if not from the place from which he denounces his brother for surprising him and cutting him off in the full flower of his sins? And far from providing Hamlet with the prohibitions of the Law that would allow his desire to survive, this too ideal father is constantly being doubted.25

The Ghost is incompletely a representative of the Law, because both he and the tale he tells allow the son to doubt. He puts in question his own being as well as his message. Is he a spirit of health or goblin damn’d? Is this the real Law? Is this the truth? As long as the Law of the father is doubted or put in question, it cannot be (or is not) internalized, not assimilated into the symbolic, and therefore blocks rather than facilitates Hamlet’s own passage into the symbolic, where he will find his desire. The finding of desire is the recognition of lack, the acceptance of castration. But the doubt Hamlet experiences gives him the idea that there is something left. “It is here,” says Lacan, “that Freud lays all his stress—doubt is the support of his certainty.” He goes on to explain why: “this is precisely the sign,” he says, “that there is something to preserve. Doubt, then, is a sign of resistance.”26

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To put the matter in a slightly different way: the Name-of-the-Father is the dead father. This father—the Ghost—isn’t dead enough. The injunction to “Remember me” suggests that he is not quite dead. Hamlet must renounce him, must internalize the Law by forgetting, not by remembering. This is the only way he can be put in touch with his own desires, and with the symbolic. But Hamlet is the poet of doubt. Polonius reads aloud to the King and Queen Hamlet’s love poem to Ophelia, a paean to negation: Doubt thou the stars are fire, Doubt that the sun doth move, Doubt truth to be a liar, But never doubt I love. (2.2.115–18)

The meaning of “doubt” is itself in doubt as the phrase is repeated, shifting from something like “dispute” or “challenge” to “suspect” or “fear.” The litany of doubt here is an invitation to put things in question, at the same time that it puts in question the whole procedure of putting something in question. When we consider, additionally, the very dubious “truth” value of the statement that “the stars are fire” and “the sun doth move”—both presumptions put in question by Renaissance science—we find that a verse that purports to assert certainty and closure in fact undermines that certainty in every gesture. We should distinguish here between repression and foreclosure in the child’s experience of the symbolic order. Repression (Verdrängung) submerges or covers over unconscious thoughts that foreclosure (Verwerfung) does not permit. In other words, foreclosure preempts the experiences that repression would conceal. For both Lacan and Freud, what makes the difference here is castration, or the acceptance of castration. If a child forecloses the idea of castration, he (or she) rejects the Name-ofthe-Father in favor of the Desire-of-the-Mother. Rather than accepting the loss of the phallus, the child wishes to be the mother’s phallus, the completion of her desire, thus rejecting the limits implied by castration: the Law of the Father, the network of social roles (language, kinship, prohibitions, gender roles) that make up what Lacan calls the symbolic order. Lacan calls this “the failure of the paternal metaphor,”27 and predicts that the foreclosure of the Name-of-the-Father, of the constitution of the Law in the symbolic, can lead to psychosis, and to delusions. It is the lack of the Name-of-the-Father in that place which, by the hole that it opens up in the signified, sets off the cascade of reshapings of the signifier from which the increasing disaster of the imaginary proceeds, to the point at which the level is reached at which signifier and signified are stabilized in the delusional metaphor. But how can the Name-of-the-Father be called by the subject to the only place in which it

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could have reached him and in which it has never been? Simply by a real father, not necessarily by the subject’s own father, but by A-father.28

The failure of the paternal metaphor. This is not unrelated to what might be called paternal undecidability, or the undecidability of paternity—the fact, so often commented on in Shakespeare’s plays, that the father is always a suppositional father, a father by imputation, rather than by unimpeachable biological proof. “I think this is your daughter,” says Don Pedro to Leonato at the beginning of Much Ado About Nothing, and Leonato replies, “Her mother hath many times told me so” (1.1.97). (As if to underscore the point, Benedick interposes with interest, “Were you in doubt, sir, that you ask’d her?”) Prospero speaks to the same paternal obsession when he replies to Miranda’s question, “Thy mother was a piece of virtue, and / She said thou wast my daughter” (The Tempest 1.2.56–7). This doubt, on which paternity, legitimacy, inheritance, primogeniture, and succession all depend, is the anxiety at the root of the cultural failure of the paternal metaphor—that is, its failure because of its status as metaphor, its nontranslatability into the realm of proof. And when the failure of the paternal metaphor is regarded, not from the standpoint of the father contemplating the horror of bastardy, but from the point of view of the son, we have the dilemma of Hamlet, who simultaneously seeks and denies the authority of the law, the imprint of the father, what he calls “thy commandment” and “my word,” (1.5.102; 110)—the Ghost’s word of command, “his speech, the word (le mot), let us say of his authority” the place reserved for “the Name-of-the-Father in the promulgation of the law.”29 The more the father is idealized, the more problematic is the presence of doubt, the gap in certainty that instates paternal undecidability: the ravaging effects of the paternal figure are to be observed with particular frequency in cases where the father really has the function of a legislator, or at least has the upper hand, whether in fact he is one of those fathers who make the laws or whether he poses as the pillar of the faith, as a paragon of integrity and devotion, as virtuous or as a virtuoso, by serving a work of salvation, of whatever object or lack of object, of nation or of birth, of safeguard or salubrity, of legacy or legality, of the pure, the impure or of empire, all ideals that provide him with all too many opportunities of being in a posture of undeserving, inadequacy, even of fraud, and, in short, of excluding the Name-of-the-Father from its position in the signifier.30

Confronted with an overplus, a superfluity of fathers (psychoanalytic readers all comment on the splitting of the father into Claudius, Polonius, even old Fortinbras and old Norway), Hamlet finds both too many fathers and too few—he is too much in the son, but where is paternity, where is the law? Displacing onto these easier targets complaints he is blocked from voicing to the Ghost (because the Ghost is his father? because the Ghost is a ghost? because the Ghost is dead? but he is not dead, otherwise he would not walk, and how can he be dead without ever really having

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been alive?), Hamlet encounters doubt. Indeed, as in the case of the Medusa, where a multiplicity of penises is imagined to cover the unimaginable horror of no penis, of castration, so here the multiplicity of fathers covers the fact of lack. Covers it, in Hamlet, by foreclosing rather than repressing it. We have seen that Lacan, following Freud, sees doubt as the sign of resistance. The image that he chooses to describe this doubt in the case of dream narratives is that of the mark, spot, or stain: “that which marks, stains, spots the text of any dream communication—I am not sure, I doubt.”31 The stain is the sign of uncertainty—of the fact that one cannot be certain. And this too seems to be the function of the spot or stain in Hamlet. When Hamlet challenges his mother in her bedroom to turn her eyes, her gaze, inward, she sees “such black and grained spots / As will not leave their tinct” (3.4.90–1). These spots are not certainties but gaps, doubts—what did she do? and why? Most centrally, in his soliloquy in Act 4 on thinking and “dull revenge,” Hamlet says of himself, “How stand I then, / That have a father kill’d, a mother stain’d” (4.4.56–7), and the ambiguity of the grammatical construction is telling. He has a father who has been killed, a mother who has been stained—but by whom? Does he not also by the terms of this utterance assert, or acknowledge, that he has killed a father, stained a mother? In his essay on Hamlet, Lacan thus concerns himself with Shakespeare’s play as a remarkable example of the topology of human desire, “the drama of Hamlet as the man who has lost the way of his desire.”32 This is not the only case in which Lacan finds the way of his own theoretical desire by turning to a Renaissance artifact. On another occasion he examines one of the most striking of Renaissance paintings, a painting which has lately excited a good deal of commentary among literary theorists, Holbein’s portrait of 1533 called The Ambassadors. The famous work, which contains a preeminent example of the optical device known as the anamorphosis, discloses another ghost. Begin by walking out of the room, in which no doubt it has long held your attention. It is then that, turning round as you leave—as the author of the Anamorphoses describes it—you apprehend in this form . . . What? A skull.33

The object half obscured beneath the feet of the ambassadors in the depiction of vanitas, the skull, cannot fail to remind us of the skull in Hamlet—which is itself, in Act 5, followed by what Lacan in fact identifies in the Hamlet essay as a vanitas: the objects wagered in the final duel scene, he writes, are “staked against death. This is what gives their presentation the character of, what is called a vanitas in the religious tradition.”34 Holbein’s skull, which is not seen as a skull except from an exceptional

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or eccentric angle, is called “the phallic symbol, the anamorphic ghost.”35 Yet, Lacan insists, what we see here is “not the phallic symbol, the anamorphic ghost, but the gaze as such, in its pulsatile, dazzling and spread out function, as it is in this picture.”36 “Look here upon this picture, and on this” (3.4.53). “The King is a thing . . . of nothing” (4.2.27–9). The anamorphic ghost, the embedded, embodied, and distorted figure of a ghostly skull beneath the apparently solid feet of the ambassadors—what is this but an anamorphism of the ghost and the Ghost, the Ghost (once again, uncannily, inevitably) of Hamlet’s father? Lacan goes on: This picture is simply what any picture is, a trap for the gaze. In any picture, it is precisely in seeking the gaze in each of its points that you will see it disappear.37

“This picture is simply what any picture is, a trap for the gaze.” What is this but the play-within, the “Mousetrap,” “the image of a murder done in Vienna” (3.2.233–4). Long treated as a dramatic presentation that encodes misdirection, putting the real play in the audience, setting up Claudius and Gertrude as the real Player King and Player Queen, the “Mouse-trap,” also known as “The Murder of Gonzago,” appropriates the gaze and makes it the function of the play. Again Lacan’s description (in Four Concepts) of The Ambassadors is apposite: In Holbein’s picture I showed you at once—without hiding any more than usual—the singular object floating in the foreground, which is there to be looked at, in order to catch, I would almost say, to catch in its trap, the observer, that is to say us. . . . The secret of this picture is given at the moment when, moving slightly away, little by little, to the left, then turning around, we see what the magical floating object signifies. It reflects our own nothingness, in the figure of the death’s head.38 That is not how it is presented at first. . . . At the very heart of the period in which the subject emerged and geometral optics was an object of research, Holbein makes visible for us here something that is simply the subject as annihilated—annihilated in the form that is, strictly speaking, the imaged embodiment . . . of castration, which for us, centres the whole organization of the desires through the framework of the fundamental drives.39

Holbein’s portrait shows “the subject as annihilated”—which is the subject of Hamlet, a play situated on the cusp of the emergence of what has come to be known as the modern subject.40 For there is a way in which Hamlet performs the same operation as Holbein’s painting upon the gaze and the trope of vanitas. Its final tableau of the death’s head in the graveyard scene is another critique of the subject. What then is being caught in the trap Hamlet sets for the King, the King who is a thing of nothing? Is it Claudius who is caught in the “Mouse-trap,” or Hamlet as the signifier of the modern subject, already marked by negation, already dressed in black?

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Lacan’s own theoretical fantasy of the distortion produced by an anamorphism is determinedly phallic: How is it that nobody has ever thought of connecting this with . . . the effect of an erection? Imagine a tattoo traced on the sexual organ ad hoc in the state of repose and assuming its, if I may say so, developed form in another state. How can we not see here . . . something symbolic of the function of the lack, of the appearance of the phallic ghost?41

“My father, in his habit as he lived!” (3.4.137), “My father’s spirit—in arms!” (1.2.255), “thou, dead corse, again in complete steel” (1.4.52). The anamorphic ghost of old Hamlet, erected to full form by the gaze, contrasts sharply with the same figure in the “state of repose,” recumbent, passive, “sleeping within my orchard” (1.5.59), who receives the poison in the ear, the incestuous rape of a brother. The Ghost recounts the fantasy-nightmare of his own castration: “Thus was I, sleeping, by a brother’s hand / Of life, of crown, of queen at once dispatch’d, / Cut off even in the blossoms of my sin” (1.5.74–6). This is what Hamlet has already fantasized, what he recalls in his ejaculation, “O my prophetic soul!” (1.5.40). And as in the case of Julius Caesar, the dead man turned ghost is more powerful than he was when living, precisely because he crosses boundaries, is not only transgressive but in transgression, a sign simultaneously of limit and of the violation of that limit, the nutshell and the bad dreams. Thus the murder empowers the Ghost and his ghostly rhetoric, the language spoken in, by, and through the Name-of-the-Father. The Hyperion-father who obsesses Hamlet in his soliloquies and in his conversations with his mother is erected from this moment, from the moment of the father’s absence and death, half-guiltily acknowledged as the son’s desire. The castration fantasy of the sleeping father in the orchard enacts both Hamlet’s desire and its repression, which are in this moment identical. Here again Lacan is suggestive, when he writes of the impossibility of not wanting to desire: what does not wanting to desire mean? The whole of analytic experience—which merely gives form to what is for each individual at the very root of his experience—shows us that not to want to desire and to desire are the same thing. To desire involves a defensive phase that makes it identical with not wanting to desire. Not wanting to desire is wanting not to desire.42

This is the condition in which we encounter Hamlet for much of the play, the condition of desiring not to desire. Look where his desires have gotten him—or not gotten him. He walks out of Ophelia’s closet and into Gertrude’s. Here again we have closet drama, and of a high order—plays not meant to be acted. Hamlet’s accusation of his mother catches her in the trap set for the gaze: “O Hamlet, speak no more! /

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Thou turn’st mine eyes into my very soul, / And there I see such black and grained spots / As will not leave their tinct” (3.4.88–91). The black spot she sees is Hamlet, Hamlet as marker, Hamlet as floating signifier, as his blackness becomes metonymically a sign of mourning, of negation, of absence, of the impossible desire to tell the difference between desire and the repression of desire.

What would your gracious figure? The ghostly phallus as anamorphosis—that is, as form—assumes a certain visibility, however veiled. The Name-of-the-Father, on the other hand, is a function of the signifier, of language as a system of signs rather than shapes. As we shall see, the ghost— in Hamlet, as well as in a number of other literary guises—presents itself not only as a trap for the gaze but also a trope for the voice. In an influential essay on prosopopeia as the “fiction of the voice-from-beyondthe-grave,” Paul de Man writes: It is the figure of prosopopeia, the fiction of an apostrophe to an absent, deceased, or voiceless entity, which posits the possibility of the latter’s reply, and confers upon it the power of speech. Voice assumes mouth, eye, and finally face, a chain that is manifest in the etymology of the trope’s name, prosopon poiein, to confer a mask or a face (prosopon). Prosopopeia is the trope of autobiography, by which one’s name, as in the Milton poem, is made as intelligible and memorable as a face. Our topic deals with the giving and taking away of faces, with face and deface, figure, figuration and disfiguration.43

The quotation from Milton with which de Man is here concerned is, perhaps inevitably, the sonnet “On Shakespeare” as cited and discussed in Wordsworth’s Essays Upon Epitaphs. De Man singles out the thirteenth and fourteenth lines of this sixteen-line sonnet for special commentary. Then thou our fancy of itself bereaving Dost make us marble with too much conceiving.

Here de Man observes that the phrase “dost make us marble,” in the Essays Upon Epitaphs, “cannot fail to evoke the latent threat that inhabits prosopopeia, namely that by making the dead speak, the symmetrical structure of the trope implies, by the same token, that the living are struck dumb, frozen in their own death.”44 Milton’s sonnet “On Shakespeare” is dated 1630, and was published in the Second Folio of Shakespeare’s Plays in 1632. Merritt Y. Hughes speculates that “Milton’s questionable date, 1630, suggests that the poem was written some time before its publication, possibly with the expectation that the Stratford monument instead of the Droeshout portrait would be represented as the frontispiece of the

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Folio.”45 Thus the reference to “Marble,” as well as the “piled Stones” of line 2, the “Monument” of line 8 and the “Tomb” of line 16 would be pertinent to the memorial occasion, and to the illustration accompanying the memorial verses. “Dost make us Marble,” as Hughes also points out in a note, closely resembles the apostrophe to Melancholy in Il Penseroso, who is urged to “Forget thyself to Marble” (1.42). In the sonnet, however—and this is part of de Man’s point—it is the spectator, the reader, the mourner who becomes marble. As Michael Riffaterre comments, paraphrasing de Man’s argument: Chiasmus, the symmetrical structure of prosopopeia, entails that, by making the dead speak, the living are struck dumb—they too become the monument. Prosopopeia thus stakes out a figural space for the chiasmic interpretation: either the subject will take over the object, or it will be penetrated by the object.46

But in the case of the Stratford monument (or indeed, though less neatly, the Droeshout portrait), this exchange of properties has already taken place. The voice of the dead Shakespeare pictured on the tomb (and in the sonnet) speaks through the plays that succeed them in the Folio. Moreover, the same exchange has been prefigured and depicted in Shakespeare’s plays themselves, most straightforwardly—if such a figuration is ever straightforward—in The Winter’s Tale, where a statue comes to life and speaks. The awakening of Hermione, a true animation of the uncanny, is prepared for by a moment in the scene that precedes it, when an anonymous Third Gentleman reports the wonderment of the court at the reunion of King Leontes and his lost daughter Perdita. At the relation of the Queen’s death, he reports, Perdita was so moved that “Who was most marble, there changed colour” (5.2.89–90). The intimation is the more pointed because of the specific moment at which it occurs in the narrative—“the relation of the Queen’s death”—and it sets up, in dramatic terms, the mysterious finale, the revelation of a truth not known to the audience: that Hermione is alive. The awakening of the Queen itself takes the form of apostrophe, as Leontes, Perdita, and Paulina all address the “dear stone” and offer to join her in her inanimate fate: “does not the stone rebuke me / For being more stone than it? O royal piece! / There’s magic in thy majesty, which has / My evils conjur’d to remembrance, and / From thy admiring daughter took the spirits, / Standing like stone with thee” (5.3.37–42). Here a trope familiar from lyric “comes to life,” as it were, in drama, and there occurs a double uncanniness. As the statue of Hermione moves and speaks, the figure of prosopopeia likewise comes alive. The trope of the living and speaking statue, posing the question of “whether an object is living or inanimate”47 as does the “statue of Hermione” is certainly

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not unique to Shakespeare. To broaden the context of this discussion of uncanny authority, I will here briefly wander through a larger sculpture garden of ghostly animation. Molière’s Dom Juan, ou Le Festin de Pierre, first acted in 1665,48 includes a particularly “scandalous” (in Shoshana Felman’s sense) example of the trope of the talking stone. Molière’s subtitle depends on a punning doubleness in “Pierre,” which means both “stone” and “Peter,” the name of the Commander whose statue walks and talks in El burlador de Sevilla y Convidado de Piedra—a play by the Spaniard Tirso de Molina published in 1632, which was the principal source for Dom Juan. Molière’s statue has no name—it is described as “the Statue of the Commander” in the list of dramatis personae, and is addressed formally by both Dom Juan and Sganarelle as “Your Excellency the Commander.” In Molière’s play the statue first “comes to life” in Act 3 when it nods in response to an invitation to dine with Dom Juan, then returns the compliment in Act 4, inviting Dom Juan to dinner, to the “stone feast” of the subtitle. When it appears in Mozart’s Don Giovanni, and especially in Peter Shaffer’s recent drama on the life of Mozart, Amadeus, the statue becomes a reproving father, a revenger of his own death, a superego looming enormous over the philandering Dom Juan and bearing him off to hell. In Mozart’s opera, with libretto by Lorenzo da Ponte, the Commendatore is killed by Don Giovanni when he discovers Giovanni attempting to seduce his daughter.49 In Act 2 of the opera, the statue speaks, predicting Giovanni’s death. The servant Leporello thinks its voice comes from another world, but Giovanni assumes it to be that of a mortal antagonist, and strikes out with his sword. The inscription on the statue proclaims its purpose of vengeance. When the statue nods, twice, in response to the invitation to supper tended by Leporello, Giovanni demands that it speak: “Speak if you can! Shall I see you at supper?” The statue answers affirmatively, and duly appears—accompanied by the portentous music of the Overture—in Giovanni’s house, inviting Giovanni to sup with him in turn, and no longer seeking revenge, but rather repentance. Giovanni accepts the dinner invitation, but refuses to repent, and is engulfed in flames. The statue is referred to several times in this act as “the stone man,” and Leporello seems to draw attention to its stoniness and that of Giovanni when he remarks to Donna Elvira that his master “has a heart of stone.” When it disappears, the statue of the Commendatore is also, interestingly, described as a ghost, as Donna Elvira concludes that “It is surely the ghost I met,” when she left Giovanni’s house, having failed—like the statue—to persuade him to repent. In this version, the Commendatore is a punishing father figure, but specifically the father of a woman betrayed by the hero. Killed by inadvertence (as is Polonius, who occupies a similar paternal role), he reappears in the plot as an undecidable

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apparition who is read differently by the two spectators, Giovanni and Leporello. For all his differences from them, Leporello is in something of the place of Horatio and the sentries, crediting the other-worldly origin of the spectre, and eliciting only gesture —not language—from his invitation. Giovanni demands speech, responds to his intercourse with the statue with bravado, and is then disconcerted by a second visit. The transferential mention of the “heart of stone,” which is attributed not to the Commendatore, who is literally a stone man, but to Don Giovanni, who behaves like one, may remind us of Hermione and Leontes (“does not the stone rebuke me / For being more stone than it?” [The Winter’s Tale 5.3.37–8]) and also of the language of Othello as characterized by Stanley Cavell: As he is the one who gives out lies about her, so he is the one who will give her a stone heart for her stone body, as if in his words of stone which confound the figurative and literal there is the confounding of the incantations of poetry and magic. He makes of her the thing he feels (“my heart is turned to stone” [4.1.178]). . . .50

An analogous transference is arguably taking place in Hamlet, as the son imputes to the Ghost commands and wishes he would like to receive from the father, and which have the dual authority of concurring with (because they personate) his own desires, and presenting themselves as externally (and paternally) motivated instructions, imposed upon rather than by the ambivalently situated son. Hamlet’s word for this stony instruction is the appropriately chosen “commandment” (“thy commandment all alone shall live / Within the book and volume of my brain” [1.5.102–3]). As Moses received the stone tablets of the law, so Hamlet sets down in his tables the words he hears from—or the words he gives to—the Ghost. There are some grounds for arguing a connection between Mozart and Hamlet. Mozart attended a production of Hamlet staged by a touring company in Salzburg in 1780, and subsequently wrote to his father, “If the speech of the Ghost in Hamlet were not so long, it would be far more effective.” In calculating the effect of a subterranean ghostly voice in the theater—in this case for Idomeneo—he was concerned that the dramatic intervention be unearthly: Picture to yourself the theatre, and remember that the voice must be terrifying—must penetrate—that the audience must believe that it really exists. Well, how can this effect be produced if the speech is too long, for in this case the listeners will become more and more convinced that it means nothing. If the speech of the Ghost in Hamlet were not so long, it would be far more effective.51

In 1789 a German newspaper, reviewing a performance of Don Giovanni, commented that “Mozart seems to have learned the language of ghosts from Shakespeare—a

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hollow, sepulchral tone seemed to rise from the earth; it was as though the shades of the departed were seen to issue from their resting-places.”52 The comparison has also appealed to the imagination of modern Mozart scholars. William Gresser compares Don Giovanni Act 2 scene 7 explicitly to Hamlet, remarking on the problem of temporality in Mozart’s second act, and on the belief that a ghost could only walk between midnight and dawn.53 Peter Shaffer’s Amadeus points out the parallel. News of the death of Mozart’s stern father Leopold is brought to him by two “venticelli,” two “little winds,” purveyors of gossip and rumor. Salieri, who is with Mozart at the time, consoles him with words that closely resemble Claudius’ to Hamlet (“Do not despair. Death is inevitable, my friend”)54 and promptly transforms himself into a father substitute, opening his arms “in a wide gesture of paternal benevolence,” as Mozart, eluding this embrace, falls on his knees and cries “Papa!” “So rose the Ghost Father in Don Giovanni!” comments Salieri, as the scene closes. The next scene (2.9) begins with “the two grim chords which open the overture to Don Giovanni,” and which also accompany on the stage “the silhouette of a giant black figure, in cloak and tricorne hat. It extends its arms menacingly and engulfingly, toward its begetter”—that is, toward Mozart. And Salieri comments to the audience, as if completing his previous thought, “A father more accusing than any in opera.”55 Mozart reports to Salieri that his wife thinks he’s mad, and that he thinks so too. He has seen a “Figure in [his] dreams” (2.13) gray and masked, who instructed him “Take up your pen and write a Requiem” (2.17). And Salieri costumes himself, deliberately, in a cloak and mask of gray, “as—the Messenger of God!” “as the Figure of his dreams! [Urging] ‘Come!—Come!—Come! . . .’” (2.15): Salieri: He stood swaying, as if he would faint off into death. But suddenly—incredibly—he realized all his little strength, and in a clear voice called down to me their words out of his opera Don Giovanni, inviting the statue to dinner. Mozart: [Pushing open the “window”] O statua gentillisima, venite a cena! [He beckons in his turn] Salieri: For a moment one terrified man looked at another. Then—unbelievably—I found myself nodding, just as in the opera. Starting to move across the street! [The rising and falling scale passage from the Overture to Don Giovanni sounds darkly, looped in sinister repetition. To this hollow music Salieri marches slowly upstage.] Pushing down the latch of his door—stamping up the stairs with stone feet. There was no stopping it. I was in his dreams!56

Shaffer, in describing the masked apparition, writes that “he was not a crudely melodramatic figure—a spooky, improbable Messenger of Death—but a more poetic and dangerous apparition, a messenger from God stepping out of Mozart’s confessed dreams.”57

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From this father–son encounter, with its reminder of the way the father can personate both Death and the Law, we are led back to Hamlet, as Freud’s walk through the provincial town in Italy led unerringly, and uncannily, back to the quarter inhabited by prostitutes. In his discussion of the Oedipus complex Freud stresses the fact that Hamlet was “written immediately after the death of Shakespeare’s father (in 1601), that is, under the immediate impact of his bereavement and, we may well assume, while his childhood feelings about his father had been freshly revived.”58 Freud adds that Shakespeare had lost his own son, Hamnet, at an early age, and thus was in a double position of bereavement, a son mourning a father and a father mourning a son. (This, of course, is the doubled situation Joyce describes in Ulysses, and the occasion for the remarkable discussion of Hamlet in that novel: “Gravediggers bury Hamlet père and Hamlet fils. A king and a prince at last in death, with incidental music.”)59 Hermione and the Commander—two stony “statues,” both taken as monuments to (and representations of) the dead, the dead parent. One “statue” actually made of stone that nods and speaks, inviting a friend to supper, the other “statue” deservedly enrobed in its quotation marks, since it is actually the queen herself, Hermione masquerading as a statue, condemned to the “fate of stone” by her husband’s skepticism. As Stanley Cavell remarks, “One can see this as the projection of his own sense of numbness, of living death . . . the man’s refusal of knowledge of his other is an imagination of stone.”60 The Ghost in Hamlet resembles both of these monumental figures. Like them, he is specifically associated with the “fate of stone,” with the marble sepulchre. “Tell,” pleads Hamlet, Why thy canoniz’d bones, hearsed in death, Have burst their cerements, why the sepulchre Wherein we saw thee quietly inurn’d Hath op’d his ponderous and marble jaws To cast thee up again. (1.4.47–51)

The sudden animation of the monument, opening “his ponderous and marble jaws,” underscores the uncanniness of the apparition which is not itself a statue but is, nonetheless, a similarly idealizing representation. And the key question about this apparition, as about the others, is whether it will speak. The statue of the Commander in Molière first nods, startling the servant Sagnarelle, and subsequently speaks to Dom Juan, inviting him to supper. The final test for Hermione is articulated by Camillo: “If she pertain to life, let her speak too!” (The Winter’s Tale 5.3.113). The question of whether the Ghost will speak is a central preoccupation of the whole first Act of Hamlet, and has a great deal to do with the

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way it is described and addressed. “It would be spoke to,” says Barnardo. Horatio, as a “scholar,” is asked to do the job. Popular belief had it that “A ghost has not the power to speak till it has been first spoken to; so that, notwithstanding the urgency of the business on which it may come, everything must stand still till the person visited can find sufficient courage to speak to it.”61 Horatio valiantly tries to interview it on two occasions in scene 1, urged on by Marcellus’ apt invitation, “Question it, Horatio”: What art thou that usurp’st this time of night, Together with that fair and warlike form In which the majesty of buried Denmark Did sometimes march? By heaven I charge thee speak. Marcellus: It is offended. Barnardo: See, it stalks away. Horatio: Stay. Speak. Speak. I charge thee speak. Exit Ghost (1.1.49–54) Horatio:

Horatio:

Stay, illusion: If thou hast any sound or use of voice, Speak to me. If there be any good thing to be done That may to thee do ease, and grace to me, Speak to me; If thou art privy to thy country’s fate, Which, happily, foreknowing may avoid, O speak; Or if thou hast uphoarded in thy life Extorted treasure in the womb of earth, For which they say your spirits oft walk in death, Speak of it, stay and speak. (1.1.130–42)

The cock crows, and though Barnardo thinks “it was about to speak,” it starts away. We may notice that the constant pronoun here is it, not he, and that the “apparition” is carefully described as “like the King,” as one who “usurp’st” the time of the night (a loaded word in the circumstances) and the “fair and warlike form” of the dead King, “buried Denmark,” was wont to appear. “It” = King Hamlet. “It” is a space of conjecture, to be questioned. But the proof is to come, with the imparting of this tale to “young Hamlet.” “For upon my life,” says Horatio, “this spirit, dumb to us, will speak to him” (175). Cautiously, we may return to de Man’s definition of prosopopeia, the master trope, the trope of tropes: “the fiction of the voice-from-beyond-the-grave,”62 “the fiction of an apostrophe to an absent, deceased, or voiceless entity, which posits the possibility of the latter’s reply, and confers upon it the power of speech.”63 This description not only coincides with the dramatic circumstances of the first scene of

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Hamlet, it exemplifies it. “Our topic deals with the giving and taking away of faces, with face and deface, figure, figuration and disfiguration.64 When Hamlet is informed by Horatio of the appearance of “a figure like your father” (1.2.199) he asks, inevitably, “Did you not speak to it?” But the other question, on which he is curiously insistent, is whether the sentries saw the apparition’s face: “saw you not his face?” “look’d he, frowningly?” “Pale, or red?” “And fix’d his eyes upon you?” (228–33). We know that the Elizabethans often used its and his interchangeably but still there is something striking about Hamlet’s recurrent use of he and his after all the its of scene 1. Hamlet himself will return to the neuter pronoun after this exchange (“Perchance ’twill walk again” [243]; “If it assume my noble father’s person / I’ll speak to it” [244–45]) so that the brief gendering of the figure comes as a moment of achieved personating or animation, to be followed by a return to the objectification of it, which, as the OED tells us, is used “now only of things without life.” Is the Ghost animate or inanimate? Certainly it is animated—but the he / it distinction marks an act of naming that is an act of choice, confirmed when Hamlet sees the Ghost face to face: Horatio: Look, my lord, it comes. Hamlet: Angels and ministers of grace defend us! Be thou a spirit of health or goblin damn’d, Bring with thee airs from heaven or blasts from hell, Be thy intents wicked or charitable, Thou com’st in such a questionable shape That I will speak to thee. I’ll call thee Hamlet, King, father, royal Dane. O, answer me. (1.4.38–45)

Critical attention has usually been focused on the spirit / goblin, heaven / hell problem here—is this a false ghost or a true ghost, a delusion or a sign? But what seems equally central is the structure of address. Hamlet chooses to name the Ghost with those names which are for him most problematical: King, father, royal Dane.65 Hamlet addresses the “questionable shape” and brings it to speech, and therefore to a kind of life. Does he, in doing so, fulfill de Man’s dire prophecy: “the latent threat that inhabits prosopopeia, namely that by making the dead speak, the symmetrical structure of the trope implies, by the same token, that the living are struck dumb, frozen in their own death?”66 In the fiction of address, what Jonathan Culler suggestively terms “this sinister reciprocity”67 is always present as a threat. But if it is latent in lyric, it may become manifest in drama, and in Hamlet it does. This is the nature of revenge in Hamlet, the unremitting demand of the Ghost, leading to Hamlet’s final paradoxical declaration,

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“I am dead.” De Man elsewhere points out that “the object of the apostrophe is only addressed in terms of the activity that it provokes in the addressing subject.”68 Our attention is focused on the speaker. Culler interestingly comments on this argument that “apostrophe involves a drama of ‘the one mind’s modifications,’”69 and I would like to take his metaphor here seriously—for it is precisely a dramatic situation that is produced by this structure of address, which is why it is plausible to say that Hamlet constructs his own Ghost, makes use of the “gracious figure” of his father by utilizing the equally gracious figure of prosopopeia. Since apostrophe and prosopopeia so often involve a sensation of loss (not only in the post-Enlightenment lyric as observed by commentators like de Man, Culler, and Hartman, but in the elegaic tradition and the epitaphic texts of the Renaissance), the fiction of address itself performs a paradoxical function, not unlike that performed by Hamlet’s “I am dead”: it instates that which it mourns, makes present that which it declares absent and lost. “The poem,” says Culler, “denies temporality in the very phrases—recollections—that acknowledge its claims,” the narrator can “find, in his poetic ability to invoke [the mourned object] as a transcendent presence, a sense of his own transcendent continuity.”70 This is the transaction that takes place in Hamlet. “I am dead” and “I am alive to contemplate and mourn—and avenge—the dead” coexist in the same sensibility, in the same moment of naming. And this capacity, on the part of apostrophe and prosopopeia, is, exactly, dramatic: “Apostrophe is not the representation of an event; if it works, it produces a fictive, discursive event.”71 In Hamlet (as in The Winter’s Tale) the effect of the dramatic mode is to dis-figure the trope of address to a dead or inanimate object, and ventriloquize its response as part of the ongoing dramatic action. “Marry, how tropically!” (Hamlet 3.2.237–8) The Ghost is not—or not only—an instance of the unmetaphoring72 of prosopopeia. It is also the manifestation of that “latent threat” implicit in the trope itself. The rhetorical figure (“a figure like your father,” 1.2.199), under the operation of the uncanny, comes to life, is dis- or un-figured (“then saw you not his face,” 1.2.229), and exacts its sinister reciprocity: “that the living are . . . frozen in their own death.”73

Begging the question Uncanny reciprocity is thus created by the transference of death to the living and voice to the dead. But what does the dead voice say? What kind of commandment does the ghostly father in Hamlet hand down? The Ghost’s commandment comes in the form of a double imperative: “Remember me!” and “revenge!” What I will attempt to demonstrate here is that this

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double imperative is in fact a double bind. But first, a look at the first part of the commandment, the imperative to remember. Hamlet is indeed a play obsessively concerned with remembering and forgetting. Not only does the Ghost in his first appearance call upon Hamlet to “Remember me,” and provoke his son to take that “commandment” as his “word” (1.5.91–110); when he appears again in the Queen’s closet he makes the same demand, this time in the negative: “Do not forget.” (3.4.110). Claudius, the new King, acknowledges that “Though yet of Hamlet our dear brother’s death / The memory be green” (1.2.1–2) and a fit circumstance for grief, yet insists that “we with wisest sorrow think on him / Together with remembrance of ourselves” (6–7). Hamlet, in soliloquy, is pained by the memory of his mother’s passionate attachment to his father: “Heaven and earth, / Must I remember? Why, she would hang on him / As if increase of appetite had grown / By what it fed on” (1.2.142–5). And “O God, a beast that wants discourse of reason / Would have mourn’d longer” (150–1). In a sardonic mood he laments the frailty of memory two months after his father’s death (and his mother’s remarriage): O heavens, die two months ago and not forgotten yet! Then there’s hope a great man’s memory may outlive his life half a year. But by’r lady a man must build churches then, or else shall a suffer not thinking on, with the hobby-horse, whose epitaph is ‘For O, for O, the hobby-horse is forgot’. (3.2.128–33)74

When he comes to her closet, Gertrude, chiding him for his flippancy, asks “Have you forgot me?” and receives a stinging reply: “No, by the rood, not so. / You are the Queen, your husband’s brother’s wife, / And, would it were not so, you are my mother” (3.4.13–15). When in the same scene, after the Ghost’s injunction: “Do not forget!” Hamlet reminds her that he must go to England, she answers, “Alack, / I had forgot” (201). Ophelia herself is constantly associated with the need to remember. Laertes urges her to “remember well” (1.3.84) his cautions about Hamlet’s untrustworthiness as a suitor, and she answers that “’Tis in my memory lock’d” (85). In the scene where she is “loosed” to Hamlet in the lobby he says to her, “Nymph, in thy orisons / Be all my sins remember’d” (3.1.89–90) and she offers him “remembrances of yours / That I have longed long to re-deliver” (93–4). Her next offerings of remembrance will be the flower-giving, when she gives her brother “rosemary, that’s for remembrance—pray / you, love, remember. And there is pansies, that for / thoughts” (4.5.173–5). “A document in madness: thoughts and remembrance fitted,” he concludes (4.5.176–7). Forgetting, and especially forgetting oneself, is closely connected to manners, but also to something more. Hamlet greets Horatio, whom he has not seen since

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Wittenberg, with “Horatio, or I do forget myself” (1.2.161). Much later in the play he apologizes for grappling with Laertes: “I am very sorry, good Horatio, / That to Laertes I forgot myself; / For by the image of my cause I see / The portraiture of his” (5.2.75–8). At the beginning of Act 5 scene 2 he takes up his tale of the voyage to England, checking to see if Horatio “remember[s] all the circumstance” (2). “Remember it, my lord!” Horatio exclaims (3). Hamlet describes the moment on shipboard when he opened Claudius’s death warrant, “making so bold, / My fears forgetting manners, to unseal / Their grand commission” (5.2.16–18), and comments on his pretense of aristocratic carelessness: “I once did hold it, as our statists do, / A baseness to write fair, and labor’d much / How to forget that learning, but, sir, now / It did me yeman’s service” (5.2.33–6). “Antiquity forgot, custom not known” (4.5.104), the rabble call for Laertes to be king. Hamlet presses Osric to forego courtesy and to put his hat back on his head: “I beseech you / remember” (5.2.103– 4). Hamlet’s dying request is for Horatio to tell his story, and in the final moments Fortinbras asserts that he has “some rights of memory in this kingdom” (394) which, with the support of Hamlet’s “dying voice,” he is now prepared to claim. Recent critical discussions of the two Hegelian terms for memory, Erinnerung and Gedächtnis, can shed light on the problem we are considering, the relationship between memory and revenge. Initiated by Paul de Man in an essay on “Sign and Symbol in Hegel’s Aesthetics,”75 the discourse on memory has since developed in a number of provocative directions.76 Erinnerung (“recollection”), as de Man defines it, after Hegel, is “the inner gathering and preserving of experience,”77 while Gedächtnis (“memory”) is “the learning by rote of names, or of words considered as names, and it can therefore not be separated from the notation, the inscription, or the writing down of these names. In order to remember, one is forced to write down what one is likely to forget.”78 How can this distinction help us to understand the complexity of Hamlet’s mandate to turn his mourning into revenge? When Hamlet first appears on stage, he is beset by Erinnerung, interiorizing recollection, the consciousness of loss. Loss is what he thinks he has—not just “the trappings and the suits of woe,” but “that within which passes show” (1.2.85–6). He will not relinquish this memory, which he hugs to himself. Claudius has a number of motives for calling his “obstinate condolement” “a course / Of impious stubbornness” (1.2.93–4), but he is not altogether wrong. Loss is what Hamlet has instead of both mother and father—and loss is what he must lose, or learn to live with. Freud describes such immersion, when it reaches the state of melancholia, as a kind of fetishization, a privatizing and husbanding of grief, a refusal to let go.79 In Hamlet this condition is exemplified by the first soliloquy, “O that this too too sullied flesh would

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melt” (1.2.129–58), with its longing for dissolution, its flirtation with self-slaughter, and its fragmented and particularized memory of both his father and his mother. The encounter with the Ghost disrupts his absorption in the past as recollection. Abruptly Hamlet is wrenched from Erinnerung to Gedächtnis, from symbol to sign, or, to use de Man’s terms, from symbol to allegory. From this point forward he is compelled to constitute the past by memorization, by inscription, by writing down: Remember thee! Ay, thou poor ghost, whiles memory holds a seat In this distracted globe. Remember thee! Yea, from the table of my memory I’ll wipe away all trivial fond records, All saws of books, all forms, all pressures past That youth and observation copied there, And thy commandment all alone shall live Within the book and volume of my brain, Unmix’d with baser matter. Yes, by heaven! O most pernicious woman! O villain, villain, smiling, damned villain! My tables. Meet it is I set it down That one may smile, and smile, and be a villain— At least I am sure it may be so in Denmark. [Writes.] So, uncle, there you are. Now to my word. It is, ‘Adieu, adieu! remember me.’ I have sworn’t. (1.5.95–112)

The “tables” of Act I scene 5 are writing tables, somewhat like Freud’s “Mystic Writing-Pad,”80 which is, in turn, somewhat like the operations of memory as inscription of memory, Gedächtnis. Polonius alludes to a similar kind of table when he repudiates the role of “desk or table-book” (2.2.136) in his conversation with the Queen, announcing that he could not, like such inanimate objects, merely remain “mute and dumb” (137) when he learned of Hamlet’s overmastering love for Ophelia. Polonius’ choice of mute and dumb objects is suggestive, since both desk and tablebook are surfaces for writing. His refusal to “play” the desk or table-book denies the possibility of prosopopeia, of a speaking record. Thus while Polonius declines to be such a table, Hamlet takes dictation from the Ghost so as to carry about with him the transcribed and inscribed “word,” whether his “tables” are tables of wax, of paper, or of memory.81 The writing tables, then, must take the place of another kind of “table” in Hamlet, the table at which one eats and drinks, the kind of table associated not with Gedächtnis but with Erinnerung. For the language of Erinnerung, of interiorization, in this play is

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the language of digestion, of eating: “the funeral bak’d meats / Did coldly furnish forth the marriage tables” (1.2.180–1); “Heaven and earth, / Must I remember? Why, she would hang on him / As if increase of appetite had grown / By what it fed on” (142–5). Even the famous soliloquy on the sullied-sallied-solid flesh, the wish that the flesh would “melt, / Thaw and resolve itself into a dew” (1.2.129–30) reflects this burden of interiorization. Hamlet, unable either to escape or to complete the desired Erinnerung, is caught between cannibalism and anorexia, spewing forth in language what he cannot swallow,82 taunting Claudius with a reminder of “how a king may go a / progress through the guts of a beggar” (4.3.30–1). Caught, that is, until he is catapulted into an even more difficult trap by the double pull of the paternal imperative, an imperative so indigestible that it must be written down. The feast, like the one to which the Commander invites Dom Juan, is a feast of stone.83 Jacques Derrida, writing on memory and mourning, writing in memory of and in mourning for Paul de Man, suggests that Gedächtnis and Erinnerung are central to “the possibility of mourning,” and that “the inscription of memory” is “an effacement of interiorizing recollection.”84 In the “tables” speech, Hamlet limns precisely the effacement of Erinnerung by Gedächtnis. By writing down the Ghost’s “commandment” he both inscribes and constitutes the paternal story of a past which, in its pastness, is necessarily fictive, since it is only experienced as past, as tale, as narrative. Thus Derrida writes, for Paul de Man, great thinker and theorist of memory, there is only memory but, strictly speaking, the past does not exist. It will never have existed in the present, never been present, as Mallarmé says of the present itself: “un présent n’existe pas.” The allegation of its supposed “anterior” presence is memory, and is the origin of all allegories. If a past does not literally exist, no more does death, only mourning, and that other allegory, including all the figures of death with which we people the “present,” which we inscribe (among ourselves, the living) in every trace (otherwise called “survivals”): those figures strained toward the future across a fabled present, figures we inscribe because they can outlast us, beyond the present of their inscription: signs, words, names, letters, this whole text whose legacy-value, as we know “in the present,” is trying its luck and advancing, in advance “in memory of . . .”85

Derrida’s allusion to Mallarmé is pertinent, for Mallarmé was a great admirer of Shakespeare’s Hamlet, describing it as la pièce que je crois celle par excellence, “what I consider to be the play.”86 And for Mallarmé Hamlet is already a ghost. L’adolescent évanoui de nous aux commencements de la vie et qui hantera les esprits hauts ou pensifs par le deuil qu’il se plaît à porter, je le reconnais, qui se débat sous le mal d’apparaître. [That adolescent who vanished from us at the beginning of life and who will always haunt lofty, pensive minds with his mourning, I recognize him struggling against the curse of having to appear.87]

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We may notice not only his word hantera, “will haunt,” but also the verb tenses in this passage: Hamlet “vanished,” “will always haunt,” “I recognize him,” “struggling to appear.” In this sentence, too, Hamlet himself is never present, is always a trace or an anticipation, haunting Mallarmé and other readers, other audiences.88 He struggles not only against the curse of having to appear, but also with the very difficulty of appearing (le mal d’apparaître); in this too he is like a ghost, like the Ghost. Mallarmé’s Hamlet is thus just what Derrida describes: “a figure strained toward the future across a fabled present.” What makes Mallarmé’s mind pensive is mourning— mourning for the vanished Hamlet as well as in appreciation of Hamlet’s own loss. But what, exactly, does Hamlet write? (Or does he write at all? Critics and editors divide on this question, as to whether he whips out a table or mimes the taking of dictation.)89 What he claims to record is “thy commandment,” and the conjunction of “table” and “commandment” is suggestive. Implicit in the scene, but not always explicitly noted, is its relationship to the moment in Exodus when God gives to Moses “two tables of testimony, tables of stone, written with the finger of God” (Exodus 31:18). In the Mosaic case, God writes, and Moses, angry with the idolatrous Israelites dancing about the golden calf, casts the tables out of his hands and breaks them. Moses then returns to God and pleads with Him to show him His glory. And God says to him, “Thou canst not see my face: for there shall no man see me, and live” (Exodus 33:20). Contrary to the case of prosopopeia, there must here be voice without face, speech without face. And God commands Moses to hew “two tables of stone like unto the first: and I will write upon these tables the words that were in the first tables, which thou brakest” (34:1). The tables that Moses brings to the Israelites, the foundations of the Law, are thus themselves copies, the second version written by God in substitution for the first, the originals, which were broken, which were lost. Moses breaks the tablets because the people were breaking the commandments they did not yet have. Even this law, the great original, is a copy and a substitution. When we turn our attention once again to Hamlet’s tables, we can see the operation of substitution here through erasure, the inscription on the tables of “thy commandment,” which is—to revenge? to remember? to do the one through the agency of the other? We may notice that the same word, “commandment,” is used to denote Hamlet’s other act of inscription as substitution, the “new commission” that sends Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, instead of Hamlet, to be executed in England. The Ambassador from England arrives upon the bloody scene at the close of the play, and comments—in a figure that recalls the murder of King Hamlet—“The ears are senseless that should give us hearing / To tell him his commandment is fulfill’d, / That Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are dead” (5.2.374–6), and Horatio, taking

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“his commandment” to refer to Claudius’ original intent, replies, “He never gave commandment for their death” (379). Hamlet’s writing is thus already a copy, a substitution, a revision of an original that does not show its face in the text. Whether it be the revisionary “tables,” the interpolated “dozen or sixteen lines,” or the redirected “new commission” signed with a usurped signature, Hamlet’s writing is always, in fact, ghost writing.

Forgetting the hobbyhorse Nietzsche’s theory of historical repetition suggests that the world is itself a constructed fiction, so that what is “remembered” is in fact invented as a memorial object, and put in place in the past—put, perhaps, in the place of the past. J. Hillis Miller, describing “two kinds of repetition,” the Platonic model based upon resemblance, and the Nietzschean model based upon difference, observes that “this lack of ground in some paradigm or archetype means that there is something ghostly about the effects of this second type of repetition”90 and, again, that, “the second is not the negation or opposite of the first, but its ‘counterpart’ in a strange relation whereby the second is the subversive ghost of the first, always already present within it as a possibility which hollows it out.”91 If my understanding of Hamlet is correct, the Ghost is itself a figuration of that “subversive ghost,” that “something ghostly.” Just as Shakespeare’s Richard III figures the deformation of history through his own physical deformity and the deformations detectable in language and plot throughout the play, so the Ghost in Hamlet marks the text of that play as a belated harbinger of repetition as difference. The command to “Remember me!” encodes the necessity of forgetting. Miller cites a very suggestive passage from Walter Benjamin’s essay on Proust, in which Benjamin mulls the same relationship I have been exploring—that between memory and forgetting: the important thing for the remembering author is not what he experienced, but the weaving of his memory, the Penelope work of recollection. Or should one call it, rather, a Penelope work of forgetting? Is not the involuntary recollection, Proust’s mémoire involontaire, much closer to forgetting than what is usually called memory? And is not this work of spontaneous recollection, in which remembrance is the woof and forgetting the warp, a counterpart to Penelope’s work rather than its likeness? For here the day unravels what the night has woven.92

What, then, are we to make of the reminders of remembering, the cautions against forgetting, of which the Ghost’s two visitations are the benchmarks? It might seem natural to assume that remembering would facilitate reparation, restitution, and

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recuperation—that the way to rectify an error, or expiate a crime, is through a memory of the act, and even of the historical circumstances that produced, provoked, or surrounded the act. Yet this is precisely what the play of Hamlet does not tell us. Rather than facilitating action, remembering seems to block it, by becoming itself an obsessive concern, in effect fetishizing the remembered persons, events, or commands so that they become virtually impossible to renounce or relinquish. Our contemporary sense of “hobbyhorse” as a constant preoccupation sums up this fetishizing instinct fairly well: the hobbyhorse must be forgot in order for action to follow. Consider the Ghost’s two visitations and his reiterated command. The Ghost asks Hamlet to do two things: to remember and to revenge. Repeatedly on the first occasion he urges revenge. “If thou didst ever thy dear father love . . . Revenge his foul and most unnnatural murder” (1.5.23–5). “Bear it not” (81). “Let not the royal bed of Denmark be / A couch for luxury and damned incest” (82–3). Hamlet is to “[pursue] this act” (84) to revenge his father’s murder, while sparing his mother any punishment: “Taint not thy mind nor let thy soul contrive / Against thy mother aught” (85–6). But he is to act, he is to revenge. “Adieu, adieu, adieu. Remember me” (91). Remember and revenge. But these two injunctions are not only different from one another, they are functionally at odds. For the more Hamlet remembers, the more he meditates the “word” that he takes as the Ghost’s “commandment” and inscribes on his tables, the more he is trapped in a round of obsessive speculation. Far from goading him to action, the Ghost’s twice iterated instruction, “Remember me,” “do not forget,” impedes that action, impedes revenge. What Hamlet needs to do is not to remember, but to forget. Imagine the extremest possible case of a man who did not possess the power of forgetting at all and who was thus condemned to see everywhere a state of becoming: such a man would no longer believe in his own being, would no longer believe in himself, would see everything flowing asunder in moving points and would lose himself in this stream of becoming. . . . Forgetting is essential to action of any kind . . . it is altogether impossible to love at all without forgetting. Or, to express my theme even more simply: there is a degree of sleeplessness, or of rumination, of the historical sense, which is harmful and ultimately fatal to the living thing, whether this living thing be a man or a people or a culture. To determine . . . the boundary at which the past has to be forgotten if it is not to become the gravedigger of the present, one would have to know exactly how great the plastic power of a man, a people, or a culture is: I mean by plastic power the capacity to develop out of oneself in one’s own way, to transform and incorporate into oneself what is past and foreign, to heal wounds, to replace what has been lost, to recreate broken moulds.93

The “boundary at which the past has to be forgotten if it is not to become the gravedigger of the present.” This is Nietzsche, again in “The Use and Abuse of History.” Nietzsche’s gravedigger is also Hamlet’s, a talismanic figure who digs up the

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pate of a politician, the skull of a lawyer, the bones of a great buyer of land, and jowls them indifferently to the ground (5.1.75–110). It is Hamlet, on this occasion, who “consider[s] too curiously” (199), who speculates about the noble dust of Alexander stopping a bunghole, and “Imperious Caesar, dead and turn’d to clay” who “Might stop a hole to keep the wind away” (206–9). Hamlet, who is still prey to the “rumination, of the historical sense, which is harmful and ultimately fatal to the living thing, whether this living thing be a man or a people or a culture.”94 The gravedigger himself marks Hamlet’s boundaries. He came to his trade “that day that / our last King Hamlet o’ercame Fortinbras” (139–40), “the very day that young Hamlet was born” (143). Harold Jenkins in the Arden edition of Hamlet remarks, What matters is that when Hamlet came into the world a man began to dig graves and has now been at it for a lifetime . . . As Hamlet’s talk with the grave-digger thus links the grave-digger’s occupation with the terms of Hamlet’s life, will it not seem to us that the hero has come face to face with his own destiny?95

Yet the gravedigger has the same uncanny valence as the Mower in Marlowe’s Edward II;96 he is the figuration of Hamlet’s mortality, as the skull of Yorick is the fragmented emblem of that mortality. Re-membering is here reconstituted through a process of dismembering, of disarticulation of parts, of dislocation of bones and members. But there is more that is uncanny in this passage of Nietzsche, for it seems throughout to be haunted by the ghost of Hamlet. “I have striven,” he writes in the foreword to “The Use and Abuse of History,” “to depict a feeling by which I am constantly tormented; I revenge myself upon it by handing it over to the public.”97 “It” is the abuse of history, the preoccupation with the past that can inhibit life, making it “stunted and degenerate.”98 Nietzsche’s revenge is to be a “meditation” he describes as “untimely”—but then it must be untimely in order to be effective: “for I do not know what meaning classical studies could have for our time if they were not untimely—that is to say, acting counter to our time and thereby acting on our time and, let us hope, for the benefit of a time to come.”99 It is not, I think, entirely fanciful to wish to juxtapose these remarks to Hamlet’s famous cri de coeur, “The time is out of joint—O cursed spite, / That ever I was born to set it right!” (1.5.196–7). And we may perhaps go further and suggest that Nietzsche in this exclamation, this profession of revenge—like Hamlet in his own professions of belatedness and determination—is himself a revenant, a ghost, a figure dislocated in and from history (“classical studies”; “earlier times”) and constituted (or self-constituted) as not only critic but critique. This is Hamlet’s use of the classical past as well as Nietzsche’s; the Pyrrhus play (“Aeneas’s Tale to Dido”) the constant reminders that his father was Hyperion

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to Claudius’ satyr, that he himself is confronted with a choice of Hercules—these too are uses of history that verge upon the abusive because they place Hamlet rhetorically on the margins of history rather than in the midst of historical process. It is only when he writes himself back into that process, with the agency of his father’s signet ring, later claiming his place in history (“This is I, / Hamlet the Dane.” [5.1.250–1]) by an act of self-naming, that he moves beyond untimely meditation, the belatedness of soliloquy, toward action. For action is inextricably bound with forgetting. Consider the cattle, grazing as they pass you by: they do not know what is meant by yesterday or today, they leap about, eat, rest, digest, leap about again, and so from morn till night and from day to day, fettered to the moment and its pleasure or displeasure, and thus neither melancholy nor bored. This is a hard sight for a man to see. . . . A human being may well ask an animal: “Why do you not speak to me of your happiness but only stand and gaze at me?” The animal would like to answer, and say: “The reason is I always forget what I was going to say”—but then he forgot this answer, too, and stayed silent: so that the human being was left wondering. But he also wonders at himself, that he cannot learn to forget but clings relentlessly to the past: however far and fast he may run, this chain runs with him. And it is a matter for wonder: a moment, now here and then gone, nothing before it came, again nothing after it has gone, nonetheless returns as a ghost and disturbs the peace of a later moment.100

“’Tis here.” “’Tis here.” “’Tis gone.” Nietzsche’s meditation, Nietzsche’s revenge, incorporates (or “incorpses”)101 Hamlet as a manifestation of the haunting presentness of the past. Hamlet remembers; Polonius forgets. “What was I about / to say? By the mass, I was about to say something. / Where did I leave?” Reynaldo: “At ‘closes in the consequence’” (2.1.50–3). What Polonius forgets is precisely what closes in the consequence: causality, history. “‘The reason is I always forget what I was going to say’—but then he forgot this answer, too.” Polonius forgets: Hamlet remembers. Hamlet’s own meditation on revenge and bestial oblivion is so close to Nietzsche’s that we may wonder whether Nietzsche’s complex of ideas, from revenge to the ghost to the beast to the gravedigger, does not derive in some way from Shakespeare’s great untimely meditation, and in particular, from the soliloquy in Act 4 scene 4: How all occasions do inform against me, And spur my dull revenge. What is a man If his chief good and market of his time Be but to sleep and feed? A beast, no more. Sure he that made us with such large discourse, Looking before and after, gave us not That capability and godlike reason To fust in us unus’d. Now whether it be

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Bestial oblivion, or some craven scruple Of thinking too precisely on th’ event— A thought which, quarter’d, hath but one part wisdom And ever three parts coward—I do not know Why yet I live to say this thing’s to do, Sith I have cause, and will, and strength, and means To do’t. (4.4.32–46)

Now, what does it mean to say that Nietzsche’s meditation on revenge and forgetting situates itself as a rewriting of Hamlet? Is this merely a way of repositioning Shakespeare as the great authority, the great original, in whose work all ideas, all controversies, all contestations are already present? Is Shakespeare the locus classicus (or the locus renascens) of the move to place subversion within containment? And / or is Hamlet—as I have suggested above—the play that articulates, or represents, the construction of the modern subject? I think that the last of these questions can be answered, tentatively, in the affirmative, and that this accounts at least in part for the befuddlement and irritation some contemporary critics demonstrate when they are asked to come face to face with this play. It is too close to us. What look like critiques, analyses, implementations of Hamlet to make some other point (philosophical, political, psychoanalytic) dissolve to bring us back to the play itself, not as referent, but as origin—or marker of the unknowability of origins, what Freud called the navel of the dream: “There is at least one spot in every dream at which it is unplumbable—a navel, as it were, that is its point of contact with the unknown”:102 There is often a passage in even the most thoroughly interpreted dream which has to be left obscure; this is because we become aware during the work of interpretation that at this point there is a tangle of dream-thoughts which cannot be unravelled and which moreover adds nothing to our knowledge of the content of the dream. This is the dream’s navel, the spot where it reaches down into the unknown.103

When Terry Eagleton complains that “Hamlet has no ‘essence’ of being whatsoever, no inner sanctum to be safeguarded: he is pure deferral and diffusion, a hollow void which offers nothing determinate to be known” and that “Hamlet’s jealous sense of unique selfhood is no more than the negation of anything in particular. How could it be otherwise, when he rejects the signifiers by which alone the self, as signified, comes into its determinacy?”104 He is registering a protest (though a postmodern and somewhat satisfied protest) against this Alice’s rabbit-hole quality in the play’s text. Likewise when Jonathan Goldberg, in a characteristically rich and compressed three pages on Hamlet, suggests that “Hamlet’s divided identity—and with it his delays and

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deferrals, his resistance to the ghostly plot, his inability to act and his compulsions to repeat—are the result of his identification with his father’s words,” and that “The depth of his interiority is his foldedness within a text that enfolds him and which cannot be unfolded,”105 he is at once finding within Shakespeare’s play the reflection of his own critical and theoretical moment, Derridean and Lacanian, and—at the same time, and through the same process—locating the play’s power precisely in its capacity to assume the guise of contemporaneity and timely contestation. That critics write their own Hamlets, as, for example, Coleridge, Goethe, and T. S. Eliot, have done, is something of a commonplace for us. That they are compelled to do so—that this is their compulsion to repeat—because the play limns a preconscious moment that can only be retrieved through repetition and not through memory, reinscribes the paradox of the play as itself a mise en abyme without (exactly, precisely, without) the primal scene at which it is constantly hinting, and which we are constantly on the brink of remembering, falsely, fictively. The ghost of Hamlet—the ghost in Hamlet—is this illusion of the articulation of our own perception of desire and its denial, our own conviction that “the spot where it reaches down to the unknown” can be plumbed, even if it is found to be a hollow void. Hamlet is the play of undecidability. But / and it is the play of the uncanny, the play in which the Heimlich and the Unheimlich are opposite and identical, the play that demonstrates that you can’t go home again. Why? Because you are home—and home is not what you have always and belatedly (from unhome) fantasized it to be. Hence, once again, forgetting and remembering. And revenge. In other words, transference. Freud is quite clear about the dynamic that links remembering, forgetting, and action. The patient forgets something because he / she represses it, and in order to retrieve that which has been repressed, he or she acts. The repetition-compulsion becomes a way of remembering, as well as a substitution for unretrievable or unretrieved memories. Consider this passage from the 1914 essay, “Recollection, Repetition, and Working Through”: We may say that here the patient remembers nothing of what is forgotten and repressed, but that he expresses it in action. He reproduces it not in his memory but in his behaviour; he repeats it, without of course knowing that he is repeating it. . . . As long as he is under treatment he never escapes from this compulsion to repeat; at last one understands that it is his way of remembering. The relation between this compulsion to repeat and the transference and resistance is naturally what will interest us most of all. We soon perceive that the transference is itself only a bit of repetition, and that the repetition is the transference of the forgotten past not only on to the physician, but also on to all the other aspects of the current situation. We must be prepared to find, therefore, that the patient abandons himself to the compulsion to repeat, which is now replacing the impulse to remember, not only in his relation with the analyst but

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also in all other matters occupying and interesting him at the time, for instance, when he falls in love or sets about any project during the treatment.106

Furthermore, the degree of resistance to the analyst and to quiescent remembering determines the degree to which acting out takes place. The greater the resistance the more extensively will expressing in action (repetition) be substituted for recollecting . . . if, then, as the analysis proceeds, this transference becomes hostile or unduly intense, consequently necessitating repression, remembering immediately gives way to expression in action. From then onward the resistances determine the succession of the various repetitions. The past is the patient’s armoury out of which he fetches his weapons for defending himself against the progress of the analysis, weapons which we must wrest from him one by one.107

This last analogy sounds disquietingly like the end of Othello (“Take you this weapon / Which I have here recovered from the Moor” [5.2.238–9]: “I have another weapon in this chamber” [250]), but the pattern of resistance and repetition is uncannily like the plot of Hamlet. Indeed, it is not surprising to think of Hamlet as the story of an analysis, for what is analysis but a contemporary restaging of the pattern of deferral and substitution that we recognize in Hamlet? If our question, or one of our questions, concerns the relationship of memory and revenge, it is here answered, at least in part, by the compulsion to repeat. “As long as he is under treatment he never escapes from this compulsion to repeat; at last one understands that it is his way of remembering.” This compulsion to repeat, “which is now replacing the impulse to remember,” encompasses the killing (and not killing) of fathers, the accusation of women, the plays within the play, dumb show, and talking cure. The transferenceneurosis is induced as a kind of therapeutic substitution, which can be cured or worked on because it is present rather than lost, and because it is, in some sense, play. “We admit it into the transference as to a playground.”108 The transference thus forms a kind of intermediary realm between illness and real life, through which the journey from the one to the other must be made. The new state of mind has absorbed all the features of the illness; it represents, however, an artificial illness which is at every point accessible to our interventions. It is at the same time a piece of real life, but adapted to our purposes by specially favourable conditions, and it is of a provisional character. From the repetition-reactions which are exhibited in the transference the familiar paths lead back to the awakening of the memories, which yield themselves without difficulty after the resistances have been overcome.109

This is a reasonably appropriate description of the role played by the play within the play in Hamlet, and also by Hamlet’s role as chorus (analyst) of the “Mousetrap” (or even of the first Player’s Pyrrhus speech). Real and provisional, “adapted to our

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purposes” with or without the addition of a dozen or sixteen lines, close enough to the original or originary situation (at least as it is fantasized or retold) yet safely “artificial” and thus able to be discounted or bounded, the play within the play does exhibit many of the symptoms of transference-neurosis, as in fact do the soliloquies that problematize the activity of others (Fortinbras, the First Player, Pyrrhus, even Laertes) as contrasted with the ruminative passivity of Hamlet. The connection between repressed thoughts and memories and the compulsion to repeat is also strongly argued in Beyond the Pleasure Principle (1920), and it is not surprising that both of these Freudian texts have been used by narratologists to develop strategies of narrative displacement, substitution, and delay. In Beyond the Pleasure Principle Freud again states that “the compulsion to repeat must be ascribed to the unconscious repressed”110 and comments on the odd but undeniable fact that people often compulsively repeat things that are not, and seem never to have been, pleasurable. How then is the compulsion to repeat related to the pleasure principle? The artistic play and artistic imitation carried out by adults, which, unlike children’s, are aimed at an audience, do not spare the spectators (for instance, in tragedy) the most painful experiences and yet can be felt by them as highly enjoyable. This is convincing proof that, even under the dominance of the pleasure principle, there are ways and means enough of making what is in itself unpleasurable into a subject to be recollected and worked over in the mind.”111

Tragedy—whether exemplified by Hamlet or by “The Murder of Gonzago”—thus can produce pleasure when it is received as a repetition. But if the illusion represented by the players conduces to pleasure when categorized as play, what of the kind of compulsion to repeat that results in a different sort of illusion—the terrifying spectacle of the ghost? “Stay, illusion” (1.1.130). Three times in Beyond the Pleasure Principle Freud evokes the image of some “daemonic” power produced by the repetitioncompulsion: What psycho-analysis reveals in the transference phenomena of neurotics can also be observed in the lives of some normal people. The impression they give is of being pursued by a malignant fate or possessed by some “daemonic” power; but psycho-analysis has always taken the view that their fate is for the most part arranged by themselves and determined by early infantile influences.112 The manifestations of a compulsion to repeat (which we have described as occurring in the early activities of infantile mental life as well as among the events of psycho-analytic treatment) exhibit to a high degree an instinctual character and, when they act in opposition to the pleasure principle, give the appearance of some “daemonic” force at work.113 It may be presumed, too, that when people unfamiliar with analysis feel an obscure fear—a dread of rousing something that, so they feel, is better left sleeping—what they are afraid of at

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bottom is the emergence of this compulsion with its hint of possession by some “daemonic” power.114

In the terms of Hamlet, this “daemonic” force or power, if it is to be ascribed to or even personified by the Ghost, is the compulsion to repeat which repression substitutes for remembering. Confronted with the Ghost’s command, “Remember me!” Hamlet remembers that he is commanded to remember, but displaces that which he is unable to remember into compulsive behavior of a kind that translates him into a daemon, into a ghost. Thus he appears as a silent spectacle in Ophelia’s closet, pale, sighing, as if “loosed out of hell” (2.1.83). The passivity of Hamlet, his apparent position of being acted on rather than acting, is also commensurate with the impression of being possessed, while in fact giving the name of “possession” to the repetition compulsion. We may note that in both of these texts Freud represents the patient as male. Interestingly, however, when he comes to speak more closely of “transference-love” he shifts genders, to describe the circumstances of a female patient—and therefore, by implication, of a male analyst. And here again there is a ghost come from the grave—or from the unconscious. But from whose? To urge the patient to suppress, to renounce and to sublimate the promptings of her instincts, as soon as she had confessed her love-transference, would not be an analytic way of dealing with them, but a senseless way. It would be the same thing as to conjure up a spirit from the underworld by means of a crafty spell and then to dispatch him back again without a question. One would have brought the repressed impulses out into consciousness only in terror to send them back into repression once more. Nor should one deceive oneself about the success of any such proceeding. When levelled at the passions, lofty language achieves very little, as we all know. The patient will only feel the humiliation, and will not fail to revenge herself for it.115

The passion evoked by the analyst should rather be put in the service of the analysis, as the same kind of “playground” (or play-ground) occupied by the transference-neurosis described above. The “spirit from the underworld” is the patient’s desire, and the denial or repression of that desire will send the ghost tunneling underground again, and prompt the analysand to revenge. But revenge upon what?

Turning the tables For Hamlet himself, who or what is the Ghost? We could say that for Hamlet the Ghost is—or at least, is supposed to be—what Lacan calls the sujet supposé savoir, the subject who is supposed to know. “As soon as the subject who is supposed to know exists

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somewhere,” says Lacan, “there is transference.”116 Who is, who can be, invested with such authority, such being-in-knowledge? For Lacan, “If there is someone to whom one can apply there can be only one such person. This one was Freud, while he was alive.”117 What a muted accolade is this—“This one was Freud, while he was alive.” And now that he is dead? Lacan does not say, or does not say directly, who is the new one, the new sujet supposé savoir. But does he need to? The King is dead, long live . . . And so in Hamlet, also, the investment of authority is not without a sense of question and cost. Can the Ghost be the subject who is supposed to know only because he is dead? “O my prophetic soul,” cries Hamlet (1.5.40). The Ghost is supposed to know—that is, to confirm—what Hamlet did not know he knew. “The analyst,” says Lacan, “occupies this place in as much as he is the object of the transference. Experience shows us that when the subject enters analysis, he is far from giving the analyst this place.”118 Then when does Hamlet enter into a transferential relationship with the Ghost? When, precisely, he is given to think that his own authority is confirmed. Notice how much like an analytic situation is Hamlet’s own response to this uncanny consultant: Given that analysis may, on the part of certain subjects, be put in question at its very outset, and suspected of being a lure—how is it that around this being mistaken something stops? Even the psycho-analyst put in question is credited at some point with a certain infallibility, which means that certain intentions, betrayed, perhaps, by some chance gesture, will sometimes be attributed even to the analyst put in question, “You did that to test me!”119

For Hamlet’s testing of the Ghost (“The spirit that I have seen / May be a devil, and the devil hath power / T’assume a pleasing shape, yea, and perhaps, / Out of my weakness and my melancholy, / As he is very potent with such spirits, / Abuses me to damn me. I’ll have grounds / More relative than this” [2.2.594–600]) is really in many ways the provision of a test for himself. Does he believe the Ghost, or not? Does the Ghost have authority? The Ghost that comes “in such a questionable shape” (1.4.43) is immediately put in question, is in fact, as we have begun to see, the shape or sign of putting things in question. We could almost designate him as is done in Spanish with an inverted question mark before each appearance, before each utterance, and with another question mark following each. Plain as the Ghost’s utterances may seem, Hamlet wants them to be a riddle, a problem, a question. Be thy intents wicked or charitable, Thou com’st in such a questionable shape That I will speak to thee. I’ll call thee Hamlet, King, father, royal Dane. (1.4.42–5)

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“Certain intentions, betrayed, perhaps, by some chance gesture” seem to provoke in Hamlet a wish to name, to pin upon his sujet supposé savoir the signifier Lacan has called “le nom-du-père” [the Name-of-the-Father]. Lacan’s term derives in part from a critique of the traditional Christian invocation all too appropriate to Hamlet: “In the name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost.” Coupling this formula with the biological indeterminacy of paternity, Lacan notes that the attribution of procreation to the father can only be the effect of a pure signifier, of a recognition, not of a real father, but of what religion has taught us to refer to as the Name-ofthe-Father. Of course, there is no need of a signifier to be a father, any more than to be dead, but without a signifier, no one would ever know anything about either state of being. . . . insistently Freud stresses the affinity of the two signifying relations that I have just referred to, whenever the neurotic subject (especially the obsessional) manifests this affinity through the conjunction of the themes of the father and death. How, indeed, could Freud fail to recognize such an affinity, when the necessity of his reflexion led him to link the appearance of the signifier of the Father, as author of the Law, with death, even to the murder of the Father—thus showing that if this murder is the fruitful moment of debt through which the subject binds himself for life to the Law, the symbolic Father is, in so far as he signifies this Law, the dead Father.120

Lacan extends this view further by underscoring the homonymic double meaning of “nom-du-père,” which in French sounds identical to the expression “non-du-père”— “no” of the father. The father—the dead father, the symbolic father—is the Law. For Freud, of course, this symbolic father is not the Christian father but the father of Jewish law. And the law commands, “thou shalt not”: “If thou hast nature in thee, bear it not, / Let not the royal bed of Denmark be / A couch for luxury and damned incest. / But howsomever thou pursuest this act, / Taint not thy mind, nor let thy soul contrive / Against thy mother aught” (Ghost to Hamlet, 1.5.81–6, emphasis added); “Do not forget” (Ghost to Hamlet, 3.4.110, in Gertrude’s closet, emphasis added). Freud, it will be recalled, made much of the connection between the writing of Hamlet and the death of Shakespeare’s father. In The Interpretation of Dreams, he cites the Shakespearean scholar Georg Brandes121 to demonstrate that Hamlet was written immediately after the death of Shakespeare’s father (in 1601), that is, under the immediate impact of the bereavement and, as we may well assume, while his childhood feelings about his father had been freshly revived. It is known, too, that Shakespeare’s own son who died at an early age bore the name of “Hamnet,” which is identical with “Hamlet.”122

Yet there is another father involved here, as Freud’s preface to the second edition of The Interpretation of Dreams (1908) makes clear. For that masterpiece of analytic

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invention was itself written right after the death of Freud’s own father. In his preface, Freud writes: this book has a further subjective significance for me personally—a significance which I only grasped after I had completed it. It was, I found, a portion of my own self-analysis, my reaction to my father’s death—that is to say, to the most important event, the most poignant loss, of a man’s life.123

There may therefore be a connection between Freud’s interpretation of Hamlet and the death not only of Shakespeare’s father but also of Freud’s father. Similarities between Freud’s story and Hamlet’s have been noticed by recent revisionist biographers, often in connection with his recantation of (or “suppression of”)124 the seduction theory, which held that neuroses originated in actual sexual encounters—with adults, often parents, servants, or older children—experienced in childhood. Marianne Krüll, for example, argues that Hamlet’s situation—“a son dwelling with impotent rage on the ruthlessness of his mother and his uncle—had parallels with Freud’s own family.”125 The “uncle” in the Freud story was his halfbrother Philip, called “Uncle” by Freud’s niece and nephew, and represented in Freud’s own dream associations in such a way as to suggest some real or imagined sexual relationship between Philip and his (Freud’s) mother.126 Krüll’s book argues that Freud received from his father, Jacob, an ambivalent mandate: he was commanded to show filial piety, to honor his father as instructed by the Fifth Commandment, and above all not to inquire into his father’s secrets, or his past; at the same time, he was commanded to seek success in the secular world, to become a great man. The son’s resentment at this impossible double task was identical, says Krüll, to that felt by Jacob Freud toward his father, Schlomo (Sigmund’s Hebrew name). “Neither of them rebelled against his father, and both shouldered the contradictory mandate of making his own way, even while remaining dutiful sons.” 127 “To complete its hold over him” writes John Gross, “the mandate forbade him to acknowledge the feelings of resentment that it inspired, his rage against Jacob for saddling him with an insoluble problem.”128 This “mandate,” we may notice, is very like the “word” Hamlet receives from the Ghost in the “tables” scene, together with the troublesomely ambivalent command, “Remember me!” A dream mentioned by Freud in slightly different versions in the letters to Fliess and The Interpretation of Dreams129 concerns the arrangements he made for his father’s funeral, and the criticism he incurred from relatives for choosing “the simplest possible ritual”130 though he did so in accordance with his understanding of his father’s wishes. It is this dream that Krüll has in mind when she writes that like Hamlet,

Hamlet: Giving Up the Ghost

67

Freud too has been given orders by his late father in a dream which, though the subject was not revenge, as in Hamlet’s case, nevertheless caused the son comparable qualms of conscience. Another reason for Freud, in my view, to feel so drawn to the Hamlet theme.131

Not only the funeral of old Hamlet, swiftly followed by Gertrude’s remarriage, but even more particularly the “hugger-mugger” interment (4.5.84) of Polonius and the “maimed rites” accompanying Ophelia’s obsequies (5.1.212; 219)—so disturbingly punctuated by Laertes’s twice iterated demand, “What ceremony else?” (5.1.216; 218)—correspond to Freud’s own anxieties about performing his duty to the dead. In the dream—which he tells Fliess took place after his father’s funeral, and which in The Interpretation of Dreams he describes as taking place before—he sees a notice-board inscribed with the phrase, “You are requested to close the eyes,” which he interprets as an ambivalent statement; in The Interpretation of Dreams the ambivalence has made its way onto the notice-board itself, so that the sign reads “either “You are requested to close the eyes” or, “You are requested to close an eye.”

I usually write this [says Freud] in the form: “You are requested to close the eye(s).”132 an

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British Writers: Supplement 10

BRITISH WRITERS Acknowledgments Acknowledgment is gratefully made to those publishers and individuals who permitted t...

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BRITISH WRITERS

Acknowledgments Acknowledgment is gratefully made to those publishers and individuals who permitted the use of the following materials in copyright:

DOUGLAS DUNN Dunn, Douglas. From Barbarians. Faber and Faber, 1979. © Douglas Dunn, 1979. All rights reserved. Reproduced by permission of Faber & Faber Ltd. From Dante’s Drum-kit. Faber and Faber, 1993. © Douglas Dunn, 1993. All rights reserved. Reproduced by permission of Faber & Faber Ltd. From Elegies. Faber and Faber, 1985. © Douglas Dunn, 1985. All rights reserved. Reproduced by permission of Faber & Faber Ltd. From Love or Nothing. Faber & Faber, 1974. © 1974 by Douglas Dunn. All rights reserved. Reproduced by permission of Faber & Faber Ltd. From Northlight. Faber and Faber, 1988. © Douglas Dunn, 1988. All rights reserved. Reproduced by permission of Faber & Faber Ltd. From Secret Villages. Faber & Faber 1985. © 1985 by Douglas Dunn. All rights reserved. Reproduced by permission of Faber & Faber Ltd. From St. Kilda’s Parliament. Faber and Faber, 1981. © Douglas Dunn, 1981. All rights reserved. Reproduced by permission of Faber & Faber Ltd. From Terry Street. Faber and Faber, 1969. © Douglas Dunn, 1969. All rights reserved. Reproduced by permission of Faber & Faber Ltd. From The Donkey’s Ears: Politovsky’s Letters Home. Faber and Faber, 2000. © Douglas Dunn, 2000. All rights reserved. Reproduced by permission of Faber & Faber Ltd. From The Happier Life. Chilmark Press, 1972. © Douglas Dunn, 1972. All rights reserved. Reproduced by permission of Faber & Faber Ltd. From The Year’s Afternoon. Faber and Faber, 2000. © Douglas Dunn, 2000. All rights reserved. All reproduced by permission of Faber & Faber Ltd. Haffenden, John. From Viewpoints: Poets in Conversation. Faber and Faber, 1981. © 1981 by John Haffenden. Reproduced by permission of Faber & Faber Ltd. Verse, no. 4, 1985 for “Douglas Dunn Talking with Robert Crawford” by Douglas Dunn. © 1985. Copyright Douglas Dunn. Reproduced by permission of PFD on behalf of Douglas Dunn.

Poetry Matters, v. 6, 1988 for “Frontliners” by Romesh Gunesekera. Reproduced by permission of the author. The Pen, no. 24, winter, 1988 for “Indefinite Exposure” by Romesh Gunesekera. Reproduced by permission of the author. JAN MORRIS Morris, Jan. From Conundrum, Revised Edition. By Jan Morris. Faber and Faber, 2001. Copyright 1974, 2001 by Jan Morris. Reproduced by permission of Faber & Faber Ltd. From an Introduction in Eothen. Oxford University Press, 1982. Reproduced by permission of A.P. Watt Ltd on behalf of Jan Morris. Users must not reproduce, download, store in any medium, distribute, transmit, retransmit or manipulate any text contained in this. From “Traveling Writer,” in The Writer on Her Work, Vol. II. Edited by Janet Sternberg. W. W. Norton & Company, 1991. Copyright © Janet Sternberg. Times Literary Supplement, August 12, 1960; January 11, 1974; © The Times Supplements Limited 1960, 1974. Reproduced from The Times Literary Supplement by permission. ROBERT NYE Nye, Robert. From A Collection of Poems 1955-1988. Hamish Hamilton, 1989. © 1989 Robert Nye. Reproduced by permission of Curtis Brown Group Ltd., London on behalf of Robert Nye. From Collected Poems. Sinclair-Stevenson, 1995. Copyright © Robert Nye. Reproduced by permission of Curtis Brown Group Ltd., London on behalf of Robert Nye. From Darker Ends. Hill & Wang, 1969. Copyright © 1969 by Robert Nye. All rights reserved. Reproduced by permission of Hill & Wang, a division of Farrar, Straus and Giroux, LLC. In the UK by permission of Curtis Brown Group Ltd., London on behalf of Robert Nye. From Divisions on a Ground. Carcanet, 1976. © 1976 Robert Nye. Reproduced with permission of Curtis Brown Group Ltd., London on behalf of Robert Nye. From Juvenilia 1. Scorpion Press, 1961. Reproduced by permission of Curtis Brown Group Ltd., London on behalf of Robert Nye. From Juvenilia 2. Scorpion Press, 1963. Reproduced by permission of Curtis Brown Group Ltd., London on behalf of Robert Nye. From New and Selected Poems. Cecil Woolf. Copyright © Robert Nye. Reproduced by permission of Curtis Brown Group Ltd., London on behalf of Robert Nye.

ROMESH GUNESEKERA Gunesekera, Romesh. London Review of Books, v. 11, February 16, 1989 for “Pigs”. Reproduced by permission of the London Review of Books. Poetry Durham, v. 11, winter, 1985 for “Circled by Circe”; “Going Home (A Letter to Colombo)”; “House Building”; “Indian Tree.” All reproduced by permission of Romesh Gunesekera.

v

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS DENNIS POTTER Potter, Dennis. From Waiting for the Boat. Faber and Faber, 1984. Reproduced by permission of Faber & Faber Ltd.

2, 1993 for “A Conversation with Vikram Seth. Mixed Beasts and Cultural Products” by Makarand Paranjape. Reproduced by permission of the author.

IAN RANKIN Pierce, J. Kingston. From “Ian Rankin: The Accidental Crime Writer,” www.januarymagazine.com, February 23, 2004. Reproduced by permission of the author.

JON STALLWORTHY Stallworthy, Jon. From A Familiar Tree. Chatto and Windus, 1978. Copyright © Jon Stallworthy and David Gentleman 1978. All rights reserved. Reproduced by permission of The Random House Group Limited. From Anzac Sonata: New and Selected Poems. W. W. Norton & Company, 1986. Copyright © 1986 Jon Stallworthy. All rights reserved. Reproduced by permission of W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. From Hand in Hand. Chatto and Windus with the Hogarth Press Ltd., 1974. Copyright © Jon Stallworthy 1974. All rights reserved. Reproduced by permission of The Random House Group Limited. From Root and Branch. Chatto and Windus with the Hogarth Press Ltd., 1969. Copyright © Jon Stallworthy 1969. Reproduced by permission of The Random House Group Limited. From Skyhorse. Thumbscrew Press, 2002. Reproduced by permission. From The Almond Tree. Turret Books, 1967. Copyright © Jon Stallworthy 1967. Reproduced by permission of The Random House Group Limited. From The Guest from the Future. Carcanet, Copyright © Jon Stallworthy 1995. All rights reserved. Reproduced by permission of Carcanet Press Limited. Critical Quarterly, v. 3, summer, 1961 for “Review of The Astronomy of Love” by Robin Skelton. Reproduced by permission of Blackwell Publishers. London Review of Books, v. 21, March 4, 1999 for “Untouched by Eliot” by Denis Donoghue. Reproduced by permission of the London Review of Books. Ploughshares, v. 17, spring, 1991 for “The Girl from Zlot” by Jon Stallworthy. Copyright © 1991 by Emersen College. Reproduced by permission of the author. Times Literary Supplement v. 8, January, 1999 for “Singing School: The Making of a Poet” by Peter McDonald. Copyright © The Times Supplements Limited 1999. Reproduced from The Times Literary Supplement by permission.

KEITH ROBERTS Roberts, Keith. From “Calais Encounter,” in A Heron Caught in Weeds. Edited by Jim Goddard. Kerosina, 1987. Reproduced by permission of the author. From “Grainne,” in A Heron Caught in Weeds. Edited by Jim Goddard. Kerosina, 1987. Reproduced by permission of the author. From “Home Thoughts from a Coach,” in A Heron Caught in Weeds. Edited by Jim Goddard. Kerosina, 1987. Reproduced by permission of the author. From “Synth,” in New Writings in SF 8. Edited by John Carnell. Dobson, 1966. Copyright © 1966 by John Carnell. Reproduced by permission of the author. From “The Grain Kings,” in The Grain Kings, Hutchinson, 1976. Reproduced by permission of the author. From “Verulam,” in A Heron Caught in Weeds. Edited by Jim Goddard. Kerosina, 1987. Reproduced by permission of the author. From “At Hellfire Corner” in A Heron Caught in Weeds. Edited by Jim Goddard. Kerosina, 1987. Reproduced by permission of the author. VIKRAM SETH Seth, Vikram. From All You Who Sleep Tonight. Alfred A. Knopf, 1990. © 1990 by Vikram Seth. Reproduced by permission of Alfred A. Knopf, a division of Random House, Inc., and Curtis Brown Group Ltd., London on behalf of Vikram Seth. From Arion and the Dolphin. Phoenix House, 1994. Reproduced by permission of Curtis Brown Group Ltd., London on behalf of Vikram Seth. From Mappings. Writer’s Workshop, 1981. Reproduced by permission of the author. Indian Review of Books, v.

vi

Editorial and Production Staff

Project Editors LARRY TRUDEAU MAIKUE VANG Copyeditors ROBERT E. JONES LINDA SANDERS Proofreader ALLISON LEOPOLD Indexer SYNAPSE CORPORATION Permission Researcher JULIE VAN PELT Composition Specialist GARY LEACH Buyer RHONDA WILLIAMS Publisher FRANK MENCHACA

vii

Contents

Contents ........................................................................................................................................................................ix Introduction ...................................................................................................................................................................xi Chronology .................................................................................................................................................................xiii List of Contributors ......................................................................................................................................................lv Subjects in Supplement X AYI KWEI ARMAH / Robert Sullivan ....................................................................................................................1 ISABELLA BIRD / Cornelius Browne ...................................................................................................................17 VERA BRITTAIN / Susan Butterworth .................................................................................................................33 RICHARD BROME / Dan Brayton ........................................................................................................................49 DOUGLAS DUNN / Gerry Cambridge ..................................................................................................................65 ROMESH GUNESEKERA / Gautam Kundu .......................................................................................................85 JAMES HOGG / Les Wilkinson ............................................................................................................................103 ALAN HOLLINGHURST / Clare Connors .........................................................................................................119 ROHINTON MISTRY / Yumna Siddiqi ...............................................................................................................137 NANCY MITFORD / Patrick Flanery .................................................................................................................151 JAN MORRIS / Michele Gemelos .........................................................................................................................171 ROBERT NYE / Helena Nelson ............................................................................................................................191 MARGARET OLIPHANT / Antonia Losano ......................................................................................................209 DENNIS POTTER / Fred Bilson ...........................................................................................................................227 IAN RANKIN / John Lennard ..............................................................................................................................243 KEITH ROBERTS / Fred Bilson ..........................................................................................................................261 VIKRAM SETH / Thomas Wright .......................................................................................................................277 JON STALLWORTHY / Sandie Byrne ................................................................................................................291 MASTER INDEX to Volumes I–VII, Supplements I–X, Retrospective Supplements I–II .............................................................................................................................305

ix

Introduction

peared in four volumes entitled American Writers: A Collection of Literary Biographies (1974). British Writers began with a series of essays originally published by the British Council, and regular supplements have followed. The goal of the supplements has been consistent with the original idea of the series: to provide clear, informative essays aimed at the general reader. These essays often rise to a high level of craft and critical vision, but they are meant to introduce a writer of some importance in the history of British or Anglophone literature, and to provide a sense of the scope and nature of the career under review. The authors of these critical articles are mostly teachers, scholars, and writers. Most have published books and articles in their field, and several are well–known writers of poetry or fiction as well as critics. As anyone glancing through this volume will see, they have been held to the highest standards of clear writing and sound scholarship. Jargon and theoretical musings have been discouraged, except when strictly relevant. Each of the essays concludes with a select bibliography of works by the author under discussion and secondary works that might be useful to those who wish to pursue the subject further. Supplement X centers on contemporary writers from various genres and traditions who have had little sustained attention from critics, although most are well known. Ayi Kwei Armah, Douglas Dunn, Romesh Gunesekera, Alan Hollinghurst, Rohinton Mistry, Jan Morris, Robert Nye, Ian Rankin, Vikram Seth, and Jon Stallworthy have all been written about in the review pages of newspapers and magazines, often at considerable length, and their work has acquired a substantial following, but their careers have yet to attract significant scholarship. That will certainly follow, but the essays included in this volume constitute a beginning of sorts, an attempt to map out the particular universe of each writer.

“Reading is to the mind what exercise is to the body,” wrote Richard Steele, the great English essayist from the eighteenth century. The articles in this collection point to a wealth of good exercise for the mind, treating a wide range of British authors, or authors who write in the tradition of British literature, often in a postcolonial setting. In Supplement X we present detailed, articulate introductions to authors, mostly contemporary, although some are from the recent past, and two—Richard Brome and James Hogg —belong to the distant past. In each case the articles have been written in a way designed to increase the reader’s pleasure in the work of the subject, and to make the shape of that career, its evolution and influence, comprehensible. As a whole, this series brings together a wide range of articles on British writers who have a considerable reputation in the literary world. As in previous volumes, the subjects have been chosen for their significant contribution to the traditions of literature, and each has influenced intellectual life in Britain in some way. Readers will find these essays lively and intelligent, designed to interest readers unfamiliar with their work and to assist those who know the work quite well by providing close readings of individual texts and a sense of the biographical, cultural, and critical context of that work. Detailed bibliographies of work by the given subject and work about this writer are included. British Writers was originally an off–shoot of a series of monographs that appeared between 1959 and 1972, the Minnesota Pamphlets on American Writers. These pamphlets were incisively written and informative, treating ninety–seven American writers in a format and style that attracted a devoted following of readers. The series proved invaluable to a generation of students and teachers, who could depend on these reliable and interesting critiques of major figures. The idea of reprinting these essays occurred to Charles Scribner, Jr., an innovative publisher during the middle decades of the twentieth century. The series ap-

xi

INTRODUCTION Four classic writers from the distant past included here are Richard Brome, James Hogg, Margaret Oliphant (usually known as Mrs. Oliphant), and Isabella Bird—important authors who, for one reason or another, have yet to be treated in this series. Some writers from the recent past, such as Vera Brittain, Nancy Mitford, Dennis Potter, and Keith Roberts, have attracted a following but not yet been considered in this series. All six deserve the quality of attention paid to them in this articles. These are well–known figures in the literary world, major voices, and it is time they were added to the series.

As ever, our purpose in presenting these critical and biographical essays is to bring readers back to the texts discussed, to help them in their reading. These are especially strong and stimulating essays, and they should enable students and general readers to enter into the world of these writers freshly, encouraging them on their intellectual journeys. They should help readers to appreciate the way things are said by these authors, thus enhancing their pleasure in the texts. Above all, these essays should lengthen the reading list of those wishing to exercise their minds.

—JAY PARINI

xii

Chronology

ca. 1342 1348 ca. 1350 1351

1356 1360

1362

1369

1369–1377 ca. 1370 1371 1372 1372–1382 1373–1393

ca. 1375–1400 1376 1377–1399 ca. 1379 ca. 1380 1381 1386

1399–1413 ca. 1400 1400 1408 1412–1420 1413–1422 1415 1420–1422

1422–1461 1431



1440–1441 1444 1450 ca. 1451 1453 1455–1485 ca. 1460 1461–1470 1470–1471 1471 1471–1483 1476–1483

1483–1485 1485 1485–1509 1486

1492 1493

1497–1498 1497–1499 1499

1503 1505 1509–1547

xiii

Paul’s: founds St. Paul’s School Reign of Henry VIII

CHRONOLOGY 1509 1511 1513 1515 1516 1517

1519 1519–1521 1525 1526

1529 1529–1536 1531 1532

1533

1534

1535

1536

1537

1538 1540



1542 1543

1546 1547 1547–1553 1548–1552 1552 ca. 1552 1553 1553–1558 ca. 1554 1554

ca. 1556 1557

ca. 1558 1558

1558–1603 1559 ca. 1559 1561

1562

1562–1568 1564 1565

xiv



CHRONOLOGY 1566

1567

1569 1570 1571 ca. 1572 1572 1574 1576

1576–1578 1577–1580 1577 1579

1581 1582 1584–1585 1585

1586

1587

William Painter’s Palace of Pleasure, a miscellany of prose stories, the source of many dramatists’ plots Darnley murdered at Kirk o’Field Mary Queen of Scots marries the earl of Bothwell Rebellion of the English northern earls suppressed Roger Ascham’s The Schoolmaster Defeat of the Turkish fleet at Lepanto Ben Jonson born St. Bartholomew’s Day massacre John Donne born The earl of Leicester’s theater company formed The Theater, the first permanent theater building in London, opened The first Blackfriars Theater opened with performances by the Children of St. Paul’s John Marston born Martin Frobisher’s voyages to Labrador and the northwest Sir Francis Drake sails around the world Holinshed’s Chronicles of England, Scotlande, and Irelande John Lyly’s Euphues: The Anatomy of Wit Thomas North’s translation of Plutarch’s Lives The Levant Company founded Seneca’s Ten Tragedies translated Richard Hakluyt’s Divers Voyages Touching the Discoverie of America Sir John Davis’ first voyage to Greenland First English settlement in America, the “Lost Colony” comprising 108 men under Ralph Lane, founded at Roanoke Island, off the coast of North Carolina Kyd’s Spanish Tragedy Marlowe’s Tamburlaine William Camden’s Britannia The Babington conspiracy against Queen Elizabeth Death of Sir Philip Sidney Mary Queen of Scots executed

1588 1590

1592

1593 1594

1595 1596

ca. 1597 1597 1598 1598–1600

1599 1600 1601 1602

1603–1625 1603

1604 ca. 1605 1605 1606

xv

Birth of Virginia Dare, first English child born in America, at Roanoke Island Defeat of the Spanish Armada Marlowe’s Dr.

CHRONOLOGY 1607 1608 1609 1610 1611 1612

ca. 1613 1613 1614 1616

ca. 1618 1618

1619

1620 1621

1622 1623

1624 1625–1649 1625 1626



1627

1627–1628

1628

1629

1629–1630 1631 1633

1634 1635 1636 ca. 1637 1637

ca. 1638 1638

xvi



CHRONOLOGY ca. 1639 1639

1639–1640 1640

1641

1642

1643

1644

1645

1646



1647

1648

1649–1660 1649

1650 1651

1652 1653

1654 1655

xvii



CHRONOLOGY 1656

1657

1658

1659 1660

1660–1685 1661

1662

1664

1665

1666

1667



1668

1670

1671 1672

1673

1674

1676 1677

1678

1679

1680 1681

xviii

The war with Holland ended by the Treaty of Breda Milton’s Paradise Lost Thomas Sprat’s History of the Royal Society Death of Abraham Cowley Sir Christopher Wren begins to rebuild St.

CHRONOLOGY 1682

1683

1685–1688 1685

1686

1687

1688

1689–1702 1689

1690

1692



1694

1695 1697

1698

1699 1700

1701

1702–1714 1702

1703

1704

1706

1707

1709

xix



CHRONOLOGY

1710 1711

1712

1713

1714–1727 1714 1715

1716 1717

1718

1719 1720

1721 1722 1724

Marlborough defeats the French at Malplaquet Charles XII of Sweden defeated at Poltava South Sea Company founded First copyright act Swift’s The Conduct of the Allies The Spectator founded (1711–1712; 1714) Marlborough dismissed David Hume born Pope’s The Rape of the Lock (Cantos 1–2) Jean Jacques Rousseau born War with France ended by the Treaty of Utrecht The Guardian founded Swift becomes dean of St. Patrick’s, Dublin Addison’s Cato Laurence Sterne born Reign of George I Pope’s expended version of The Rape of the Lock (Cantos 1–5) The Jacobite rebellion in Scotland Pope’s translation of Homer’s Iliad (1715–1720) Death of Louis XIV Death of William Wycherley Thomas Gray born Pope’s Eloisa to Abelard David Garrick born Horace Walpole born Quadruple Alliance (Britain, France, the Netherlands, the German Empire) in war against Spain Defoe’s Robinson Crusoe Death of Joseph Addison Inoculation against smallpox introduced in Boston War against Spain The South Sea Bubble Gilbert White born Defoe’s Captain Singleton and Memoirs of a Cavalier Tobias Smollett born William Collins born Defoe’s Moll Flanders, Journal of the Plague Year, and Colonel Jack Defoe’s Roxana Swift’s The Drapier’s Letters

1725 1726

1727–1760 1728

1729

1731

1732 1733

1734 1736 1737 1738 1740

1742

1744

1745

1746

xx

Richard Savage Death of Alexander Pope Second Jacobite rebellion, led by Charles Edward, the Young Pretender Death of Jonathan Swift The Young Pretender defeated at Culloden Collins’ Odes on Several Descriptive and Allegorical Subjects

CHRONOLOGY 1747

1748

1749

1750 1751

1752 1753

1754

1755

1756

1757



1758 1759

1760–1820 1760

1761

1762

1763

1764 1765

1766

xxi



CHRONOLOGY 1768

1769

1770

1771

1772 1773

1774

1775



1776

1777

1778

1779

1780 1781

1782

xxii



CHRONOLOGY 1783

1784

1785

1786

1787

1788

1789

American War of Independence ended by the Definitive Treaty of Peace, signed at Paris William Blake’s Poetical Sketches George Crabbe’s The Village William Pitt the younger becomes prime minister Henri Beyle (Stendhal) born Beaumarchais’s Le Mariage de Figaro first performed (published 1785) Death of Samuel Johnson Warren Hastings returns to England from India James Boswell’s The Journey of a Tour of the Hebrides, with Samuel Johnson, LL.D. Cowper’s The Task Edmund Cartwright invents the power loom Thomas De Quincey born Thomas Love Peacock born William Beckford’s Vathek published in English (originally written in French in 1782) Robert Burns’s Poems Chiefly in the Scottish Dialect Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart’s The Marriage of Figaro Death of Frederick the Great The Committee for the Abolition of the Slave Trade founded in England The Constitutional Convention meets at Philadelphia; the Constitution is signed The trial of Hastings begins on charges of corruption of the government in India The Estates-General of France summoned U.S. Constitution is ratified George Washington elected president of the United States Giovanni Casanova’s Histoire de ma fuite (first manuscript of his memoirs) The Daily Universal Register becomes the Times (London) George Gordon, Lord Byron born The Estates-General meets at Versailles

1790

1791

1792

1793

xxiii

The National Assembly (Assemblée Nationale) convened The fall of the Bastille marks the beginning of the French Revolution The National Assembly draws up the Declaration of Rights of Man and of the Citizen First U.S. Congress meets in New York Blake’s Songs of Innocence Jeremy Bentham’s Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation introduces the theory of utilitarianism Gilbert White’s Natural History of Selborne Congress sets permanent capital city site on the Potomac River First U.S. Census Burke’s Reflections on the Revolution in France Blake’s The Marriage of Heaven and Hell Edmund Malone’s edition of Shakespeare Wollstonecraft’s A Vindication of the Rights of Man Death of Benjamin Franklin French royal family’s flight from Paris and capture at Varennes; imprisonment in the Tuileries Bill of Rights is ratified Paine’s The Rights of Man (1791– 1792) Boswell’s The Life of Johnson Burns’s Tam o’Shanter The Observer founded The Prussians invade France and are repulsed at Valmy September massacres The National Convention declares royalty abolished in France Washington reelected president of the United States New York Stock Exchange opens Mary Wollstonecraft’s Vindication of the Rights of Woman William Bligh’s voyage to the South Sea in H.M.S. Bounty Percy Bysshe Shelley born Trial and execution of Louis XVI and Marie-Antoinette

CHRONOLOGY

1794

1795

1796

1797

1798

1799



1800

1801 1802

1803

1804

1805

1806

1807

xxiv



CHRONOLOGY 1808

1809

1810

1811–1820 1811

1812

1813



1814

1815

1816

1817

xxv

Shelley’s Queen Mab Southey’s Life of Nelson Napoleon abdicates and is exiled to Elba; Bourbon restoration with Louis XVIII Treaty of Ghent ends the war between Britain and the United States Jane Austen’s Mansfield Park Byron’s The Corsair and Lara Scott’s Waverley Wordsworth’s The Excursion Napoleon returns to France (the Hundred Days); is defeated at Waterloo and exiled to St. Helena U.S.S. Fulton, the first steam warship, built Scott’s Guy Mannering Schlegel’s Lectures on Dramatic Art and Literature translated Wordsworth’s The White Doe of Rylstone Anthony Trollope born Byron leaves England permanently The Elgin Marbles exhibited in the British Museum James Monroe elected president of the United States Jane Austen’s Emma Byron’s Childe Harold (Canto 3) Coleridge’s Christabel, Kubla Khan: A Vision, The Pains of Sleep Benjamin Constant’s Adolphe Goethe’s Italienische Reise Peacock’s Headlong Hall Scott’s The Antiquary Shelley’s Alastor Rossini’s Il Barbiere di Siviglia Death of Richard Brinsley Sheridan Charlotte Brontë born Blackwood’s Edinburgh magazine founded Jane Austen’s Northanger Abbey and Persuasion Byron’s Manfred Coleridge’s Biographia Literaria Hazlitt’s The Characters of Shakespeare’s Plays and The Round Table Keats’s Poems Peacock’s Melincourt David Ricardo’s Principles of Political Economy and Taxation Death of Jane Austen

CHRONOLOGY

1818

1819

1820–1830 1820

Agnes, and Other Poems Hazlitt’s Lectures Chiefly on the Dramatic Literature of the Age of Elizabeth Charles Maturin’s Melmoth the Wanderer

1821

1822

1823

1824

xxvi



CHRONOLOGY 1825

1826

1827

1828

1829

1830–1837 1830

1831

Inauguration of steam-powered passenger and freight service on the Stockton and Darlington railway Bolivia and Brazil become independent Alessandro Manzoni’s I Promessi Sposi (1825–1826) André-Marie Ampère’s Mémoire sur la théorie mathématique des phénomènes électrodynamiques James Fenimore Cooper’s The Last of the Mohicans Disraeli’s Vivian Grey (1826–1827) Scott’s Woodstock The battle of Navarino ensures the independence of Greece Josef Ressel obtains patent for the screw propeller for steamships Heinrich Heine’s Buch der Lieder Death of William Blake Andrew Jackson elected president of the United States Births of Henrik Ibsen, George Meredith, Margaret Oliphant, Dante Gabriel Rossetti, and Leo Tolstoy The Catholic Emancipation Act Robert Peel establishes the metropolitan police force Greek independence recognized by Turkey Balzac begins La Comédie humaine (1829–1848) Peacock’s The Misfortunes of Elphin J. M. W. Turner’s Ulysses Deriding Polyphemus Reign of William IV Charles X of France abdicates and is succeeded by Louis-Philippe The Liverpool-Manchester railway opened Tennyson’s Poems, Chiefly Lyrical Death of William Hazlitt Christina Rossetti born Michael Faraday discovers electromagnetic induction Charles Darwin’s voyage on H.M.S. Beagle begins (1831–1836) The Barbizon school of artists’ first exhibition Nat Turner slave revolt crushed in Virginia

1832

1833

1834

1835

1836

xxvii

Peacock’s Crotchet Castle Stendhal’s Le Rouge et le noir Edward Trelawny’s The Adventures of a Younger Son Isabella Bird born The first Reform Bill Samuel Morse invents the telegraph Jackson reelected president of the United States Disraeli’s Contarini Fleming Goethe’s Faust (Part 2) Tennyson’s Poems, Chiefly Lyrical, including “The Lotus-Eaters” and “The Lady of Shalott” Death of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe Death of Sir Walter Scott Lewis Carroll born Robert Browning’s Pauline John Keble launches the Oxford Movement American Anti-Slavery Society founded Lamb’s Last Essays of Elia Carlyle’s Sartor Resartus (1833– 1834) Pushkin’s Eugene Onegin Mendelssohn’s Italian Symphony first performed Abolition of slavery in the British Empire Louis Braille’s alphabet for the blind Balzac’s Le Père Goriot Nikolai Gogol’s Dead Souls (Part 1, 1834–1842) Death of Samuel Taylor Coleridge Death of Charles Lamb William Morris born Hans Christian Andersen’s Fairy Tales (1st ser.) Robert Browning’s Paracelsus Births of Samuel Butler and Mary Elizabeth Braddon Alexis de Tocqueville’s De la Democratie en Amerique (1835– 1840) Death of James Hogg Martin Van Buren elected president of the United States Dickens’ Sketches by Boz (1836– 1837)

CHRONOLOGY 1837–1901 1837

1838

1839

1840

1841

1842



xxviii

1843

1844

1845

1846

1847

1848

Tennyson’s Poems, including “Morte d’Arthur,” “St. Simeon Stylites,” and “Ulysses” Wordsworth’s Poems Marc Isambard Brunel’s Thames tunnel opened The Economist founded Carlyle’s Past and Present Dickens’ A Christmas Carol John Stuart Mill’s Logic Macaulay’s Critical and Historical Essays John Ruskin’s Modern Painters (1843–1860) Rochdale Society of Equitable Pioneers, one of the first consumers’ cooperatives, founded by twentyeight Lancashire weavers James K. Polk elected president of the United States Elizabeth Barrett Browning’s Poems, including “The Cry of the Children” Dickens’ Martin Chuzzlewit Disraeli’s Coningsby Turner’s Rain, Steam and Speed Gerard Manley Hopkins born The great potato famine in Ireland begins (1845–1849) Disraeli’s Sybil Repeal of the Corn Laws The Daily News founded (edited by Dickens the first three weeks) Standard-gauge railway introduced in Britain The Brontës’ pseudonymous Poems by Currer, Ellis and Action Bell Lear’s Book of Nonsense The Ten Hours Factory Act James Simpson uses chloroform as an anesthetic Anne Brontë’s Agnes Grey Charlotte Brontë’s Jane Eyre Emily Brontë’s Wuthering Heights Bram Stoker born Tennyson’s The Princess The year of revolutions in France, Germany, Italy, Hungary, Poland Marx and Engels issue The Communist Manifesto The Chartist Petition

CHRONOLOGY

1849

1850

1851

1852



1853

1854

1855

1856

1857

xxix

David Livingstone begins to explore the Zambezi (1852–1856) Franklin Pierce elected president of the United States Arnold’s Empedocles on Etna Thackeray’s The History of Henry Esmond, Esq. Crimean War (1853–1856) Arnold’s Poems, including “The Scholar Gypsy” and “Sohrab and Rustum” Charlotte Brontë’s Villette Elizabeth Gaskell’s Crawford and Ruth Frederick D. Maurice’s Working Men’s College founded in London with more than 130 pupils Battle of Balaklava Dickens’ Hard Times James George Frazer born Theodor Mommsen’s History of Rome (1854–1856) Tennyson’s “The Charge of the Light Brigade” Florence Nightingale in the Crimea (1854–1856) Oscar Wilde born David Livingstone discovers the Victoria Falls Robert Browning’s Men and Women Elizabeth Gaskell’s North and South Olive Schreiner born Tennyson’s Maud Thackeray’s The Newcomes Trollope’s The Warden Death of Charlotte Brontë The Treaty of Paris ends the Crimean War Henry Bessemer’s steel process invented James Buchanan elected president of the United States H. Rider Haggard born The Indian Mutiny begins; crushed in 1858 The Matrimonial Causes Act Charlotte Brontë’s The Professor

CHRONOLOGY

1858

1859

1860

1861

1862

Elizabeth Barrett Browning’s Aurora Leigh Dickens’ Little Dorritt Elizabeth Gaskell’s The Life of Charlotte Brontë Thomas Hughes’s Tom Brown’s School Days Trollope’s Barchester Towers Carlyle’s History of Frederick the Great (1858–1865) George Eliot’s Scenes of Clerical Life Morris’ The Defense of Guinevere Trollope’s Dr. Thorne Charles Darwin’s The Origin of Species Dickens’ A Tale of Two Cities Arthur Conan Doyle born George Eliot’s Adam Bede Fitzgerald’s The Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyám Meredith’s The Ordeal of Richard Feverel Mill’s On Liberty Samuel Smiles’s Self-Help Tennyson’s Idylls of the King Abraham Lincoln elected president of the United States The Cornhill magazine founded with Thackeray as editor James M. Barrie born William Wilkie Collins’ The Woman in White George Eliot’s The Mill on the Floss American Civil War begins Louis Pasteur presents the germ theory of disease Arnold’s Lectures on Translating Homer Dickens’ Great Expectations George Eliot’s Silas Marner Meredith’s Evan Harrington Francis Turner Palgrave’s The Golden Treasury Trollope’s Framley Parsonage Peacock’s Gryll Grange Death of Prince Albert George Eliot’s Romola Meredith’s Modern Love Christina Rossetti’s Goblin Market Ruskin’s Unto This Last Trollope’s Orley Farm

1863 1864

1865

1866

1867

1868

1869

xxx

Thomas Huxley’s Man’s Place in Nature The Geneva Red Cross Convention signed by twelve nations Lincoln reelected president of the United States Robert Browning’s Dramatis Personae John Henry Newman’s Apologia pro vita sua Tennyson’s Enoch Arden Trollope’s The Small House at Allington Assassination of Lincoln; Andrew Johnson succeeds to the presidency Arnold’s Essays in Criticism (1st ser.) Carroll’s Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland Dickens’ Our Mutual Friend Meredith’s Rhoda Fleming A. C. Swinburne’s Atalanta in Calydon First successful transatlantic telegraph cable laid George Eliot’s Felix Holt, the Radical Elizabeth Gaskell’s Wives and Daughters Beatrix Potter born Swinburne’s Poems and Ballads The second Reform Bill Arnold’s New Poems Bagehot’s The English Constitution Carlyle’s Shooting Niagara Marx’s Das Kapital (vol. 1) Trollope’s The Last Chronicle of Barset George William Russell (AE) born Gladstone becomes prime minister (1868–1874) Johnson impeached by House of Representatives; acquitted by Senate Ulysses S. Grant elected president of the United States Robert Browning’s The Ring and the Book (1868–1869) Collins’ The Moonstone The Suez Canal opened Girton College, Cambridge, founded

CHRONOLOGY

1870

1871

1872

1873

1874

1875

1876

1877

1878

Arnold’s Culture and Anarchy Mill’s The Subjection of Women Trollope’s Phineas Finn The Elementary Education Act establishes schools under the aegis of local boards Dickens’ Edwin Drood Disraeli’s Lothair Morris’ The Earthly Paradise Dante Gabriel Rossetti’s Poems Saki [Hector Hugh Munro] born Trade unions legalized Newnham College, Cambridge, founded for women students Carroll’s Through the Looking Glass Darwin’s The Descent of Man Meredith’s The Adventures of Harry Richmond Swinburne’s Songs Before Sunrise Max Beerbohm born Samuel Butler’s Erewhon George Eliot’s Middlemarch Grant reelected president of the United States Hardy’s Under the Greenwood Tree Arnold’s Literature and Dogma Mill’s Autobiography Pater’s Studies in the History of the Renaissance Trollope’s The Eustace Diamonds Disraeli becomes prime minister Hardy’s Far from the Madding Crowd James Thomson’s The City of Dreadful Night Britain buys Suez Canal shares Trollope’s The Way We Live Now T. F. Powys born F. H. Bradley’s Ethical Studies George Eliot’s Daniel Deronda Henry James’s Roderick Hudson Meredith’s Beauchamp’s Career Morris’ Sigurd the Volsung Trollope’s The Prime Minister Rutherford B. Hayes elected president of the United States after Electoral Commission awards him disputed votes Henry James’s The American Electric street lighting introduced in London

1879

1880

1881

1882

1883

1884

xxxi

Hardy’s The Return of the Native Swinburne’s Poems and Ballads (2d ser.) Births of A. E. Coppard and Edward Thomas Somerville College and Lady Margaret Hall opened at Oxford for women The London telephone exchange built Gladstone’s Midlothian campaign (1879–1880) Browning’s Dramatic Idyls Meredith’s The Egoist Gladstone’s second term as prime minister (1880–1885) James A. Garfield elected president of the United States Browning’s Dramatic Idyls Second Series Disraeli’s Endymion Radclyffe Hall born Hardy’s The Trumpet-Major Lytton Strachey born Garfield assassinated; Chester A. Arthur succeeds to the presidency Henry James’s The Portrait of a Lady and Washington Square D. G. Rossetti’s Ballads and Sonnets P. G. Wodehouse born Triple Alliance formed between German empire, Austrian empire, and Italy Leslie Stephen begins to edit the Dictionary of National Biography Married Women’s Property Act passed in Britain Britain occupies Egypt and the Sudan Uprising of the Mahdi: Britain evacuates the Sudan Royal College of Music opens T. H. Green’s Ethics T. E. Hulme born Stevenson’s Treasure Island The Mahdi captures Omdurman: General Gordon appointed to command the garrison of Khartoum Grover Cleveland elected president of the United States

CHRONOLOGY

1885

1886

1887

1888

1889 1890

1891

1892

The Oxford English Dictionary begins publishing The Fabian Society founded Hiram Maxim’s recoil-operated machine gun invented The Mahdi captures Khartoum: General Gordon killed Haggard’s King Solomon’s Mines Marx’s Das Kapital (vol. 2) Meredith’s Diana of the Crossways Pater’s Marius the Epicurean The Canadian Pacific Railway completed Gold discovered in the Transvaal Births of Frances Cornford, Ronald Firbank, and Charles Stansby Walter Williams Henry James’s The Bostonians and The Princess Casamassima Stevenson’s The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde Queen Victoria’s Golden Jubilee Rupert Brooke born Haggard’s Allan Quatermain and She Hardy’s The Woodlanders Edwin Muir born Benjamin Harrison elected president of the United States Henry James’s The Aspern Papers Kipling’s Plain Tales from the Hills T. E. Lawrence born Yeats’s The Wanderings of Oisin Death of Robert Browning Morris founds the Kelmscott Press Agatha Christie born Frazer’s The Golden Bough (1st ed.) Henry James’s The Tragic Muse Morris’ News From Nowhere Jean Rhys born Gissing’s New Grub Street Hardy’s Tess of the d’Urbervilles Wilde’s The Picture of Dorian Gray Grover Cleveland elected president of the United States Conan Doyle’s The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes Shaw’s Widower’s Houses J. R. R. Tolkien born Rebecca West born Wilde’s Lady Windermere’s Fan

1893

1894

1895

Wilde’s A Woman of No Importance and Salomé Vera Brittain born Kipling’s The Jungle Book Moore’s Esther Waters Marx’s Das Kapital (vol. 3) Audrey Beardsley’s The Yellow Book begins to appear quarterly Shaw’s Arms and the Man Trial and imprisonment of Oscar Wilde William Ramsay announces discovery of helium The National Trust founded Conrad’s Almayer’s Folly Hardy’s Jude the Obscure Wells’s The Time Machine Wilde’s The Importance of Being Earnest Yeats’s Poems

1896

William McKinley elected president of the United States Failure of the Jameson Raid on the Transvaal Housman’s A Shropshire Lad

1897

Queen Victoria’s Diamond Jubilee Conrad’s The Nigger of the Narcissus Havelock Ellis’ Studies in the Psychology of Sex begins publication Henry James’s The Spoils of Poynton and What Maisie Knew Kipling’s Captains Courageous Shaw’s Candida Stoker’s Dracula Wells’s The Invisible Man Death of Margaret Oliphant

1898

Kitchener defeats the Mahdist forces at Omdurman: the Sudan reoccupied Hardy’s Wessex Poems Henry James’s The Turn of the Screw C. S. Lewis born

xxxii

CHRONOLOGY

1899

1900

1901–1910 1901

1902

Shaw’s Caesar and Cleopatra and You Never Can Tell Alec Waugh born Wells’s The War of the Worlds Wilde’s The Ballad of Reading Gaol The Boer War begins Elizabeth Bowen born Noël Coward born Elgar’s Enigma Variations Kipling’s Stalky and Co. McKinley reelected president of the United States British Labour party founded Boxer Rebellion in China Reginald A. Fessenden transmits speech by wireless First Zeppelin trial flight Max Planck presents his first paper on the quantum theory Conrad’s Lord Jim Elgar’s The Dream of Gerontius Sigmund Freud’s The Interpretation of Dreams V. S. Pritchett born William Butler Yeats’s The Shadowy Waters Reign of King Edward VII William McKinley assassinated; Theodore Roosevelt succeeds to the presidency First transatlantic wireless telegraph signal transmitted Chekhov’s Three Sisters Freud’s Psychopathology of Everyday Life Rudyard Kipling’s Kim Thomas Mann’s Buddenbrooks Potter’s The Tale of Peter Rabbit Shaw’s Captain Brassbound’s Conversion August Strindberg’s The Dance of Death Barrie’s The Admirable Crichton Arnold Bennett’s Anna of the Five Towns Cézanne’s Le Lac D’Annecy Conrad’s Heart of Darkness Henry James’s The Wings of the Dove William James’s The Varieties of Religious Experience Kipling’s Just So Stories

xxxiii

1903

1904

Maugham’s Mrs. Cradock Stevie Smith born Times Literary Supplement begins publishing At its London congress the Russian Social Democratic Party divides into Mensheviks, led by Plekhanov, and Bolsheviks, led by Lenin The treaty of Panama places the Canal Zone in U.S. hands for a nominal rent Motor cars regulated in Britain to a 20-mile-per-hour limit The Wright brothers make a successful flight in the United States Burlington magazine founded Samuel Butler’s The Way of All Flesh published posthumously Cyril Connolly born George Gissing’s The Private Papers of Henry Ryecroft Thomas Hardy’s The Dynasts Henry James’s The Ambassadors Alan Paton born Shaw’s Man and Superman Synge’s Riders to the Sea produced in Dublin Yeats’s In the Seven Woods and On Baile’s Strand Roosevelt elected president of the United States Russo-Japanese war (1904–1905) Construction of the Panama Canal begins The ultraviolet lamp invented The engineering firm of Rolls Royce founded Barrie’s Peter Pan first performed Births of Cecil Day Lewis and Nancy Mitford Chekhov’s The Cherry Orchard Conrad’s Nostromo Henry James’s The Golden Bowl Kipling’s Traffıcs and Discoveries Georges Rouault’s Head of a Tragic Clown G. M. Trevelyan’s England Under the Stuarts Puccini’s Madame Butterfly First Shaw-Granville Barker season at the Royal Court Theatre

CHRONOLOGY

1905

1906

1907

The Abbey Theatre founded in Dublin Death of Isabella Bird Russian sailors on the battleship Potemkin mutiny After riots and a general strike the czar concedes demands by the Duma for legislative powers, a wider franchise, and civil liberties Albert Einstein publishes his first theory of relativity The Austin Motor Company founded Bennett’s Tales of the Five Towns Claude Debussy’s La Mer E. M. Forster’s Where Angels Fear to Tread Richard Strauss’s Salome H. G. Wells’s Kipps Oscar Wilde’s De Profundis Births of Norman Cameron, Henry Green, and Mary Renault Liberals win a landslide victory in the British general election The Trades Disputes Act legitimizes peaceful picketing in Britain Captain Dreyfus rehabilitated in France J. J. Thomson begins research on gamma rays The U.S. Pure Food and Drug Act passed Churchill’s Lord Randolph Churchill William Empson born Galsworthy’s The Man of Property Kipling’s Puck of Pook’s Hill Shaw’s The Doctor’s Dilemma Yeats’s Poems 1899–1905 Exhibition of cubist paintings in Paris Henry Adams’ The Education of Henry Adams Henri Bergson’s Creative Evolution Conrad’s The Secret Agent Births of Barbara Comyns, Daphne du Maurier, and Christopher Fry Forster’s The Longest Journey André Gide’s La Porte étroite Shaw’s John Bull’s Other Island and Major Barbara

1908

1909

xxxiv

Synge’s The Playboy of the Western World Trevelyan’s Garibaldi’s Defence of the Roman Republic Christopher Caudwell (Christopher St. John Sprigg) born Herbert Asquith becomes prime minister David Lloyd George becomes chancellor of the exchequer William Howard Taft elected president of the United States The Young Turks seize power in Istanbul Henry Ford’s Model T car produced Bennett’s The Old Wives’ Tale Pierre Bonnard’s Nude Against the Light Georges Braque’s House at L’Estaque Chesterton’s The Man Who Was Thursday Jacob Epstein’s Figures erected in London Forster’s A Room with a View Anatole France’s L’Ile des Pingouins Henri Matisse’s Bonheur de Vivre Elgar’s First Symphony Ford Madox Ford founds the English Review The Young Turks depose Sultan Abdul Hamid The Anglo-Persian Oil Company formed Louis Bleriot crosses the English Channel from France by monoplane Admiral Robert Peary reaches the North Pole Freud lectures at Clark University (Worcester, Mass.) on psychoanalysis Serge Diaghilev’s Ballets Russes opens in Paris Galsworthy’s Strife Hardy’s Time’s Laughingstocks Malcolm Lowry born Claude Monet’s Water Lilies Stephen Spender born Trevelyan’s Garibaldi and the Thousand

CHRONOLOGY

1910–1936 1910

1911

1912

Wells’s Tono-Bungay first published (book form, 1909) Reign of King George V The Liberals win the British general election Marie Curie’s Treatise on Radiography Arthur Evans excavates Knossos Edouard Manet and the first postimpressionist exhibition in London Filippo Marinetti publishes “Manifesto of the Futurist Painters” Norman Angell’s The Great Illusion Bennett’s Clayhanger Forster’s Howards End Galsworthy’s Justice and The Silver Box Kipling’s Rewards and Fairies Norman MacCaig born Rimsky-Korsakov’s Le Coq d’or Stravinsky’s The Firebird Vaughan Williams’ A Sea Symphony Wells’s The History of Mr. Polly Wells’s The New Machiavelli first published (in book form, 1911) Lloyd George introduces National Health Insurance Bill Suffragette riots in Whitehall Roald Amundsen reaches the South Pole Bennett’s The Card Chagall’s Self Portrait with Seven Fingers Conrad’s Under Western Eyes D. H. Lawrence’s The White Peacock Katherine Mansfield’s In a German Pension Edward Marsh edits Georgian Poetry Moore’s Hail and Farewell (1911– 1914) Flann O’Brien born Strauss’s Der Rosenkavalier Stravinsky’s Petrouchka Trevelyan’s Garibaldi and the Making of Italy Wells’s The New Machiavelli Mahler’s Das Lied von der Erde Woodrow Wilson elected president of the United States

1913

1914

1915

xxxv

SS Titanic sinks on its maiden voyage Five million Americans go to the movies daily; London has four hundred movie theaters Second post-impressionist exhibition in London Bennett’s and Edward Knoblock’s Milestones Constantin Brancusi’s Maiastra Wassily Kandinsky’s Black Lines D. H. Lawrence’s The Trespasser Second Balkan War begins Henry Ford pioneers factory assembly technique through conveyor belts Epstein’s Tomb of Oscar Wilde New York Armory Show introduces modern art to the world Alain Fournier’s Le Grand Meaulnes Freud’s Totem and Tabu D. H. Lawrence’s Sons and Lovers Mann’s Death in Venice Proust’s Du Côté de chez Swann (first volume of À la recherche du temps perdu, 1913–1922) Barbara Pym born Ravel’s Daphnis and Chloé The Panama Canal opens (formal dedication on 12 July 1920) Irish Home Rule Bill passed in the House of Commons Archduke Franz Ferdinand assassinated at Sarajevo World War I begins Battles of the Marne, Masurian Lakes, and Falkland Islands Joyce’s Dubliners Norman Nicholson born Shaw’s Pygmalion and Androcles and the Lion Yeats’s Responsibilities Wyndham Lewis publishes Blast magazine and The Vorticist Manifesto The Dardanelles campaign begins Britain and Germany begin naval and submarine blockades The Lusitania is sunk Hugo Junkers manufactures the first fighter aircraft

CHRONOLOGY

1916

1917

First Zeppelin raid in London Brooke’s 1914: Five Sonnets Norman Douglas’ Old Calabria D. W. Griffith’s The Birth of a Nation Gustav Holst’s The Planets D. H. Lawrence’s The Rainbow Wyndham Lewis’s The Crowd Maugham’s Of Human Bondage Pablo Picasso’s Harlequin Sibelius’ Fifth Symphony Denton Welch born Evacuation of Gallipoli and the Dardanelles Battles of the Somme, Jutland, and Verdun Britain introduces conscription The Easter Rebellion in Dublin Asquith resigns and David Lloyd George becomes prime minister The Sykes-Picot agreement on the partition of Turkey First military tanks used Wilson reelected president president of the United States Henri Barbusse’s Le Feu Griffith’s Intolerance Joyce’s Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man Jung’s Psychology of the Unconscious Moore’s The Brook Kerith Edith Sitwell edits Wheels (1916– 1921) Wells’s Mr. Britling Sees It Through United States enters World War I Czar Nicholas II abdicates The Balfour Declaration on a Jewish national home in Palestine The Bolshevik Revolution Georges Clemenceau elected prime minister of France Lenin appointed chief commissar; Trotsky appointed minister of foreign affairs Conrad’s The Shadow-Line Douglas’ South Wind Eliot’s Prufrock and Other Observations Modigliani’s Nude with Necklace Sassoon’s The Old Huntsman Prokofiev’s Classical Symphony

1918

1919

1920

xxxvi

Yeats’s The Wild Swans at Coole Wilson puts forward Fourteen Points for World Peace Central Powers and Russia sign the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk Execution of Czar Nicholas II and his family Kaiser Wilhelm II abdicates The Armistice signed Women granted the vote at age thirty in Britain Rupert Brooke’s Collected Poems Gerard Manley Hopkins’ Poems Joyce’s Exiles Lewis’s Tarr Sassoon’s Counter-Attack Oswald Spengler’s The Decline of the West Strachey’s Eminent Victorians Béla Bartók’s Bluebeard’s Castle Charlie Chaplin’s Shoulder Arms The Versailles Peace Treaty signed J. W. Alcock and A. W. Brown make first transatlantic flight Ross Smith flies from London to Australia National Socialist party founded in Germany Benito Mussolini founds the Fascist party in Italy Sinn Fein Congress adopts declaration of independence in Dublin Eamon De Valera elected president of Sinn Fein party Communist Third International founded Lady Astor elected first woman Member of Parliament Prohibition in the United States John Maynard Keynes’s The Economic Consequences of the Peace Eliot’s Poems Maugham’s The Moon and Sixpence Shaw’s Heartbreak House The Bauhaus school of design, building, and crafts founded by Walter Gropius Amedeo Modigliani’s Self-Portrait The League of Nations established Warren G. Harding elected president of the United States

CHRONOLOGY

1921

1922

Senate votes against joining the League and rejects the Treaty of Versailles The Nineteenth Amendment gives women the right to vote White Russian forces of Denikin and Kolchak defeated by the Bolsheviks Karel Cˇapek’s R.U.R. Galsworthy’s In Chancery and The Skin Game Sinclair Lewis’ Main Street Katherine Mansfield’s Bliss Matisse’s Odalisques (1920–1925) Ezra Pound’s Hugh Selwyn Mauberly Paul Valéry’s Le Cimetière Marin Yeats’s Michael Robartes and the Dancer Edwin Morgan born Britain signs peace with Ireland First medium-wave radio broadcast in the United States The British Broadcasting Corporation founded Braque’s Still Life with Guitar Chaplin’s The Kid Aldous Huxley’s Crome Yellow Paul Klee’s The Fish D. H. Lawrence’s Women in Love John McTaggart’s The Nature of Existence (vol. 1) Moore’s Héloïse and Abélard Eugene O’Neill’s The Emperor Jones Luigi Pirandello’s Six Characters in Search of an Author Shaw’s Back to Methuselah Strachey’s Queen Victoria Births of George Mackay Brown and Brian Moore Lloyd George’s Coalition government succeeded by Bonar Law’s Conservative government Benito Mussolini marches on Rome and forms a government William Cosgrave elected president of the Irish Free State The BBC begins broadcasting in London Lord Carnarvon and Howard Carter discover Tutankhamen’s tomb

xxxvii

1923

1924

The PEN club founded in London The Criterion founded with T. S. Eliot as editor Kingsley Amis born Eliot’s The Waste Land A. E. Housman’s Last Poems Joyce’s Ulysses D. H. Lawrence’s Aaron’s Rod and England, My England Sinclair Lewis’s Babbitt O’Neill’s Anna Christie Pirandello’s Henry IV Edith Sitwell’s Façade Virginia Woolf’s Jacob’s Room Yeats’s The Trembling of the Veil Donald Davie born The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics established French and Belgian troops occupy the Ruhr in consequence of Germany’s failure to pay reparations Mustafa Kemal (Ataturk) proclaims Turkey a republic and is elected president Warren G. Harding dies; Calvin Coolidge becomes president Stanley Baldwin succeeds Bonar Law as prime minister Adolf Hitler’s attempted coup in Munich fails Time magazine begins publishing E. N. da C. Andrade’s The Structure of the Atom Brendan Behan born Bennett’s Riceyman Steps Churchill’s The World Crisis (1923– 1927) J. E. Flecker’s Hassan produced Nadine Gordimer born Paul Klee’s Magic Theatre Lawrence’s Kangaroo Rainer Maria Rilke’s Duino Elegies and Sonnets to Orpheus Sibelius’ Sixth Symphony Picasso’s Seated Woman William Walton’s Façade Ramsay MacDonald forms first Labour government, loses general election, and is succeeded by Stanley Baldwin Calvin Coolidge elected president of the United States

CHRONOLOGY

1925

1926

1927

Noël Coward’s The Vortex Forster’s A Passage to India Mann’s The Magic Mountain Shaw’s St. Joan Reza Khan becomes shah of Iran First surrealist exhibition held in Paris Alban Berg’s Wozzeck Chaplin’s The Gold Rush John Dos Passos’ Manhattan Transfer Theodore Dreiser’s An American Tragedy Sergei Eisenstein’s Battleship Potemkin F. Scott Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby André Gide’s Les Faux Monnayeurs Hardy’s Human Shows and Far Phantasies Huxley’s Those Barren Leaves Kafka’s The Trial O’Casey’s Juno and the Paycock Virginia Woolf’s Mrs. Dalloway and The Common Reader Brancusi’s Bird in Space Shostakovich’s First Symphony Sibelius’ Tapiola Ford’s A Man Could Stand Up Gide’s Si le grain ne meurt Hemingway’s The Sun also Rises Kafka’s The Castle D. H. Lawrence’s The Plumed Serpent T. E. Lawrence’s Seven Pillars of Wisdom privately circulated Maugham’s The Casuarina Tree O’Casey’s The Plough and the Stars Puccini’s Turandot Jan Morris born General Chiang Kai-shek becomes prime minister in China Trotsky expelled by the Communist party as a deviationist; Stalin becomes leader of the party and dictator of the Soviet Union Charles Lindbergh flies from New York to Paris J. W. Dunne’s An Experiment with Time

xxxviii

1928

1929

Freud’s Autobiography translated into English Albert Giacometti’s Observing Head Ernest Hemingway’s Men Without Women Fritz Lang’s Metropolis Wyndham Lewis’ Time and Western Man F. W. Murnau’s Sunrise Proust’s Le Temps retrouvé posthumously published Stravinsky’s Oedipus Rex Virginia Woolf’s To the Lighthouse The Kellogg-Briand Pact, outlawing war and providing for peaceful settlement of disputes, signed in Paris by sixty-two nations, including the Soviet Union Herbert Hoover elected president of the United States Women’s suffrage granted at age twenty-one in Britain Alexander Fleming discovers penicillin Bertolt Brecht and Kurt Weill’s The Three-Penny Opera Eisenstein’s October Huxley’s Point Counter Point Christopher Isherwood’s All the Conspirators D. H. Lawrence’s Lady Chatterley’s Lover Wyndham Lewis’ The Childermass Matisse’s Seated Odalisque Munch’s Girl on a Sofa Shaw’s Intelligent Woman’s Guide to Socialism Virginia Woolf’s Orlando Yeats’s The Tower Iain Chrichton Smith born The Labour party wins British general election Trotsky expelled from the Soviet Union Museum of Modern Art opens in New York Collapse of U.S. stock exchange begins world economic crisis Robert Bridges’s The Testament of Beauty

CHRONOLOGY

1930

1931

William Faulkner’s The Sound and the Fury Robert Graves’s Goodbye to All That Hemingway’s A Farewell to Arms Ernst Junger’s The Storm of Steel Hugo von Hoffmansthal’s Poems Henry Moore’s Reclining Figure J. B. Priestley’s The Good Companions Erich Maria Remarque’s All Quiet on the Western Front Shaw’s The Applecart R. C. Sheriff’s Journey’s End Edith Sitwell’s Gold Coast Customs Thomas Wolfe’s Look Homeward, Angel Virginia Woolf’s A Room of One’s Own Yeats’s The Winding Stair Second surrealist manifesto; Salvador Dali joins the surrealists Epstein’s Night and Day Mondrian’s Composition with Yellow Blue Allied occupation of the Rhineland ends Mohandas Gandhi opens civil disobedience campaign in India The Daily Worker, journal of the British Communist party, begins publishing J. W. Reppe makes artificial fabrics from an acetylene base John Arden born Auden’s Poems Coward’s Private Lives Eliot’s Ash Wednesday Wyndham Lewis’s The Apes of God Maugham’s Cakes and Ale Ezra Pound’s XXX Cantos Evelyn Waugh’s Vile Bodies Ruth Rendell born The failure of the Credit Anstalt in Austria starts a financial collapse in Central Europe Britain abandons the gold standard; the pound falls by twenty-five percent Mutiny in the Royal Navy at Invergordon over pay cuts

1932

1933

xxxix

Ramsay MacDonald resigns, splits the Cabinet, and is expelled by the Labour party; in the general election the National Government wins by a majority of five hundred seats The Statute of Westminster defines dominion status Ninette de Valois founds the VicWells Ballet (eventually the Royal Ballet) Coward’s Cavalcade Dali’s The Persistence of Memory John le Carré born O’Neill’s Mourning Becomes Electra Anthony Powell’s Afternoon Men Antoine de Saint-Exupéry’s Vol de nuit Walton’s Belshazzar’s Feast Virginia Woolf’s The Waves Caroline Blackwood born Franklin D. Roosevelt elected president of the United States Paul von Hindenburg elected president of Germany; Franz von Papen elected chancellor Sir Oswald Mosley founds British Union of Fascists The BBC takes over development of television from J. L. Baird’s company Basic English of 850 words designed as a prospective international language The Folger Library opens in Washington, D.C. The Shakespeare Memorial Theatre opens in Stratford-upon-Avon Faulkner’s Light in August Huxley’s Brave New World F. R. Leavis’ New Bearings in English Poetry Boris Pasternak’s Second Birth Ravel’s Concerto for Left Hand Peter Redgrove born Rouault’s Christ Mocked by Soldiers Waugh’s Black Mischief Yeats’s Words for Music Perhaps Roosevelt inaugurates the New Deal

CHRONOLOGY

1934

1935

Hitler becomes chancellor of Germany The Reichstag set on fire Hitler suspends civil liberties and freedom of the press; German trade unions suppressed George Balanchine and Lincoln Kirstein found the School of American Ballet Beryl Bainbridge born Lowry’s Ultramarine André Malraux’s La Condition humaine Orwell’s Down and Out in Paris and London Gertrude Stein’s The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas Anne Stevenson born The League Disarmament Conference ends in failure The Soviet Union admitted to the League Hitler becomes Führer Civil war in Austria; Engelbert Dollfuss assassinated in attempted Nazi coup Frédéric Joliot and Irene JoliotCurie discover artificial (induced) radioactivity Einstein’s My Philosophy Fitzgerald’s Tender Is the Night Graves’s I, Claudius and Claudius the God Toynbee’s A Study of History begins publication (1934–1954) Waugh’s A Handful of Dust Births of Alan Bennett, Christopher Wallace-Crabbe, and Alasdair Gray Grigori Zinoviev and other Soviet leaders convicted of treason Stanley Baldwin becomes prime minister in National Government; National Government wins general election in Britain Italy invades Abyssinia Germany repudiates disarmament clauses of Treaty of Versailles Germany reintroduces compulsory military service and outlaws the Jews Robert Watson-Watt builds first practical radar equipment

1936 1936–1952 1936

xl

Karl Jaspers’ Suffering and Existence Births of André Brink, Dennis Potter, Keith Roberts, and Jon Stallworthy Ivy Compton-Burnett’s A House and Its Head Eliot’s Murder in the Cathedral Barbara Hepworth’s Three Forms George Gershwin’s Porgy and Bess Greene’s England Made Me Isherwood’s Mr. Norris Changes Trains Malraux’s Le Temps du mépris Yeats’s Dramatis Personae Klee’s Child Consecrated to Suffering Benedict Nicholson’s White Relief Edward VII accedes to the throne in January; abdicates in December Reign of George VI German troops occupy the Rhineland Ninety-nine percent of German electorate vote for Nazi candidates The Popular Front wins general election in France; Léon Blum becomes prime minister Roosevelt reelected president of the United States The Popular Front wins general election in Spain Spanish Civil War begins Italian troops occupy Addis Ababa; Abyssinia annexed by Italy BBC begins television service from Alexandra Palace Auden’s Look, Stranger! Auden and Isherwood’s The Ascent of F-6 A. J. Ayer’s Language, Truth and Logic Chaplin’s Modern Times Greene’s A Gun for Sale Huxley’s Eyeless in Gaza Keynes’s General Theory of Employment F. R. Leavis’ Revaluation Mondrian’s Composition in Red and Blue Dylan Thomas’ Twenty-five Poems

CHRONOLOGY

1937

1938

1939

Wells’s The Shape of Things to Come filmed Reginald Hill born Trial of Karl Radek and other Soviet leaders Neville Chamberlain succeeds Stanley Baldwin as prime minister China and Japan at war Frank Whittle designs jet engine Picasso’s Guernica Shostakovich’s Fifth Symphony Magritte’s La Reproduction interdite Hemingway’s To Have and Have Not Malraux’s L’Espoir Orwell’s The Road to Wigan Pier Priestley’s Time and the Conways Virginia Woolf’s The Years Emma Tennant born Death of Christopher Caudwell (Christopher St. John Sprigg) Trial of Nikolai Bukharin and other Soviet political leaders Austria occupied by German troops and declared part of the Reich Hitler states his determination to annex Sudetenland from Czechoslovakia Britain, France, Germany, and Italy sign the Munich agreement German troops occupy Sudetenland Edward Hulton founds Picture Post Cyril Connolly’s Enemies of Promise du Maurier’s Rebecca Faulkner’s The Unvanquished Graham Greene’s Brighton Rock Hindemith’s Mathis der Maler Jean Renoir’s La Grande Illusion Jean-Paul Sartre’s La Nausée Yeats’s New Poems Anthony Asquith’s Pygmalion and Walt Disney’s Snow White Ngu˜gı˜wa Thiong’o born German troops occupy Bohemia and Moravia; Czechoslovakia incorporated into Third Reich Madrid surrenders to General Franco; the Spanish Civil War ends Italy invades Albania

1940

1941

xli

Spain joins Germany, Italy, and Japan in anti-Comintern Pact Britain and France pledge support to Poland, Romania, and Greece The Soviet Union proposes defensive alliance with Britain; British military mission visits Moscow The Soviet Union and Germany sign nonaggression treaty, secretly providing for partition of Poland between them Germany invades Poland; Britain, France, and Germany at war The Soviet Union invades Finland New York World’s Fair opens Eliot’s The Family Reunion Births of Ayi Kwei Armah, Seamus Heaney, Michael Longley and Robert Nye Isherwood’s Good-bye to Berlin Joyce’s Finnegans Wake (1922– 1939) MacNeice’s Autumn Journal Powell’s What’s Become of Waring? Churchill becomes prime minister Italy declares war on France, Britain, and Greece General de Gaulle founds Free French Movement The Battle of Britain and the bombing of London Roosevelt reelected president of the United States for third term Betjeman’s Old Lights for New Chancels Angela Carter born Chaplin’s The Great Dictator Bruce Chatwin born J. M. Coetzee born Disney’s Fantasia Greene’s The Power and the Glory Hemingway’s For Whom the Bell Tolls C. P. Snow’s Strangers and Brothers (retitled George Passant in 1970, when entire sequence of ten novels, published 1940–1970, was entitled Strangers and Brothers) German forces occupy Yugoslavia, Greece, and Crete, and invade the Soviet Union

CHRONOLOGY

1942

1943

Lend-Lease agreement between the United States and Britain President Roosevelt and Winston Churchill sign the Atlantic Charter Japanese forces attack Pearl Harbor; United States declares war on Japan, Germany, Italy; Britain on Japan Auden’s New Year Letter James Burnham’s The Managerial Revolution F. Scott Fitzgerald’s The Last Tycoon Huxley’s Grey Eminence Derek Mahon born Shostakovich’s Seventh Symphony Tippett’s A Child of Our Time Orson Welles’s Citizen Kane Virginia Woolf’s Between the Acts Japanese forces capture Singapore, Hong Kong, Bataan, Manila German forces capture Tobruk U.S. fleet defeats the Japanese in the Coral Sea, captures Guadalcanal Battle of El Alamein Allied forces land in French North Africa Atom first split at University of Chicago William Beveridge’s Social Insurance and Allied Services Albert Camus’s L’Étranger Joyce Cary’s To Be a Pilgrim Edith Sitwell’s Street Songs Waugh’s Put Out More Flags Douglas Dunn born German forces surrender at Stalingrad German and Italian forces surrender in North Africa Italy surrenders to Allies and declares war on Germany Cairo conference between Roosevelt, Churchill, Chiang Kaishek Teheran conference between Roosevelt, Churchill, Stalin Eliot’s Four Quartets Henry Moore’s Madonna and Child Sartre’s Les Mouches Vaughan Williams’ Fifth Symphony

1944

1945

xlii

Allied forces land in Normandy and southern France Allied forces enter Rome Attempted assassination of Hitler fails Liberation of Paris U.S. forces land in Philippines German offensive in the Ardennes halted Roosevelt reelected president of the United States for fourth term Education Act passed in Britain Pay-as-You-Earn income tax introduced Beveridge’s Full Employment in a Free Society Cary’s The Horse’s Mouth Huxley’s Time Must Have a Stop Maugham’s The Razor’s Edge Sartre’s Huis Clos Edith Sitwell’s Green Song and Other Poems Graham Sutherland’s Christ on the Cross Trevelyan’s English Social History W. G. Sebald born British and Indian forces open offensive in Burma Yalta conference between Roosevelt, Churchill, Stalin Mussolini executed by Italian partisans Roosevelt dies; Harry S. Truman becomes president Hitler commits suicide; German forces surrender The Potsdam Peace Conference The United Nations Charter ratified in San Francisco The Labour Party wins British General Election Atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki Surrender of Japanese forces ends World War II Trial of Nazi war criminals opens at Nuremberg All-India Congress demands British withdrawal from India De Gaulle elected president of French Provisional Government; resigns the next year

CHRONOLOGY

1946

1947



1948

1949

1950

xliii



CHRONOLOGY

1951

1952–

R. H. S. Crossman’s The God That Failed T. S. Eliot’s The Cocktail Party Fry’s Venus Observed Doris Lessing’s The Grass Is Singing C. S. Lewis’ The Chronicles of Narnia (1950–1956) Wyndham Lewis’ Rude Assignment George Orwell’s Shooting an Elephant Carol Reed’s The Third Man Dylan Thomas’ Twenty-six Poems A. N. Wilson born Guy Burgess and Donald Maclean defect from Britain to the Soviet Union The Conservative party under Winston Churchill wins British general election The Festival of Britain celebrates both the centenary of the Crystal Palace Exhibition and British postwar recovery Electric power is produced by atomic energy at Arcon, Idaho W. H. Auden’s Nones Samuel Beckett’s Molloy and Malone Dies Benjamin Britten’s Billy Budd Greene’s The End of the Affair Akira Kurosawa’s Rashomon Wyndham Lewis’ Rotting Hill Anthony Powell’s A Question of Upbringing (first volume of A Dance to the Music of Time, 1951– 1975) J. D. Salinger’s The Catcher in the Rye C. P. Snow’s The Masters Igor Stravinsky’s The Rake’s Progress Reign of Elizabeth II At Eniwetok Atoll the United States detonates the first hydrogen bomb The European Coal and Steel Community comes into being Radiocarbon dating introduced to archaeology Michael Ventris deciphers Linear B script

1953

1954

xliv

Dwight D. Eisenhower elected president of the United States Beckett’s Waiting for Godot Charles Chaplin’s Limelight Ernest Hemingway’s The Old Man and the Sea Arthur Koestler’s Arrow in the Blue F. R. Leavis’ The Common Pursuit Lessing’s Martha Quest (first volume of The Children of Violence, 1952–1965) C. S. Lewis’ Mere Christianity Thomas’ Collected Poems Evelyn Waugh’s Men at Arms (first volume of Sword of Honour, 1952– 1961) Angus Wilson’s Hemlock and After Births of Rohinton Mistry and Vikram Seth Constitution for a European political community drafted Julius and Ethel Rosenberg executed for passing U.S. secrets to the Soviet Union Cease-fire declared in Korea Edmund Hillary and his Sherpa guide, Tenzing Norkay, scale Mt. Everest Nobel Prize for literature awarded to Winston Churchill General Mohammed Naguib proclaims Egypt a republic Beckett’s Watt Joyce Cary’s Except the Lord Robert Graves’s Poems 1953 Death of Norman Cameron First atomic submarine, Nautilus, is launched by the United States Dien Bien Phu captured by the Vietminh Geneva Conference ends French dominion over Indochina U.S. Supreme Court declares racial segregation in schools unconstitutional Nasser becomes president of Egypt Nobel Prize for literature awarded to Ernest Hemingway Kingsley Amis’ Lucky Jim John Betjeman’s A Few Late Chrysanthemums William Golding’s Lord of the Flies

CHRONOLOGY

1955

1956

1957

Christopher Isherwood’s The World in the Evening Koestler’s The Invisible Writing Iris Murdoch’s Under the Net C. P. Snow’s The New Men Thomas’ Under Milk Wood published posthumously Births of Romesh Gunesekera and Alan Hollinghurst Warsaw Pact signed West Germany enters NATO as Allied occupation ends The Conservative party under Anthony Eden wins British general election Cary’s Not Honour More Greene’s The Quiet American Philip Larkin’s The Less Deceived F. R. Leavis’ D. H. Lawrence, Novelist Vladimir Nabokov’s Lolita Patrick White’s The Tree of Man Patrick McCabe born Nasser’s nationalization of the Suez Canal leads to Israeli, British, and French armed intervention Uprising in Hungary suppressed by Soviet troops Khrushchev denounces Stalin at Twentieth Communist Party Congress Eisenhower reelected president of the United States Anthony Burgess’ Time for a Tiger Golding’s Pincher Martin Murdoch’s Flight from the Enchanter John Osborne’s Look Back in Anger Snow’s Homecomings Edmund Wilson’s Anglo-Saxon Attitudes The Soviet Union launches the first artificial earth satellite, Sputnik I Eden succeeded by Harold Macmillan Suez Canal reopened Eisenhower Doctrine formulated Parliament receives the Wolfenden Report on Homosexuality and Prostitution Nobel Prize for literature awarded to Albert Camus

1958

1959

xlv

Beckett’s Endgame and All That Fall Lawrence Durrell’s Justine (first volume of The Alexandria Quartet, 1957–1960) Ted Hughes’s The Hawk in the Rain Murdoch’s The Sandcastle V. S. Naipaul’s The Mystic Masseur Eugene O’Neill’s Long Day’s Journey into Night Osborne’s The Entertainer Muriel Spark’s The Comforters White’s Voss European Economic Community established Khrushchev succeeds Bulganin as Soviet premier Charles de Gaulle becomes head of France’s newly constituted Fifth Republic The United Arab Republic formed by Egypt and Syria The United States sends troops into Lebanon First U.S. satellite, Explorer 1, launched Nobel Prize for literature awarded to Boris Pasternak Beckett’s Krapp’s Last Tape John Kenneth Galbraith’s The Affluent Society Greene’s Our Man in Havana Murdoch’s The Bell Pasternak’s Dr. Zhivago Snow’s The Conscience of the Rich Fidel Castro assumes power in Cuba St. Lawrence Seaway opens The European Free Trade Association founded Alaska and Hawaii become the forty-ninth and fiftieth states The Conservative party under Harold Macmillan wins British general election Brendan Behan’s The Hostage Golding’s Free Fall Graves’s Collected Poems Koestler’s The Sleepwalkers Harold Pinter’s The Birthday Party Snow’s The Two Cultures and the Scientific Revolution

CHRONOLOGY 1960

1961

1962

Spark’s Memento Mori South Africa bans the African National Congress and Pan-African Congress The Congo achieves independence John F. Kennedy elected president of the United States The U.S. bathyscaphe Trieste descends to 35,800 feet Publication of the unexpurgated Lady Chatterley’s Lover permitted by court Auden’s Hommage to Clio Betjeman’s Summoned by Bells Pinter’s The Caretaker Snow’s The Affair David Storey’s This Sporting Life Ian Rankin born South Africa leaves the British Commonwealth Sierra Leone and Tanganyika achieve independence The Berlin Wall erected The New English Bible published Beckett’s How It Is Greene’s A Burnt-Out Case Koestler’s The Lotus and the Robot Murdoch’s A Severed Head Naipaul’s A House for Mr Biswas Osborne’s Luther Spark’s The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie White’s Riders in the Chariot John Glenn becomes first U.S. astronaut to orbit earth The United States launches the spacecraft Mariner to explore Venus Algeria achieves independence Cuban missile crisis ends in withdrawal of Soviet missiles from Cuba Adolf Eichmann executed in Israel for Nazi war crimes Second Vatican Council convened by Pope John XXIII Nobel Prize for literature awarded to John Steinbeck Edward Albee’s Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf? Beckett’s Happy Days Anthony Burgess’ A Clockwork Orange and The Wanting Seed

1963

1964

xlvi

Aldous Huxley’s Island Isherwood’s Down There on a Visit Lessing’s The Golden Notebook Nabokov’s Pale Fire Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn’s One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich Britain, the United States, and the Soviet Union sign a test-ban treaty Birth of Simon Armitage Britain refused entry to the European Economic Community The Soviet Union puts into orbit the first woman astronaut, Valentina Tereshkova Paul VI becomes pope President Kennedy assassinated; Lyndon B. Johnson assumes office Nobel Prize for literature awarded to George Seferis Britten’s War Requiem John Fowles’s The Collector Murdoch’s The Unicorn Spark’s The Girls of Slender Means Storey’s Radcliffe John Updike’s The Centaur Tonkin Gulf incident leads to retaliatory strikes by U.S. aircraft against North Vietnam Greece and Turkey contend for control of Cyprus Britain grants licenses to drill for oil in the North Sea The Shakespeare Quatercentenary celebrated Lyndon Johnson elected president of the United States The Labour party under Harold Wilson wins British general election Nobel Prize for literature awarded to Jean-Paul Sartre Saul Bellow’s Herzog Burgess’ Nothing Like the Sun Golding’s The Spire Isherwood’s A Single Man Stanley Kubrick’s Dr. Strangelove Larkin’s The Whitsun Weddings Naipaul’s An Area of Darkness Peter Shaffer’s The Royal Hunt of the Sun Snow’s Corridors of Power

CHRONOLOGY 1965

1966

1967

The first U.S. combat forces land in Vietnam The U.S. spacecraft Mariner transmits photographs of Mars British Petroleum Company finds oil in the North Sea War breaks out between India and Pakistan Rhodesia declares its independence Ontario power failure blacks out the Canadian and U.S. east coasts Nobel Prize for literature awarded to Mikhail Sholokhov Robert Lowell’s For the Union Dead Norman Mailer’s An American Dream Osborne’s Inadmissible Evidence Pinter’s The Homecoming Spark’s The Mandelbaum Gate The Labour party under Harold Wilson wins British general election The Archbishop of Canterbury visits Pope Paul VI Florence, Italy, severely damaged by floods Paris exhibition celebrates Picasso’s eighty-fifth birthday Fowles’s The Magus Greene’s The Comedians Osborne’s A Patriot for Me Paul Scott’s The Jewel in the Crown (first volume of The Raj Quartet, 1966–1975) White’s The Solid Mandala Thurgood Marshall becomes first black U.S. Supreme Court justice Six-Day War pits Israel against Egypt and Syria Biafra’s secession from Nigeria leads to civil war Francis Chichester completes solo circumnavigation of the globe Dr. Christiaan Barnard performs first heart transplant operation, in South Africa China explodes its first hydrogen bomb Golding’s The Pyramid Hughes’s Wodwo Isherwood’s A Meeting by the River

1968

1969

1970

xlvii

Naipaul’s The Mimic Men Tom Stoppard’s Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead Orson Welles’s Chimes at Midnight Angus Wilson’s No Laughing Matter Violent student protests erupt in France and West Germany Warsaw Pact troops occupy Czechoslovakia Violence in Northern Ireland causes Britain to send in troops Tet offensive by Communist forces launched against South Vietnam’s cities Theater censorship ended in Britain Robert Kennedy and Martin Luther King Jr. assassinated Richard M. Nixon elected president of the United States Booker Prize for fiction established Durrell’s Tunc Graves’s Poems 1965–1968 Osborne’s The Hotel in Amsterdam Snow’s The Sleep of Reason Solzhenitsyn’s The First Circle and Cancer Ward Spark’s The Public Image Humans set foot on the moon for the first time when astronauts descend to its surface in a landing vehicle from the U.S. spacecraft Apollo 11 The Soviet unmanned spacecraft Venus V lands on Venus Capital punishment abolished in Britain Colonel Muammar Qaddafi seizes power in Libya Solzhenitsyn expelled from the Soviet Union Nobel Prize for literature awarded to Samuel Beckett Carter’s The Magic Toyshop Fowles’s The French Lieutenant’s Woman Storey’s The Contractor Civil war in Nigeria ends with Biafra’s surrender U.S. planes bomb Cambodia

CHRONOLOGY

1971

1972

1973

The Conservative party under Edward Heath wins British general election Nobel Prize for literature awarded to Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn Durrell’s Nunquam Hughes’s Crow F. R. Leavis and Q. D. Leavis’ Dickens the Novelist Snow’s Last Things Spark’s The Driver’s Seat Death of Vera Brittain Communist China given Nationalist China’s UN seat Decimal currency introduced to Britain Indira Gandhi becomes India’s prime minister Nobel Prize for literature awarded to Heinrich Böll Bond’s The Pope’s Wedding Naipaul’s In a Free State Pinter’s Old Times Spark’s Not to Disturb Birth of Sarah Kane The civil strife of “Bloody Sunday” causes Northern Ireland to come under the direct rule of Westminster Nixon becomes the first U.S. president to visit Moscow and Beijing The Watergate break-in precipitates scandal in the United States Eleven Israeli athletes killed by terrorists at Munich Olympics Nixon reelected president of the United States Bond’s Lear Snow’s The Malcontents Stoppard’s Jumpers Britain, Ireland, and Denmark enter European Economic Community Egypt and Syria attack Israel in the Yom Kippur War Energy crisis in Britain reduces production to a three-day week Nobel Prize for literature awarded to Patrick White Bond’s The Sea Greene’s The Honorary Consul Lessing’s The Summer Before the Dark

1975

1976

1977

xlviii

Murdoch’s The Black Prince Shaffer’s Equus White’s The Eye of the Storm 1974Miners strike in Britain Greece’s military junta overthrown Emperor Haile Selassie of Ethiopia deposed President Makarios of Cyprus replaced by military coup Nixon resigns as U.S. president and is succeeded by Gerald R. Ford Betjeman’s A Nip in the Air Bond’s Bingo Durrell’s Monsieur (first volume of The Avignon Quintet, 1974–1985) Larkin’s The High Windows Solzhenitsyn’s The Gulag Archipelago Spark’s The Abbess of Crewe Death of Nancy Mitford The U.S. Apollo and Soviet Soyuz spacecrafts rendezvous in space The Helsinki Accords on human rights signed U.S. forces leave Vietnam King Juan Carlos succeeds Franco as Spain’s head of state Nobel Prize for literature awarded to Eugenio Montale New U.S. copyright law goes into effect Israeli commandos free hostages from hijacked plane at Entebbe, Uganda British and French SST Concordes make first regularly scheduled commercial flights The United States celebrates its bicentennial Jimmy Carter elected president of the United States Byron and Shelley manuscripts discovered in Barclay’s Bank, Pall Mall Hughes’s Seasons’ Songs Koestler’s The Thirteenth Tribe Scott’s Staying On Spark’s The Take-over White’s A Fringe of Leaves Silver jubilee of Queen Elizabeth II celebrated

CHRONOLOGY

1978

1979

1980

Egyptian president Anwar el-Sadat visits Israel “Gang of Four” expelled from Chinese Communist party First woman ordained in the U.S. Episcopal church After twenty-nine years in power, Israel’s Labour party is defeated by the Likud party Fowles’s Daniel Martin Hughes’s Gaudete Treaty between Israel and Egypt negotiated at Camp David Pope John Paul I dies a month after his coronation and is succeeded by Karol Cardinal Wojtyla, who takes the name John Paul II Former Italian premier Aldo Moro murdered by left-wing terrorists Nobel Prize for literature awarded to Isaac Bashevis Singer Greene’s The Human Factor Hughes’s Cave Birds Murdoch’s The Sea, The Sea The United States and China establish diplomatic relations Ayatollah Khomeini takes power in Iran and his supporters hold U.S. embassy staff hostage in Teheran Rhodesia becomes Zimbabwe Earl Mountbatten assassinated The Soviet Union invades Afghanistan The Conservative party under Margaret Thatcher wins British general election Nobel Prize for literature awarded to Odysseus Elytis Golding’s Darkness Visible Hughes’s Moortown Lessing’s Shikasta (first volume of Canopus in Argos, Archives) Naipaul’s A Bend in the River Spark’s Territorial Rights White’s The Twyborn Affair Iran-Iraq war begins Strikes in Gdansk give rise to the Solidarity movement Mt. St. Helen’s erupts in Washington State British steelworkers strike for the first time since 1926

1981

1982

1983

xlix

More than fifty nations boycott Moscow Olympics Ronald Reagan elected president of the United States Burgess’s Earthly Powers Golding’s Rites of Passage Shaffer’s Amadeus Storey’s A Prodigal Child Angus Wilson’s Setting the World on Fire Greece admitted to the European Economic Community Iran hostage crisis ends with release of U.S. embassy staff Twelve Labour MPs and nine peers found British Social Democratic party Socialist party under François Mitterand wins French general election Rupert Murdoch buys The Times of London Turkish gunman wounds Pope John Paul II in assassination attempt U.S. gunman wounds President Reagan in assassination attempt President Sadat of Egypt assassinated Nobel Prize for literature awarded to Elias Canetti Spark’s Loitering with Intent Britain drives Argentina’s invasion force out of the Falkland Islands U.S. space shuttle makes first successful trip Yuri Andropov becomes general secretary of the Central Committee of the Soviet Communist party Israel invades Lebanon First artificial heart implanted at Salt Lake City hospital Bellow’s The Dean’s December Greene’s Monsignor Quixote South Korean airliner with 269 aboard shot down after straying into Soviet airspace U.S. forces invade Grenada following left-wing coup Widespread protests erupt over placement of nuclear missiles in Europe The £1 coin comes into circulation in Britain

CHRONOLOGY

1984

1985

1986

Australia wins the America’s Cup Nobel Prize for literature awarded to William Golding Hughes’s River Murdoch’s The Philosopher’s Pupil Konstantin Chernenko becomes general secretary of the Central Committee of the Soviet Communist party Prime Minister Indira Gandhi of India assassinated by Sikh bodyguards Reagan reelected president of the United States Toxic gas leak at Bhopal, India, plant kills 2,000 British miners go on strike Irish Republican Army attempts to kill Prime Minister Thatcher with bomb detonated at a Brighton hotel World Court holds against U.S. mining of Nicaraguan harbors Golding’s The Paper Men Lessing’s The Diary of Jane Somers Spark’s The Only Problem United States deploys cruise missiles in Europe Mikhail Gorbachev becomes general secretary of the Soviet Communist party following death of Konstantin Chernenko Riots break out in Handsworth district (Birmingham) and Brixton Republic of Ireland gains consultative role in Northern Ireland State of emergency is declared in South Africa Nobel Prize for literature awarded to Claude Simon A. N. Wilson’s Gentlemen in England Lessing’s The Good Terrorist Murdoch’s The Good Apprentice Fowles’s A Maggot U.S. space shuttle Challenger explodes United States attacks Libya Atomic power plant at Chernobyl destroyed in accident Corazon Aquino becomes president of the Philippines

1987

1988

1989

l

Giotto spacecraft encounters Comet Halley Nobel Prize for literature awarded to Wole Soyinka Final volume of Oxford English Dictionary supplement published Amis’s The Old Devils Ishiguro’s An Artist of the Floating World A. N. Wilson’s Love Unknown Powell’s The Fisher King Gorbachev begins reform of Communist party of the Soviet Union Stock market collapses Iran-contra affair reveals that Reagan administration used money from arms sales to Iran to fund Nicaraguan rebels Palestinian uprising begins in Israeli-occupied territories Nobel Prize for literature awarded to Joseph Brodsky Golding’s Close Quarters Burgess’s Little Wilson and Big God Drabble’s The Radiant Way Soviet Union begins withdrawing troops from Afghanistan Iranian airliner shot down by U.S. Navy over Persian Gulf War between Iran and Iraq ends George Bush elected president of the United States Pan American flight 103 destroyed over Lockerbie, Scotland Nobel Prize for literature awarded to Naguib Mafouz Greene’s The Captain and the Enemy Amis’s Diffıculties with Girls Rushdie’s Satanic Verses Ayatollah Khomeini pronounces death sentence on Salman Rushdie; Great Britain and Iran sever diplomatic relations F. W. de Klerk becomes president of South Africa Chinese government crushes student demonstration in Tiananmen Square

CHRONOLOGY

1990

1992

1993

Communist regimes are weakened or abolished in Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, East Germany, and Romania Lithuania nullifies its inclusion in Soviet Union Nobel Prize for literature awarded to José Cela Second edition of Oxford English Dictionary published Drabble’s A Natural Curiosity Murdoch’s The Message to the Planet Amis’s London Fields Ishiguro’s The Remains of the Day Death of Bruce Chatwin Communist monopoly ends in Bulgaria Riots break out against community charge in England First women ordained priests in Church of England Civil war breaks out in Yugoslavia; Croatia and Slovenia declare independence Bush and Gorbachev sign START agreement to reduce nuclearweapons arsenals President Jean-Baptiste Aristide overthrown by military in Haiti Boris Yeltsin elected president of Russia Dissolution of the Soviet Union Nobel Prize for literature awarded to Nadine Gordimer U.N. Conference on Environment and Development (the “Earth Summit”) meets in Rio de Janeiro Prince and Princess of Wales separate War in Bosnia-Herzegovina intensifies Bill Clinton elected president of the United States in three-way race with Bush and independent candidate H. Ross Perot Nobel Prize for literature awarded to Derek Walcott Czechoslovakia divides into the Czech Republic and Slovakia; playwright Vaclav Havel elected president of the Czech Republic

1994

1995

1996

li

Britain ratifies Treaty on European Union (the “Maastricht Treaty”) U.S.

CHRONOLOGY

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

Nobel Prize for literature awarded to Wislawa Szymborska Death of Caroline Blackwood British government destroys around 100,000 cows suspected of infection with Creutzfeldt-Jakob, or “mad cow” disease Diana, Princess of Wales, dies in an automobile accident Unveiling of first fully-cloned adult animal, a sheep named Dolly Booker McConnell Prize for fiction awarded to Arundhati Roy United States renews bombing of Bagdad, Iraq Independent legislature and Parliaments return to Scotland and Wales Booker McConnell Prize for fiction awarded to Ian McEwan Nobel Prize for literature awarded to Jose Saramago King Hussein of Jordan dies United Nations responds militarily to Serbian President Slobodan Milosevic’s escalation of crisis in Kosovo Booker McConnell Prize for fiction awarded to J. M. Coetzee Nobel Prize for literature awarded to Günter Grass Deaths of Ted Hughes, Brian Moore, and Iain Chrichton Smith Penelope Fitzgerald dies J. K. Rowling’s Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire sells more than 300,000 copies in its first day Oil blockades by fuel haulers protesting high oil taxes bring much of Britain to a standstill Slobodan Milosevic loses Serbian general election to Vojislav Kostunica Death of Scotland’s First Minister, Donald Dewar Nobel Prize for literature awarded to Gao Xingjian Booker McConnell Prize for fiction awarded to Margaret Atwood

2001

2002

lii

George W. Bush, son of former president George Bush, becomes president of the United States after Supreme Court halts recount of closest election in history Death of former Canadian Prime Minister Pierre Elliot Trudeau Human Genome Project researchers announce that they have a complete map of the genetic code of a human chromosome Vladimir Putin succeeds Boris Yeltsin as president of Russia British Prime Minister Tony Blair’s son Leo is born, making him the first child born to a sitting prime minister in 152 years Death of Keith Roberts In Britain, the House of Lords passes legislation that legalizes the creation of cloned human embryos British Prime Minister Tony Blair wins second term Margaret Atwood’s The Blind Assassin wins Booker McConnell Prize for fiction Kazuo Ishiguro’s When We Were Orphans Trezza Azzopardi’s The Hiding Place Terrorists attack World Trade Center and Pentagon with hijacked airplanes, resulting in the collapse of the World Trade Center towers and the deaths of thousands. Passengers of a third hijacked plane thwart hijackers, resulting in a crash landing in Pennsylvania. The attacks are thought to be organized by Osama bin Laden, the leader of an international terrorist network known as al Qaeda Ian McEwan’s An Atonement Salman Rushdie’s Fury Peter Carey’s True History of the Kelly Gang Deaths of Eudora Welty and W. G. Sebald Former U.S. President Jimmy Carter awarded the Nobel Peace Prize Europe experiences its worst floods

CHRONOLOGY

2003

week general strike calling for his resignation ends U.S. presents to the United Nations its Iraq war rationale, citing its Weapons of Mass Destruction as imminent threat to world security U.S. and Britain launch war against Iraq Baghdad falls to U.S. troops Official end to combat operations in Iraq is declared by the U.S. Aung San Suu Kyi, Burmese opposition leader, placed under house arrest by military regime NATO assumes control of peacekeeping force in Afghanistan American troops capture Saddam Hussein J.K. Rowling’s Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix, the sixth installment in the wildly popular series, hit the shelves and rocketed up the best-seller lists Nobel Prize for literature awarded to J. M. Coetzee

in 100 years as floodwaters force thousands of people out of their homes Wall Street Journal reporter Daniel Pearl kidnapped and killed in Karachi, Pakistan while researching a story about Pakistani militants and suspected shoe bomber Richard Reid. British-born Islamic militant Ahmad Omar Saeed Sheikh sentenced to death for the crime. Three accomplices receive life sentences. Slobodan Milosevic goes on trial at the U.N. war crimes tribunal in The Hague on charges of masterminding ethnic cleansing in the former Yugoslavia. Yann Martel’s Life of Pi wins Booker McConnell Prize for fiction Nobel Prize for literature awarded to Imre Kertész Ariel Sharon elected as Israeli prime minister Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez forced to leave office after a nine

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List of Contributors

FRED BILSON. Writer. Holds a bachelors in English and a masters in science. He has lectured in English, linguistics, and computer systems and works as a support tutor to university students with dyslexia. Dennis Potter, Keith Roberts

Cambridge was the 1997–1999 Brownsbank Writing Fellow, based at Hugh MacDiarmid’s former home, Brownsbank Cottage, near Biggar in Scotland. Douglas Dunn CLARE CONNORS. Lecturer in English language and literature at The Queen’s College and Merton College, Oxford, where she teaches literature from 1740 to the present day. She has published widely on various aspects of literary theory and criticism, including an essay on the early Freud in Whitehead and Rossington, eds., Between the Psyche and the Polis: Refiguring History (Ashgate, 2000). She has lectured in both the United States and Japan. Alan Hollinghurst

DAN BRAYTON. Professor of literature at Middlebury College in Vermont. Brayton received his doctorate in English from Cornell in 2001, having specialized in Renaissance drama, utopian literature, and literary and cultural theory. He is currently working on a book about Shakespeare and early modern geographical discourse. Richard Brome CORNELIUS BROWNE. Cornelius Browne has written about literature and the environment. He is currently teaching at Oregon State University. Isabella Bird

PATRICK FLANERY. Patrick Flanery is a postgraduate student at St. Cross College, Oxford University. He has a special interest in British writers of the mid-twentieth century. Nancy Mitford

SUSAN BUTTERWORTH. Adjunct professor of composition at Salem State College; freelance writer of journalism and creative nonfiction; contributor to Oxford Encyclopedia of America Literature, Cyclopedia of Literary Places, and other reference works and journals; producer of community workshops, lectures, and readings. Vera Brittain

MICHELE GEMELOS. Michele Gemelos received her Bachelor of Arts degree from Skidmore College. She has an M.Phil. in English (1880 to the present day) from the University of Oxford, where she is currently completing her doctoral work on New York City in literature. She has contributed articles to the Encyclopedia of British–American Relations (2004) and International Ford Madox Ford Studies (2004). Her research and teaching interests include regional and ethnic American fiction and transatlantic literary relations. Jan Morris

SANDIE BYRNE. Fellow in English at Balliol College, Oxford. Her publications include works on eighteenth–and nineteenth–century fiction and twentieth–century poetry. Jon Stallworthy GERRY CAMBRIDGE. Poet and Editor. Edits the Scottish–American poetry magazine, The Dark Horse (www.star.ac.uk/darkhorse.html). His own books of verse include The Shell House (Scottish Cultural Press, 1995), Nothing but Heather!: Scottish Nature in Poems, Photographs and Prose (Luath Press, 1999), illustrated with his own natural history photographs, and Madame Fi Fi’s Farewell and Other Poems (Luath Press, 2003).

GAUTAM KUNDU. Gautam Kundu is a professor of English at Georgia Southern University who has specialized in post–colonial literature, with a special interest in writers from India. Romesh Gunesekera JOHN LENNARD. John Lennard teaches at Cambridge University in England and written a

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CONTRIBUTORS number of books and articles about modern literature. He has also published a well–known introduction to poetry. Ian Rankin

tural Critique, and Victorian Literature and Culture. At Middlebury College, she has taught courses on postcolonial literature, South Asian literature and culture, and literary theory. Rohinton Mistry

ANTONIA LOSANO. Professor of English at Middlebury College in Vermont. Losano teaches 19th century literature and women’s studies. Her recent publications include an essay on women’s exercise videos and an article on the Victorian travel writer Marianne North. She is currently at work on a book project on the intersections of women’s writing and women’s painting in the 19th century. Margaret Oliphant

ROBERT SULLIVAN. Writer. Sullivan has taught at Brown University, the University of Illinois, and was a Fulbright Professor at the University of Zagreb from 1997-2000. He is the author of A Matter of Faith, Christopher Caudwell, and numerous articles on modern and contemporary literature. Currently, he is engaged on various research projects, including participation in the Modernist Journalist Project. Ayi Kwei Armah

HELENA NELSON. Writer and Lecturer. Born in Cheshire, England in 1953, Nelson holds a B.A. from the University of York and an M.A. in Eighteenth–Century literature from the University of Manchester. She has written romantic fiction and is a full–time lecturer in English and Communication Studies at Glenrothes College in Scotland. Nelson is the main writer and editor of the further education resource Core.com 2002. Her poetry collections include: Mr and Mrs Philpott on Holiday at Auchterawe, Kettillonia 2001 and Starlight on Water, Rialto Press, 2003. Robert Nye

LES WILKINSON. Les Wilkinson is senior master at Nottingham High School, England, where he has taught English for twenty–five years and where he has directed a number of major dramatic productions. His interest in Scottish literature was awakened at St. Andrews University, where he studied in the early 1970s. He writes occasionally and continues to perform traditional and modern folk music and song. James Hogg THOMAS WRIGHT. Writer. Editor of Table Talk, the first English language anthology of Oscar Wilde’s spoken stories. He has published articles in numerous English periodicals and newspapers, including the Daily Telegraph, the Independent on Sunday, and the Times Literary Supplement. Wright has written articles on Peter Ackroyd for British Writers Supplement VI, Bruce Chatwin for British Writers Supplement IX, and Oscar Wilde for British Writers Retrospective Supplement II. Vikram Seth

YUMNA SIDDIQI. Yumna Siddiqi is an Assistant Professor of English at Middlebury College, where she specializes in postcolonial studies. She is completing a book entitled Anxieties of Empire and the Fiction of Intrigue, in which she investigates nineteenth– and twentieth–century British and South Asian fiction of intrigue, stories of detection, policing, and espionage. She has published articles in Renaissance Drama, Cul-

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AYI KWEI ARMAH (1939– )

Robert Sullivan various African languages, including Egyptian hieroglyphics. Armah’s anticolonial and antineocolonial stance has been nothing if not consistent: during a book tour of the United States in 2001, a publicity blurb stated that Armah would sign only the editions of his books published by Per Ankh, inferring that those published earlier in the African Writers series by Heinemann would be proscribed. Armah’s hardened stance on colonialism’s (and neocolonialism’s) destruction of African culture and history becomes a major theme in his later fiction, and it has led some critics to accuse him of his own brand of “racial essentialism.” His allegorization of how the black and white races (Africans and Europeans, and by extension Americans) are irreducibly historical, cultural, and ideological opposites, and how the white race can only be Africa’s destroyer, begins in Why Are We So Blest? (1972) and gathers momentum in Two Thousand Seasons (1973) and The Healers (1978). The Beautyful Ones and Fragments (1970), the first two novels set in Armah’s native Ghana, are concerned more with colonialism’s immediate legacy and critique severely postindependent corruption and malaise, against which his central characters struggle to keep their integrity and sanity. During the 1980s Armah published, in the journal West Africa, a series of polemical essays and a piece entitled “One Writer’s Education” (1985), an essay that has helped commentators construct an account of his biography. He was born in 1939 in Sekondi-Takoradi, twin port cities west of Accra, in what was then the British colony of the Gold Coast. Armah was fortunate to get his secondary education (1953–1958) at the prestigious Achimota School just outside Accra, an elite institution set up by the colonists to train, predominantly, the indigenous middle class.

We’re damned souls, aborted creatures suffering in hells created by white people to sustain their crass heaven. The central fact of our lives, the central statement in all of Fanon’s work is simply this: we’re slaves. —Armah

AYI KWEI ARMAH is one of the most versatile and controversial West African writers of the past three decades. Although his output has not been vast—six novels and a few short stories in roughly twenty-eight years—the range and polemical nature of his work has drawn a considerable amount of criticism. The latter includes several book-length studies and a prodigious number of scholarly articles, some account of which is given in the “Critical Response” section toward the end of this essay. An extremely private person, Armah has given only one interview and has commented very little on his life or his work. However, his fiction traces in revealing ways Armah’s own psychobiography and geographical wanderings, from the jaundiced depiction of postindependent Ghana under Kwame Nkrumah in The Beautyful Ones Are Not Yet Born (1968) to Osiris Rising (1995), published in Senegal, where Armah now resides. Osiris Rising is published by Per Ankh (ancient Egyptian for “The House of Life”), a press that Armah helped found and which is “committed to the emergence of a quality African book industry” (jacket blurb). This enterprise is further evidence of Armah’s progressive cultural nationalism and his commitment to a pan-African vision, one that seeks to understand African culture as a totality rather than through the fragmented entities created by colonialism. Such a vision informs his later fiction and is underscored by his decision to reside in various African countries—Algeria, Tanzania, Lesotho, Senegal, and his native Ghana—and his study of

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AYI KWEI ARMAH Earth and other works, he theorized how the colonized, always treated as inferior by their masters, retained this inferiority complex even after independence. This form of psychic dependency could perpetuate a slave mentality that would cripple any real freedom unless the oppressed could destroy their oppressors, who in many significant ways they had helped to create. Moreover, Fanon theorized the phenomenon of how national independence did not necessarily bring true economic and self-determining freedom; rather, he stressed how independence should be treated as the beginning of authentic social revolution and not its end. He showed how national independence led in most cases only to the perpetuation of the status quo under a new, elitist, African bourgeois class, and how this could lead to sterility and a concomitant endemic corruption. This is indeed exactly the state of affairs portrayed in Armah’s first two novels. The third novel, Why Are We So Blest?, while still concerned with this theme of postindependence stagnation, introduces the now burgeoning theme of how multiple strategies on the part of the white race keep the African enslaved, a theme that rises to prominence in Two Thousand Seasons and The Healers. Osiris Rising, while advancing the theme of African enslavement, introduces complex contemporary issues and deserves separate treatment. During his short stay in Algeria, Armah became ill, as does the main narrator, Solo, in Why Are We So Blest? Broken in spirit and body, Armah was hospitalized first in Algiers and then back in Boston, where he had come from. He returned to Ghana in 1964, and as he relates in the same autobiographical essay, he decided to “revert to writing.” He worked for a time as a scriptwriter for Ghana Television, as does his character Baako in Fragments, but after the coup d’état that ousted the Nkrumah regime in 1966, Armah left Accra to teach in a secondary school at Navrongo in the remote north of Ghana. It is most likely that it was during this period of remoteness from the capital and the frustrations that he encountered there (his hero Baako is driven to distraction by ineptitude and corruption) that Armah began work on his first two novels, The Beautyful Ones

Such educational institutions, which could only help perpetuate a neocolonial presence, were to come in for criticism in Armah’s third novel, Why Are We So Blest? Like the novel’s hero, Modin Dofu, Armah won a scholarship enabling him to go to the United States, and in 1959, just two years after Ghana’s independence, he went to the Groton School in Massachusetts and later to Harvard University, where he read sociology. In Why Are We So Blest? Modin abandons his studies at Harvard because of what he sees as various white strategies for maintaining a “slave mentality” among blacks, as well as his desire to leave the academic world in order to take up a more revolutionary posture. After he left Harvard, Armah went to Algeria by way of Mexico (he had considered Cuba) and worked for a time as a translator for Révolution africaine. His experience in Algeria (he arrived in 1963, just a year after independence) must have been a great disappointment if his fictional account in Why Are We So Blest? is any guide. The novel in part recounts how the impetus of revolutionary movements can be arrested when they are hijacked by self-seeking bureaucrats and a new bourgeois elite. Such a state of affairs is fictionalized with more particular relevance to Ghana in the previous two novels, The Beautyful Ones and Fragments. Whether he was motivated to go to Algeria because of his reading of Frantz Fanon, the great theorist of colonialism and neocolonialism who lived and worked in Algeria, or whether Armah studied Fanon’s writings during his sojourn in Algeria, there is no doubt about Fanon’s influence on his writing. Indeed, Armah acknowledges a debt to Fanon in his essay “African Socialism: Utopian or Scientific?,” published in Présence africaine (1967), and in another essay, “Fanon the Awakener,” published in Negro Digest (1969). However, even without the knowledge of these essays, it would be evident how Fanon’s theories of revolution and postcolonial dependencies are dramatized in Armah’s early work. Fanon, a psychiatrist by training, was as much interested in the incarceration of the colonized mind as he was in the chains that at times bound the colonized body. In texts such as The Wretched of the

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AYI KWEI ARMAH bus on his way to work, and although he does not see it, the reader is witness to the first act of ever-increasing corruption and its association with putrescence. As the bus conductor, unaware of the sleeping man, counts the money he has been able to swindle from his passengers, we read how he smells his ill-gotten gains: that the money is “so very rotten that the stench itself of it came with a curious, satisfying pleasure” (p. 3; Heinemann edition, 1988). This trope of contaminated, tainted money is part of a more complex figural plane in the novel that links postcolonial corruption with excrement. Seen here in its first miniscule appearance, this metaphoric representation of the decay and putrescence of a political and social system as human waste, this “excremental vision,” gathers momentum throughout the text until it reaches its nauseating conclusion. So persuasive is this rank and squalid view of postcolonial Ghanaian society that even what could be termed “incidental” similes find their register in this vein, as when—to give one of many examples—a native Ghanaian attempting to speak like a colonist is described as being like “a constipated man, straining in his first minute on top of the lavatory seat” (p. 125). The man, caught in the filthy mire of this corruption (his wife compares him to the chichidodo bird, which “hates excrement with all its soul” but must feed on the maggots that breed best in that environment), struggles daily to maintain a clean bill of mental and moral health (p. 45). Like Baako in Fragments, the man himself at times sees his behavior as perverse, as running against the living stream of “normal” life: “The foolish ones are those who cannot live life the way it is lived by all around them, those who will stand by the flowing river and disapprove of the current” (p. 108). This is certainly his wife’s point of view, and it is at the conjunction of the personal and the social that we find the man’s most intense feeling of alienation, what he terms the “hurt” or “reproach” of “the loved ones.” In a very moving passage, we read that after his day’s work the man feels “no hurry” because “at the other end there was only home, the land of the loved ones.” And he is described most poignantly

Are Not Yet Born and Fragments. Restless as ever, he left Ghana in 1967 and went to Paris, where for a time he worked on the journal Jeune Afrique. Whether to hone his creative writing skills or simply to spend more time in the United States, Armah left France in 1968 and studied for an M.F.A. in creative writing at Columbia University, which he had completed by 1970. He then went back to Africa, this time to teach at the College of National Education at Chamg’omge, Tanzania, where he stayed until 1976. It was during this sojourn that he published Two Thousand Seasons and The Healers under the imprint of the Eastern African Publishing House. Perhaps to widen his knowledge of postcolonial Africa, Armah then went to teach at the National University of Lesotho. For a short period in 1979 he worked as a visiting professor in the African Studies Department at the University of Wisconsin before returning to Africa to live and work in Senegal, where he still resides.

THE BEAUTYFUL ONES ARE NOT YET BORN AND FRAGMENTS

These two novels are set in Armah’s native Ghana and deal with the immediate postcolonial maladies of that country. Both “the man” in The Beautyful Ones and Baako Onipa in Fragments share the same fate of being alienated not only from their society but from their families as well. They also share the paradoxical fate of believing themselves to be acting perversely because the environment they inhabit is so comprehensively corrupt that their integrity begins to seem like an eccentricity. Indeed, “the man”—as if to underscore his anonymity, he carries this appellation throughout the novel—bears an alienation so chronic that for a great deal of the novel he abides in an existential terrain bereft of any social comforts. Baako’s alienation in Fragments leads eventually from exasperation through despair to breakdown, and he ends up in an asylum for the insane. Such are the vicissitudes of living in a Fanon-like postcolonial nightmare and trying to sustain some form of integrity. When we meet “the man” in the first few pages of The Beautyful Ones, he has fallen asleep on a

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AYI KWEI ARMAH been a coup “here in Ghana!” (p. 157). When he arrives home his wife is waiting for him with the news that Koomson, his erstwhile classmate, is hiding in the man’s house in fear of his life now that the military regime has taken power. It is at this point in the novel that we see the central metaphor of an excremental environment reach its sickening crescendo. Koomson, by now soiling himself because of the fear of imminent arrest, must escape from the man’s house (surrounded now by soldiers) through that very same latrine hole that in an earlier visit he had deemed too dirty for his own defecation: “‘Push!,’ the man shouted ѧ then there was a long sound as if he were vomiting down there. But the man pushed some more, and in a moment a rush of foul air coming up told him the Party man’s head was out” (p. 168). It now remains only for the fleeing Koomson to make his escape to the Ivory Coast by bribing his way onto the boat he has helped purchase with his ill-gotten gains. The man goes part of the way with him but eventually swims ashore. As he makes his way home, he comes across a police checkpoint at which a small bus waits its turn to pass. It is at this barrier, representative of the new order, that the man, unseen, witnesses the driver give the police officer a bribe. As the bus continues on its way, the man notices that it bears an emblem (most vehicles in Ghana of this type bear similar signs) that reads “The Beautyful Ones Are Not Yet Born,” and in the same oval containing the inscription is the representation of “a single flower, solitary, unexplainable, and very beautiful.” As he makes his way homeward, he ponders this “sign” and another, of a bird singing “over the school latrine,” but these relatively optimistic tokens seem to be negated by the novel’s ultimate closure, when the man thinks of home and “everything he was going back to” (p. 183). Armah’s second novel, Fragments, is to a large extent a continuation of the themes he had explored in his first. Again we are witness to a central protagonist’s alienation from both family and social environment in a postcolonial Ghana rife with nepotism and political inertia. The novel tells the story (and given what we know of Ar-

as walking “with the slowness of those whose desire has nowhere to go” (p. 35). This remorse is particularly acute when the man and his wife, Oyo, are visiting his old classmate Koomson, now the ultimate “Party man,” who has benefited greatly from his position and whose house is replete with things he has acquired for himself, his wife, and, most importantly for the man, for his children (p. 144). Oyo’s desire to have nice things for her and her children causes friction between husband and wife, especially now seeing as she does the conspicuous affluence surrounding her husband’s one-time fellow student. It is mainly because of these conflictful feelings that the man goes to see his old mentor, “Teacher,” a character who functions as a kind of choric commentator, as does Ocran, Baako Onipa’s mentor in Fragments. Looking for some kind of hope and reassurance, the man finds in his old friend only a cynical despair, a point of view that at times conjectures whether “the rot and the weakness were not after all the eternal curse of Africa itself” (p. 91). The man’s interview with Teacher toward the end of chapter 5 and again at the beginning of chapter 7 is “interrupted” by the man’s reflections as he surveys postwar Ghanaian history and his own childhood during this period, a rumination that makes up the long, discursive chapter 6. In this chapter, the protagonist describes how as a small boy he is witness to the injustices of colonial rule, a time when “there were tales of white men with huge dogs that ate more in single day than a human Gold Coast family got in a month” (pp. 66–67). But at least there was hope then, in the guise of a young new politician, perhaps one of the “beautiful ones” that would help lead the country from what many had come to believe was the “curse of its leaders.” This “new man” (the historical Kwame Nkrumah) came to the people in all his honesty, but such promise did not last, and this new leader too succumbs to all the temptations that attend power. Nkrumah was deposed in 1966, a historical event that was to afford Armah the dramatic closure to his novel. In the thirteenth chapter, the man is at work as usual when one of his junior colleagues arrives with the news that there has

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AYI KWEI ARMAH society and family that celebrated Baako’s going would also, only much more so, mark his return. This tainted ritual foreshadows a more tragic one when, against Baako’s and his grandmother’s wishes, Baako’s mother, Efua, and sister, Araba, connive to have the ceremonial “outdooring” of Araba’s new baby only five days after its birth, instead of waiting through the traditional time period, because this would coincide with a time of the month when guests would have more money to contribute. Left on show in the heat of the day while Araba and Efua elicit subscriptions for the child’s “welfare,” the baby succumbs to the chill produced by a powerful fan blowing over the crib. In the diminuendo-like concluding chapter, Naana prepares for her own death and ponders the events that have recently passed: how their fragmentary nature only serves to accentuate the breakdown (both psychic and social) of traditional African social and familial values; how “things [are] only broken and twisted against themselves.” She is well aware of the psychic consequences of such fragmentation and of how the moral stand she and her grandson have taken (the symmetry of their names accentuating their alliance) has alienated them both from family and contemporary Ghanaian society The psychic fragmentation Baako suffers takes place within the larger framework of a postcolonial Ghana that has lost its sense of identity and, as Fanon had theorized, suffers the kind of trauma associated with the legacy of colonialism. This theme is laid out in the second chapter, entitled “Edin” (all the chapters have titles in the Akan language), which roughly translates as “identity.” It is here that we meet Juana, a psychiatrist who has come to Ghana from her native Puerto Rico with the idealistic purpose of helping in the “struggle.” If in her introductory discourse Naana provides a kind of timeless and ancestral collective African consciousness that sets the stage for Baako’s return, then Juana’s reflections offer a much more densely textured introduction to the vicissitudes of living in contemporary Accra. Depressed by her work at Korle Bu hospital, she is compelled to “leave the whole aborted town ѧ to forget all the reminders of futility” (p. 17) by driving out along the coast and away from the

mah’s biography, it is a semiautobiographical story) of Baako Onipa, a young Ghanaian who has left Achimota School to study in the United States, and when the narrative begins he is returning after a five-year absence. We learn that, like Armah, he has had a mental breakdown while living abroad, brought about in part by insecurities concerning his writing but also because of his fear of “the return” to Ghana. The novel traces the attempts by Onipa (his name translates as “solitary” or “alone,” as of course does “Solo” in Why Are We So Blest?) to contribute something constructive and creative to his society as well as his desire to bridge the gap of estrangement between him and his family. However, his efforts, both creative and familial, meet only with frustration and despair. Although he tries to come to terms with it, his family’s bourgeois acquisitiveness drives him to distraction, and his creative enthusiasm meets only indifference or hostility. What begins in trepidation of “the return” modulates into anger and frustration at a social structure that seems concerned only with perpetuating the culture of its erstwhile white oppressors. This state of “dis-ease” eventually becomes one of acute alienation, bringing on Baako’s old “sickness,” and we leave him near the close of the narrative inside the walls of a mental asylum. However, the narrative does not begin with Baako Onipa, nor does it end with him. As a way of framing Baako’s story, Armah has his grandmother Naana (her name connotes wisdom and respect) reflect in the opening chapter on her grandson’s departure and his imminent return. Naana fulfills the role of both blind “seer” and keeper of traditional beliefs, and in the opening incantatory chapter she tells the reader of how the traditional ways and rituals of African society have been undermined by neocolonial greed. She remembers especially the defilement of Baako’s going-away ceremony, at which his Uncle Foli had been entrusted with the customary ritual of appeasing the spirits by pouring a libation: “when at last he began to pour it out he only let go of little miserly drops” so that he would have more for “his own dry mouth” (p. 7; Heinemann edition, 1974). It is a small enough example but a significant harbinger of how the acquisitive

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AYI KWEI ARMAH nial Ghana, and he warns Baako that the “place is run by this so-called elite of pompous asses trained to do nothing” (p. 116). When Ocran warns Baako that if he wants to do anything “serious” in Ghana he will have to work alone, it is a prediction that becomes painfully true. Late in the narrative, shortly before his final collapse, Baako burns his manuscripts and television treatments, and he reflects on the hope he once had for them and the indifference or animosity of their reception at Ghanavision. His telescripts “The Root” and “The Brand,” both of which are allegories of colonialism, neocolonial corruption, and a concomitant slave mentality, foreshadow Armah’s own scripting of such themes in Two Thousand Seasons and The Healers. Fragments closes on an ambiguously optimistic note similar to that of The Beautyful Ones. In the penultimate chapter, entitled “Obra” (Life), which concludes the linear narrative (Naana’s circumlocutory commentary has yet to come), Juana, always an advocate for perseverance and “life,” goes home after visiting Baako in the asylum: “Walking around the house, she saw only lifeless things, till the idea came to her that she should prepare the unused room” (p. 277). A positive enough note, but it is Naana who has the last word. Her reflections on contemporary bourgeois materialism, the diminution of African values, and their linkage with slavery (pp. 283–284) sound a more ominous note, one that her creator will take up in his next novel and expand in those that follow.

city. We learn that this need is a recurrent one, a need that “was in some ways a cure for her own long unease, this leaving Accra to come out for air, with the used portion of the day behind her lined with the wrecked minds it was her job to try and repair” (p. 21). One of the “wrecked minds” she will meet is that of her eventual lover Baako Onipa. When Baako tells Juana in their first interview that he knows what he is “expected to be” but that it is not what he wants to be, she remarks that he is “going against a general current” and that he would need “a lot of strength” (p. 147). Eventually Baako’s strength runs out. Like the “the man” in The Beautyful Ones, the conflict he faces is between his own moral steadfastness and the “things” his family desires, and like the hero of the previous novel, he ultimately comes to see his behavior as somehow “perverse.” Shortly before his ultimate crisis Baako engages himself in a comparative anthropological “study” of the “been-to” (the Ghanaian term for someone who has lived abroad and who is expected to return with the material evidence) and Melanesian cargo cults (religious belief centered on cargo worship). Had he himself conformed to the “traditional” profile of the beento, it is more than likely his fate would have been different. Such a profile is provided for us by Henry Robert Hudson Brempong (the name betraying the caricature), whom Baako meets on the plane home. Brempong, who plays a similar role to Koomson in The Beautyful Ones, is a frequent traveler and a bringer of various kinds of “cargo” to his family members. Despite his caricatured portrayal, it is Brempong who warns Baako of the realities of life and work in Ghana. He says that Baako does not understand the need to “know people”; that if he were “a white man, it wouldn’t matter,” but with his “black face like their own” he will get “no respect” (p. 68). This proves to be so much the case that Baako eventually secures his post at Ghanavision only through the intervention of Ocran, his erstwhile mentor from Achimota School. Ocran’s function in this novel is very similar to that of Teacher in The Beautyful Ones. He too has reached a cynical resignation with regard to the state of postcolo-

WHY ARE WE SO BLEST?

Armah’s third novel is a pivotal work in his oeuvre. Whereas the first two novels dwell for the most part on neocolonial corruption and the mediated “slavery” of the African elitist rulers, Why Are We So Blest? explores the origins and ideological forms of how such African intellectuals have become assimilated to Western ways and how this leads them to their destruction. “Destruction” is a key term in this narrative, and in this sense the novel looks forward to the two books that follow it: Two Thousand Seasons and The Healers are both allegorical epics that utilize

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AYI KWEI ARMAH death. Solo’s reading and retrospective analysis of the various entries in the notebooks are not presented to us chronologically; rather, the narrative is rendered in a mosaic way, with Modin’s journal entries interleaved with those of Aimèe’s, along with Solo’s editorial chapters. Modin Dofu, a Ghanaian student who has won a scholarship to Harvard, meets and becomes involved with a young American woman, Aimèe, who specializes in African studies and, it would seem from one journal entry (pp. 143–145), is a specialist in proffering sexual favors in the service of her research. Modin becomes more and more disturbed by what he sees as his privileged position, indeed his grooming to become one of the colonizer’s clones who will return to Africa and perpetuate the colonial system. At one point in his reflections he compares himself to that of a “factor,” the African middleman who served as negotiator between the white slavers and his own people. Modin is also presented as the academically privileged African and told time and time again how fortunate he is to be at Harvard. It is one of these occasions that serve as a catalyst in his decision to quit his studies. One of his fellow students expatiates on an article in the New York Times, occasioned by the advent of Thanksgiving, entitled “Why Are We So Blest?” which extols the advantages of living in America (p. 99). The debate surrounding this article makes Modin more aware of the attempts to assimilate him into Western culture at the cost of his African heritage, and it is this piece that gives the novel its ironic title. Tired of the Eurocentric curricula and driven by guilt to contribute in some practical way to Africa’s freedom, Modin decides to go to Laccryville and offer his services to the Bureau of People’s Union of Congheria. He is accompanied by Aimèe, whom he had met while earning money as a subject in a psychology experiment at Harvard. It is on their arrival at the bureau that they meet Solo Nkonam who, given his own embittered experience, is immediately suspect of their interracial relationship. Solo tries to warn the couple that the possibility of their being recruited by the cynical cadres who run the bureau is unlikely. His prophecy is

the register of history and myth to depict the destructiveness of the European expansion into Africa. In Why Are We So Blest? this destructiveness remains as yet on a personal level in that the two major male African characters, Modin Dofu and Solo Nkonam, have their aspirations crushed by two women who serve allegorically as representatives of white colonialism. This novel, with its ideological distinctions between black and white—the irreconcilable differences between the wholly negative pole of destructive whiteness and the wholly positive pole of a benevolent and healing blackness—marks the beginning of a vision that burgeons into what some have called a fully-fledged “racist” ideology in the novels that follow. The narrative of Why Are We So Blest? plunges us immediately into an alienated consciousness, an alienation that has both personal and political causes. Solo Nkonam, a would-be writer who hasn’t yet written anything, opens the narrative by describing himself as a “ghost,” a totally disillusioned outsider. Feeling himself a failure in the practice of revolution, he has come to Laccryville (a thinly disguised Algiers) in the hope of working for the political wing of the “Bureau of the People’s Union of Congheria” but has met only with frustration and disappointment; when we meet him in the novel he has turned to translating articles for the periodical Jeune nation. Solo’s embitterment and disillusion come about through both personal and political disappointment. Once, he tells us (p. 12), he had believed in love as a power that would transcend the differences between black and white, colonized and colonizer. But his Portuguese girlfriend Sylvia, during his time as a student in Lisbon, has to make a choice between him and “the pull of her race,” and she chooses the latter. It is a reiteration of such a betrayal that Solo reads in(to) the narrative of Modin and his girlfriend, Aimèe, and which he extrapolates into a full-blown cultural and historical conspiracy of whiteness against blackness, of the destruction of Africa itself (pp. 207–209; Heinemann edition, 1981). The “story” of Modin Dofu and Aimèe Reitsch is related by Solo, who, we learn near the close of the novel, has been given both their journals by Aimèe after Modin’s

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AYI KWEI ARMAH scenes of Modin’s torture that moves the reader over, as it were, to the latent allegorical plane of the novel, and it points forward to Armah’s new vision in Two Thousand Seasons and The Healers, novels that are less concerned with the destruction of any individual than they are with the drawn-out destruction of Africa itself.

correct, and after waiting several weeks the couple set out for the southern frontier in the hope of joining up on their own with the revolutionary forces. After some time wandering on the periphery of the Sahara, Modin, fatigued in spirit and body, his revolutionary spirit simply withered away, wants to return to Laccryville. Indirectly due to Aimèe, they are eventually picked up by four French irregulars who drive them a small distance into the desert. There, in a bizarre danse macabre, both are sexually tortured, and Aimèe is eventually raped by the four men. Modin, who is naked and tied to the vehicle, is continuously aroused by the proximity of Aimèe’s naked body, which the men hold against him. They eventually castrate him and leave him to die in the desert, but not before Aimèe has taken Modin’s penis once more into her mouth, as if to suck the last drops of blood from his dying body. She makes her way back to Laccryville and entrusts both her own and Modin’s notebooks to Solo, who, when she asks for them back, refuses to return them. It is from these journals, or notebooks, that Solo constructs their story and hence the novel Why Are We So Blest? The bizarre scenario of the desert scene described above brings to a resounding crescendo the underlying politico-sexual allegorical plane of the novel, in which European (and by extension, American) women are figured as destroyers, leading their black partners to either literal (Modin) or symbolic (Solo) castration. After reading and synthesizing Modin’s painful reflections, Solo summarizes what has become the central ideological thrust of the novel: through a continual process of assimilation and/or the concomitant loneliness that will result if it is resisted, Western white culture sucks the lifeblood out of the African, just as Aimèe had sucked the last drops of Modin’s blood after he was castrated by the representatives of colonialism. In a rhetorical move reminiscent of Melville’s story of Bartleby, Solo summarizes Modin’s individual plight and equates it with the collective plight of Africa in an expression that approximates “Ah Modin, Ah Africa” (pp. 207–209). The closing of Why Are We So Blest? is sickening, if not entirely realistic. But it is this very difficulty in reading these

TWO THOUSAND SEASONS AND THE HEALERS

One of Modin’s diary entries in Why Are We So Blest? notes that if there is any hope for Africa and the African it lies in the kind of egalitarian society that existed before the European invasion, and that “war against the invader should be the educational process for creating new antiEuropean, anti-imperial, anti-elitist values” (p. 222). A little later in the narrative his alter ego, Solo, reflects that “only one issue is worth our time: how to end the oppression of the African, to kill the European beasts of prey” (p. 230). It is these twin sentiments that form the main narrative thrust of the two novels that follow. However, although the two later novels share and extensively advance this burgeoning vision of the white race as natural predator, Armah’s readers could hardly have been prepared for the stylistic and narrative strategies he would choose to advance this vision. Unlike the complexly wrought and modernist mode of presentation in Why Are We So Blest?, Armah chose to adopt, or adapt, the mode of the oral historian for these two narratives. Indeed, both read less like novels than chronicles of an African past without division, reconstructing through myth, legend, and racial memory an Edenic time before the imperialist incursions of Arab and European expansionism. They depict a time of precolonial aggression and resistance, a time before the aggression and resistance brought by colonialism, of indigenous social formations premised on equality (especially gender equality), “reciprocity,” and “connectedness”; what the plural narrative voice of Two Thousand Seasons calls “the way”: “Our way is reciprocity. The way is wholeness. Our way knows no oppression. ѧ The way destroys only destruction” (p. 39; Heinemann edition, 1979).

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AYI KWEI ARMAH It is just this social and ethical system, this “collectivity,” that the European and Arab “marauders”—first as “guests,” then as masters— pull asunder, destroying both the unity of the African continent and the African consciousness. The novel’s italicized prologue utilizes the metaphor of the spring, the source, and its selfdestructive flow to the desert: “Springwater flowing to the desert, where you flow there is no regeneration ѧ it is not in the nature of the desert to return anything but destruction” (p. xi). This metaphor then broadens into an analogue of Africa’s death wish, as it at first embraces and then seeks a compromise with the destroyers who come from the North (the Islamic incursion) and the European imperialists who come from the sea. It is a prophet who forecasts the one thousand seasons wandering in the wilderness and another thousand seasons attempting to once again find “the way.” This social structure resembles a kind of primitive communism based on equality and reciprocity, in which women play as significant a role as their male counterparts. An early section of the narrative relates how these women massacre the first “Arab predators” during their annual feast celebrating the end of Ramadan. There is a terrible excess in the descriptions of how these would-be enslavers die, some of them gasping their last breath as they lie in their own excrement and urine (pp. 20–30), betraying an awful hatred in this racial memoir, not to mention a defamation of the Islamic religion itself. After this initial success against “the destroyers,” the narrative describes how the inauguration of chiefdoms allows the enemy to divide and conquer, utilizing those “factors” of whom Modin had spoken in Why Are We So Blest? The plural voice of the first four chapters (the narrational “we”) recounts their exile and epic migrations in search of a homeland. The later chapters become less mythically diffuse and focus on the activities of a band of young male and female initiates as they seek a new homeland and a reestablishment of “the way.” They are trained by various experts, of whom Isanusi (earlier driven into exile by the corrupt King Koranche) is the most versatile. It is he “whose vocation it was to keep the knowledge of

our way, the way, from destruction; to bring it back to an oblivious people” (p. 89). Isanusi, who teaches resistance but not revenge, dies in the struggle against the aggressors, but his younger followers carry on and achieve a victory of sorts. Anachronous as it may seem, it is they who are perhaps the “beautyful ones” who were not as yet born in Armah’s first novel. The fictional mode of Two Thousand Seasons was no doubt chosen by Armah to suit his subject matter—the depiction of the trials and tribulations of a legendary pan-African nation—but it is not entirely satisfactory. The plot, as in the novel that follows, is episodic, the characters are more tokens than conflicted beings, and the narrative is replete with anecdotal excess: “There is nothing white men will not do to satisfy their greed” (p. 78), for example. This is not, one believes, a diminution of Armah’s powers as a novelist but rather an intentional choice of these fictive methods to suit his new vision. It is as if he is less interested in the aesthetics of the novel as such than in the delineation of an ideological premise: the ruination of a virtuous, Edenic Africa by the “white destroyer” in collusion with its sycophantic quisling collaborators, the chiefs and kings of a divided Africa. Toward the end of Two Thousand Seasons, the anonymous narrator remarks on the “disintegration,” the “bloody desolation the whites have stretched over this land!” and that the “destroyed fragments begin to call out for healing” now that the “destroyers cannot reach beyond these two thousand seasons” (pp. 202–206). If this novel dramatizes the loss of “the way” and the severing of the collectivity on which it was based, then The Healers seeks to tell the story of its attempted restoration. Although it bears the italicized subtitle “an historical novel,” The Healers has a similar narrative mixture of myth and legend and a similar cast of unconflicted characters. It is “historical” in the sense that Armah sets the picaresque adventures of his epic heroes within the historical context of the fall of the great Ashanti empire and the consolidation of British imperialism in the territory that was to become the Gold Coast, later Ghana. The historical aspect of the novel moves through the As-

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AYI KWEI ARMAH need the work of healers but also “a people can be diseased in the same way,” that “sometimes a whole people needs healing work” (p. 82). These healers, of whom Damfo is the most skillful, resemble proto-psychoanalysts in their work with individuals, and in their search for the restoration of an integral pan-African society based on reciprocity and equality they enact a program that is almost Fanon-like in its intentions. These twin responsibilities of the healers, that of offering individual therapy sessions as well as the restoration of pan-African spiritual health, come together in what is virtually the center of the novel, when Damfo tends to the troubled Ashanti general who will lead his forces against the British. Asamoa Nkwanta suffers from recurring dreams and nightmares brought about (Damfo explains) because of the split in his “soul” caused by his guilt in trying to serve Ashanti royalty at the cost of his peoples’ welfare as a whole. It is during these analytical sessions with the emaciated and depressed general that we get the visionary and ideological center of the novel. Damfo addresses the general as follows: “If the past tells you the Akan and the black people were one in the past, perhaps it also tells you there is nothing eternal about our present divisions. We were one in the past. We may come together again in the future” (p. 176). Damfo is aware that such a possibility may take “millennia,” and the utter rout of Asamoa Nkwanta and his allies by the British forces (history records that General Wolseley ended his campaign successfully in less than two months, entering Kumasi in January 1874) would seem to confirm this pessimistic view. However, as if to bring the novel to a satisfactory, if ambiguous, close, the narrative allows for an ironic reunification of the kind the defeated healers had sought to achieve. Shortly after the victorious Wolseley sails from Cape Coast and the defeated peoples from all over Africa are assembled under the gaze of their rulers, Ama Nkroma, one of the female healers, remarks in the closing paragraphs of the novel, as follows:

hanti wars and employs “real” historical places and characters (even Queen Victoria gets a mention) and at times utilizes a detailed realism. But superimposed on this linear tale of adventure and quest—and, one imagines, intended to take precedence in Armah’s narrative and ideological design—is that of a symbolic, or metaphoric, or visionary plane that seeks to explore the divisions that created the black diaspora and how these may be repaired. Consistent with Armah’s vision of a once-unified African continent, the narrative associates the defeat of the Ashanti empire with the defeat of Africa itself. The blurb on the back cover of the novel describes this succinctly: A century ago one of Africa’s great empires, Ashanti, fell. The root cause of that fall, symbolic of Africa’s conquest, was not merely Europe’s destructive strength. It was Africa’s disunity: divisions among kindred societies; divisions within each society between aristocrats, commoners, slaves.

Two Thousand Seasons had documented this chronic disunity. The Healers sets out to describe how these numerous fissures in African society might be made whole again. Unlike the vatic voice that introduces us to the epic sweep of Two Thousand Seasons, the one that opens The Healers sounds more like that of the conventional novel: “In the twentieth year of his life, a young man found himself at the centre of strange, extraordinary events.” The young man is Densu, and the “event” that starts the narrative on its detective-story-like course is the murder of his friendly rival, the young Prince Appia. Thus begins the linear or metonymic plane of the novel, as Densu sets out to clear his name and begins a series of episodic adventures that eventually lead him to the great healer Damfo, keeper of “the way.” The metaphoric or symbolic plane of the text, reliant more on schematic dualisms (“the Manipulators” versus “the Inspirers,” the evil Ababio versus the virtuous Densu), is less concerned with novelistic realism than with an aesthetic associated with myth. This strand of the novel explores the need for healing, both corporal and psychic, in an Africa riven by imperialist machinations. Damfo explains to his apprentice Densu that not only do individuals

But look at all the black people the whites have brought here. Here we healers have been wondering about ways to bring our people together again. And

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AYI KWEI ARMAH chy, the aristocracy, slavery” (p. 35). As with Armah’s previous two novels, the actual “story,” or plotline, of Osiris Rising serves a didactic or parabolic purpose: it is an analogue of how truly democratic and progressive movements in Africa are undermined not only by neocolonial and imperialist influences but also by the machinations of a fifth column of corrupt and acquisitive indigenous men seeking power. And as the title from the Osiris myth suggests, the novel considers also the possibility of a regeneration, a resurrection, of the African unity that had existed before its various dismemberments. The vision is laudable, but the fictional carrier that delivers it is a strange mélange (some might say “hodgepodge”) of genres and concerns. It is at once a satire of African Americans who “return” to Africa to seek their roots; a Bond-like thriller, with villains who house their sophisticated weapons of mass destruction in high-tech bunkers; a melodrama that opposes sacrificial virtue against corrupt and ruthless power mechanisms; and a classic depiction of triangular desire as played out between the three main characters, Ast, Asar, and the despicable Seth Spenser Soja. The narrative begins with Ast, an assistant professor of African studies at Emerson University who was taught Egyptian hieroglyphics by her grandmother. She decides to relinquish her post and offer her teaching services in Africa because, as she explains later in the narrative, “in Africa, there could be a coming together of souls experiencing life as shared work and reward ѧ instead of this brute competition between individuals and factions” (p. 70). Shortly before her departure she receives a communication from the secret society of the Ankh, and this piece of subversive literature is detected when she arrives at the fictitious African country of Hapi. She is taken into custody and is eventually interrogated by the deputy director of security himself, who, it turns out, was a contemporary at Emerson, as was Asar, the leader of the subversive and progressive movement she is to join. Asar, who fought in the liberation wars in the South and who eschews a brilliant career in order to teach at the provincial Teacher Training College at Manda, is goodness personified. Seth Spenser

the whites want ways to drive us farther apart. Does it not amuse you, that in their wish to drive us apart the whites are actually bringing us work for the future? Look! (p. 309)

History has defeated them, but their vision is unvanquished.

OSIRIS RISING

Armah’s sixth novel and first fiction published under the imprint of his publishing collective in Popenguine, Senegal, has the following signature on the last page of text: “Mussuwam, 17 February 1984; Popenguine, 18 January 1994.” It is difficult to believe that it took him some ten years to complete this novel, with its stereotypical cast of characters and straightforward narrative structure, and one assumes that he held it back until he had established Per Ankh, his African publishing company. He remarked in a rare interview that he had “not been publishing” [because] he did not want to give his books to “multinational companies” and that he would “keep his books in [his] drawer” until either a suitable “black publisher” came along or until he and his fellow writers could “get together and organize [their] own publishing house” (in Gurnah, p. 23). Given his choice of name for the new publishing company, it comes as no coincidence then that the plot of Osiris Rising centers around the renewal in modern Africa—and the suppression by governmental forces—of the ancient Egyptian collective known as the Ankh movement. The novel reflects Armah’s burgeoning belief that ancient Egypt was a black civilization and that the peoples of West Africa can trace their origins to the Nile Valley, a thesis advanced by Cheikh Anta Diop, a thinker mentioned numerous times in Armah’s nonfiction and lectures and who is invoked in Osiris Rising. The society of the Ankh is reminiscent of the idealistic social structure promulgated in The Healers, and from the point of view of presentday authority in Osiris Rising “a dangerous secret society that tried at one time to destroy all existing social and political institutions here: monar-

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AYI KWEI ARMAH elite, the “manipulators,” are in turn bribed and manipulated by neocolonial interests. However, much of this critique is delivered in what is closer to a lecture format than the kind of dramatic representation rendered in the first two novels, and this latent tendency becomes manifest in the sections of the novel dealing with the “Proposals for a New Curriculum,” where even the typography serves the didactic purpose (pp. 213–223). Eventually it transpires that Ras Jomo, the fake Prince Woosen, and others have conspired with Seth Soja to plant weaponry in Asar’s living quarters so that Soja might have a reason for killing his old rival. Symbolically enough, Asar dies trying to communicate with Ast as she approaches his little boat, held captive on Soja’s Bond-like motor launch:

Soja (SSS), the power-hungry deputy director and onetime school rival of Asar, is his ethical opposite. Such is the basic binary structure of the novel, but there are lesser examples as well, similar to the “Manipulators/Inspirers” model of The Healers. After an unsuccessful attempt to win over Ast to his side, Soja attempts, rather unconvincingly, to rape her. It is unconvincing from the aesthetics of realism, but not from the novel’s parabolic plane, as we witness the syphilitic Soja attempting to contaminate the pure and virtuous Ast (pp. 62–66). It is shortly after this that, while walking on the beach, Ast, as if by some cosmic plan of coincidence, sees Sheldon Tubman, a onetime civil rights activist now known as Ras Jomo Cinque Equiano and leader of a bizarre cult whose chosen names, ironically, had been “better left to rot in peace” (p. 96). He, his three wives (Ast rescues Jacqueline Brown, a possible fourth), and a motley crew of characters including the fake Ethiopian Prince Woosen—at one time a New York drug peddler and convicted felon—are introduced into the plot. The action of the novel and its ideological focus now moves to the college at Manda where Ast goes to join Asar in his struggle to reform the Eurocentric curriculum as well as his work to “turn [his] dismembered continent into a healing society, Africa” (p. 112). These pages of the novel include several “conversations” between Ast and Asar, the would-be lovers who betray Armah’s recent predilection for writing fiction as thinly disguised political polemic. For example, the scene just before they make love for the first time (pp. 116– 117) reads more like a monologic political speech than natural dialogue, but this is only one example of how the fictional apparatus is there only to carry a message. It is not that novels should not convey a critique of political systems or embody visionary ideals, but these can be handled in more artistically dramatic ways, as they are in The Beautyful Ones and Fragments, for example. As in those novels, there is much valid criticism in Osiris Rising of how supposedly “independent” African countries are still controlled by multinational corporations (Kaiserlever in this case), and how the African

She saw Asar raise his arms to cup his hands round his mouth, to repeat his query. The first bullet struck, giving him no time to register surprise. His body pivoted left. Other bullets reversed it. ѧ Ast saw Asar totter upright in a flash, arms still in the communicant attitude of his last question. Then he exploded silently into fourteen starry fragments, and the pieces plunged into the peaceful water. (p. 305)

Climactic as it is, this is not the true closure of this morality tale. It is the execrable Seth Spenser Soja who brings it to its ambiguous ending when in the last sentence he whispers to Ast, the ultimate object of his desire, “When you are ready, come.”

CRITICAL RESPONSE

There are literally scores of scholarly articles on Armah’s first few novels alone, and several booklength studies take into account his fiction up to the publication of The Healers. A representative number of these are listed in the bibliography to this essay, but only a selected few can be addressed here. Since The Beautyful Ones burst upon the literary scene, there has never been any dispute concerning the originality and power of Armah’s writing, although some have more recently suggested a waning of that early strength.

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AYI KWEI ARMAH mah’s somewhat eccentric publishing history, Fraser remarks on the tendency of critics to concentrate on the early books, especially The Beautyful Ones, “without any systematic attempt being made to place the asperity of that work within a broader picture of the writer’s vision” (p. 1). This is exactly what Fraser sets out to do in the five chapters of his study, each of which is devoted to one of the first five novels. Importantly, Fraser attempts to link style with content as he examines the evolution of Armah’s oeuvre, arguing that the complexity of form of the first few novels mirrored the subject of the alienated artist figure, whereas the protagonists of the later books—firmly ensconced in a community— ushered in the need for a communal voice as narrator. In his conclusion, Fraser asks whether or not Armah might have “paid too high a qualitative price for the dogmatic thrust he introduces into the more recent novels” (p. 106). The above question is answered in two radically different ways in full-length studies of Armah by Neil Lazarus (1990) and Ode Ogede (2000). Lazarus’ book, Resistance in Postcolonial African Fiction, is less concerned with narrative or stylistic strategies than it is with situating Armah within “postcolonial African intellectualism” (p. ix). This is a densely textured discourse on influences that shaped the ideological matrices of Armah’s texts, both fictional and otherwise. It is at once a brilliant investigative study and a curiously lopsided one, with the late postrealist novels getting scant attention (around fifteen pages of text) and the novel Why Are We So Blest? alone taking up some sixty-seven pages. This is because Lazarus sees the latter as the marker of what could be called the “ideological break” in Armah’s output, signaling a shift from an “ethics of resistance” in the first two novels to what is tantamount to a racist stance. Lazarus notes the beginnings of Armah’s “manichean” vision in this text and condemns it as “both a racist and a poisonously misogynistic work” (p. 118). Although less emphatically condemnatory about Two Thousand Seasons and The Healers, Lazarus does note that “the essentialist language, in terms of which ideologies and social tendencies are cast as natural and

Most disagreements have concerned either the “Africanness” of his fiction (the early novels), or the ideology that imbues his later work, especially Two Thousand Seasons and The Healers. Generally speaking (and this is to generalize mercilessly), the early negative critiques centered on the lack of an “African” texture and vision in Armah’s novels; such critiques accused him of adhering more to a Western sensibility and a vision wherein his protagonists seemed more like existentialist outsiders than indigenous Africans. Indeed, Charles Larson’s (1978) seemingly incredible indictment, that there were “few Africanisms” in Armah’s early work, prompted one of the few statements on his work by the author himself (see Armah, “Larsony, or Fiction as Criticism of Fiction,” 1976). Derek Wright, who has written extensively on Armah’s work, has done us good service by bringing together twenty-two previously published articles in his Critical Perspectives on Ayi Kwei Armah (1992). These range from “general essays” to groups of essays centered on particular novels. In his brief introduction, Wright discusses some of the central issues brought to task in the individual essays, especially the early criticisms of Chinua Achebe and Kofi Awoonor, who formed in part (Wright colorfully suggests) a kind of “Un-African Activities Committee of the literary imagination” (p. 4) that called for a clearly recognizable style of documentary realism. Wright also suggests an intriguing correspondence between Armah’s career to date with Frantz Fanon’s “tripartite scheme for the decolorized writer” (p. 6). The Beautyful Ones corresponds to Fanon’s “assimilation phase,” whereas the next two novels fit into “the second phase of disturbance and painful liberation.” The last two books (Two Thousand Seasons and The Healers) are then “fighting books” that “adopt the militant postures of Fanon’s ‘fighting phase’” (p. 6). By the time Robert Fraser had completed his book-length study (1980), he had both the advantage of surveying the prodigious critical output on Armah’s earlier work as well as being able to consider the radical shift marked by Two Thousand Seasons and The Healers. Noting Ar-

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AYI KWEI ARMAH tion marks a continuation of Armah’s earlier themes and concerns, particularly with those of Osiris Rising. In KMT, the narrator, Lindela, searches not only for self-fulfillment in Africa (as did Ast in Osiris), but also through her study of hieroglyphics she seeks the answers to why Africa, once so full of promise, has fallen into decay. Her investigations into what residual panAfrican values might lie under the ruins of centuries of colonial expansion and exploitation mirror those of her creator Ayi Kwei Armah. His work over the past thirty years could be characterized as the fictional “excavation” of such possibilities.

Источник: https://epdf.pub/british-writers-supplement-10-5ea7aaa7b9cad.html
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This is your Tyler Chronicle!

 Tyler, Texas USA Winter, 2020  Worldwide Edition Volume 51 Number 3

Water on the Moon! See Story on Page Nine

A Political Stew Which May Choke Us

Opinion, By Bobby D. Moore

If you are one among the many who regularly visit The Tyler Chronicle, the absence of political commentary concerning the endless strife between President Donald Trump and the American Socialist/Communist faction may seem strange. (You may have come to know it by a different name. But whatever alias is currently in use, if you look closely and with an informed mind, there is a common denominator.)

That denominator can be factored down into a single word. “Gimme&rdquo. “If you got it, we  want it!” But what they fail to understand is that the government is powerless to directly create.  In order for government to “give”, it must first “take&rdquo. And, there is a very handy device for this purpose called “taxation&rdquo.  You may choose to view it as a Robin Hood scenario in which those with means are robbed with the loot being distributed to the serfs.

But how does this scheme of “legalized theft” influence the desire to work, and build and accumulate? In other words, what does it do for private initiative? The answer is simple; initiative is reduced and ultimately destroyed.  And it is this private initiative (the freedom to make choices) which represents American freedom at its most basic level.

(more to come)


The Tyler Chronicle   Winter,  2020

___________________________________________________

A Most Remarkable Time

By Bobby D. Moore

There are unique periods of history when, in spite of all the hell on earth which mankind can devise, there is justifiable cause for optimism and hope for a better tomorrow. Whether this is such a period remains to be seen. One thing is certain; we are riding the runaway train of technology.

How this technology is used will determine the future of the human race.

What you see before you is nothing less than a technological miracle. It is a miracle which has worldwide, revolutionary implications and which has, in large part, taken place within the space of a lifetime. I am doing something at this very moment which, in times past, not even the most powerful and wealthy could have accomplished. I am making my thoughts known to the entire world (almost instantaneously) and what is equally amazing is that I have the freedom to do it!  The question which I ask myself each day is, “How long will that freedom last?”

That is why our oft repeated slogan is, “Freedom of Speech; Use It or Lose It!”

My time on this earth spans the better part of a century; just a tick of the historical clock. And during the duration of that tick, truly incredible things have happened! My wish is to share with you now my experiences with the technological advances in newspaper publishing over the past few decades. To be more accurate, I should say “advances in communication&rdquo.  This is so because the lines which once clearly delineated print, radio, television, moving pictures, etc. are fading fast.

For example, this issue of The Tyler Chronicle which you are reading at this instant contains far more than just “black ink on white paper&rdquo. In fact, it contains neither ink nor paper!

But that’s not how it was way back at the beginning of time when I first got the “urge” to publish a newspaper. I can tell you when and I can tell you how, but the “why” eludes me. Why does a bird sing?

My first publishing effort was made with carbon paper on 8½  by 11 sheets of  typing paper. It was all hand printed, since there was no typewriter. Besides, I hadn’t learned to type anyway. My little “newspaper” consisted of twelve pages, and it had a full page editorial cartoon decrying the habit of cigarette smoking.  The first and only “press run” was 24 copies.  It was styled, “The Enterprise&rdquo.  I was twelve; the year was 1952.

At that time, virtually all the newspapers in the United States or in the entire world, for that matter, were printed by the same process (not with carbon paper!) but by applying ink to paper. There were several methods to accomplish this, the most common being “letterpress” which had been in use since before the invention of movable type. 

Movable metal type, as used in the western world (an invention commonly attributed to the German, Gutenberg in 1450) represented a great stride forward, since individual letters of the alphabet  could now formed from metal and then arranged to form words. When they were inked and pressed against paper, the ink was transferred to the paper. A large number of copies could thus be made. They could be rearranged to form new words and could thus be used over and over. The newspaper publishing industry was born! The first such newspaper was printed in Germany in 1609.

The telegraph, and later the telephone made it possible to gather news quickly from distant points. Invention of the rotary press in 1843 and the Linotype by Mergenthaler (a German) in 1884 paved the way for the growth of massive newspaper enterprises. By the end of the Civil War, line drawings were used to illustrate newspaper stories. And soon photographic reproductions (halftones) began to appear as well.

While there were many technological improvements over the years, in very broad terms, this was the “state of the art” when I began my early newspapering efforts.
Here’s how it was back then. Newspapers were ordinarily printed with black ink. Colored inks could be used to create solid color images, like headlines in red for example. To publish full color reproductions of photographs, however, was far more complicated. This was beyond the scope of most small weekly letterpress publications.  

---to be continued

___________________________________________________

by Doctor Donald Miller

I was 23 years old when President Kennedy was killed. Now, 55 years later I am most likely the only person still alive who personally knew the two physicians who figure most importantly in the case, Admiral George Burkley, Kennedy’s physician, and Dr. Malcolm Perry, the surgeon who performed a tracheotomy on him after he was shot.

When I was a teenager my father and our family and Dr. Burkley and his family shared a duplex at the Newport Naval Hospital in Newport, Rhode Island, where then Capt. George Burkley, M.D. was Chief of Medicine and my father, Capt. Donald Miller, M.D. was Chief of Surgery. I remember Dr. Burkley as a pleasant man, a straight arrow Naval officer like my father.

Dr. Burkley’s son George and I were the same age and we became buddies. One time we sailed up Narragansett Bay in his 16-foot sailboat and camped out on a small uninhabited island. That night, unknown to us, a hurricane warning was issued and early the next morning our fathers had a Navy launch come and tow us back home.

Admiral Burkley filled out Kennedy’s Death Certificate. He wrote, “A second wound occurred in the posterior back at about the level of the third thoracic vertebra.—T3, that’s 5½ to 6 inches below the neck. He flew back from Dallas on Air Force One with the body and was at the autopsy.

Military pathologists performed the autopsy at the National Naval Medical Center in Bethesda, MD. The whole-body chart (front and back), for marking the scars and wounds on the body places the bullet wound in the back at the T3 level, as in the Death Certificate. Dr. Burkley signed the chart, writing “Verified” above his signature.

The Single Bullet Theory

The Warren Commission recognized that the single bullet theory was the only way a lone assassin firing from behind Kennedy could have killed him. Oswald only had time to fire three shots. One hit the street and grazed a bystander, and one bullet hit Kennedy in the head. So, the third bullet had to account for all the other injuries JFK and Governor Connally sustained.

The bullet holes in JFK’s shirt and jacket were likewise 5¾ inches below the collar

With a bullet shot from the sixth floor of the building behind him, it would have had to turn upward at a considerable angle to exit his neck, and then turn downward to go through Connally’s chest, fracturing a rib; next shattering his wrist, with pieces of the bullet left behind on X-ray and finally landing in his left thigh. The Warren Report blamed a near unscathed bullet found on a stretcher at Parkland Hospital for all those injuries (Commission Exhibit 399).

No bullet could transit the neck without hitting any bony structures as a CT scan of the neck will show, especially one coming out the middle of his throat. An autopsy X-ray of JFK’s neck showed no bone trauma.

At a news conference after the assassination Acting Press Secretary Malcolm Kilduff said: “Dr. Burkley told me, it is a simple matter… of a bullet right through the head.” Questioned, he stated, “It is my understanding [from Dr. Burkley] that it entered in the temple, the right temple.”

 Inside the Assassinati. Douglas P. Horne Best Price: $17.50 Buy New $24.88 (as of 12:35 EDT - Details)  In an interview at the Kennedy Library in 1967, when asked how many bullets struck Kennedy Burkley replied, “I would not care to be quoted on that.” Ten years later, in 1977, he offered to explain to Richard Sprague, Chief Counsel of the House Select Committee on Assassinations (HSCA), why there must have been more than one shooter. But he once again clammed up when Sprague got fired wanting to conduct a no-holds-barred investigation. Dr. Burkley did, however, sign an Affidavit for the HSCA, which states that the casket was constantly observed and not opened or disturbed in its trip to the National Naval Medical Center autopsy laboratory in Bethesda, Maryland. It reads:

“I travelled from Andrew’s Air Force Base in the ambulance with the President’s body to the Bethesda Naval Hospital and accompanied the [bronze Dallas] coffin to the autopsy laboratory and saw the body removed from the coffin and placed on the autopsy table.”

Admiral Burkley lied. The bronze Dallas casket was opened and was empty when it arrived at the autopsy lab.

Douglas Horne, in his book Inside the Assassination Records Review Board: The U.S. Government’s Final Attempt to Reconcile the Conflicting Medical Evidence in the Assassination of JFK (1,804 pages in 5-volumes, 2009) shows that there were indeed three JFK casket entries to the Bethesda Naval autopsy lab that evening.

Men in suits emerging from a black hearse delivered the corpse to the autopsy lab at 6:35 pm in a body bag placed inside a cheap aluminum shipping casket. Next, Secret Service agents brought the now empty 400 lb. Bronze Dallas casket into the lab at 7:17 pm. Then at 8:00 pm, with Jackie and Bobby Kennedy walking alongside it, a military honor guard carried the Dallas casket into the autopsy laboratory, Kennedy’s corpse back inside it, once again wrapped in sheets.

Sgt. Roger Boyajian’s written report proving that Kennedy’s corpse arrived in the autopsy lab an hour-and-a-half before its official time-of-entry is the “smoking gun” in the medical evidence.

Dr. Burkley ordered the three junior-grade military pathologists to not probe the neck wound and not dissect the neck. And he took possession of the brain.

(My father was Chief of Thoracic Surgery at the Bethesda Naval Hospital in the 1950s, from 1956 to 1958.)

Admiral Burkley, the Warren Commission, and His Family

In 1982 Dr. Burkley told an assassination researcher that JFK was the target of a conspiracy, refusing to elaborate. In 1983 he admitted to another researcher that JFK had a large wound in the back of the head, which had “all the appearance of an exit wound.” He died in 1991, age 88.

Dr. George G. Burkley and his wife Isabel had four children—Nancy, George, Isabel, and Richard. Nancy was executor of his estate. In 1997 she agreed to release her father’s attorney-client file on JFK’s death to the Assassination Records Review Board. But she would not sign a waiver of confidentiality the ARRB required to review the files, so they stayed sealed.

I contacted my teenage buddy George W. Burkley, a retired Marine Corps helicopter pilot living in Hawaii. He said that his dad only questioned why the Warren Commission never asked him to testify, noting, “Dad was [a] very close hold when it came to his professional life.”

His father knew very well why the Warren Commission never called him to testify. Admiral Burkley knew first-hand that the single bullet theory was bogus. He chose not to tell his children the true facts of the JFK assassination or his involvement in the cover-up. Perhaps to protect them?

Doug Horne nails it in his book Inside the Assassination Records Review Board (Volume 4, page 1057, published in 2009):

“[Admiral Burkley’s behavior] can only be understood as that of a man who was filled with deep and profound guilt about the massive coverup he participated in—indeed, which he appears to have engineered—a man who wanted to confess his role and unburden himself on some occasions, and who would then abruptly change his mind on other occasions, when he considered the effect this would have had on his reputation and his family’s peace-of-mind. His behavior from the time of the assassination up until his death was that of a deeply conflicted man, ridden with guilt and shame, who wanted to confess his involvement in the cover-up for the moral absolution it would have provided to him but who at the same time, was afraid to do so for practical reasons involving his reputation and his family. History will not absolve him, either for his role in the cover-up, or for his failure to come clean when he had a chance to do so with the HSCA, which could have granted him immunity if he had decided to expose the cover-up.”

The Warren Commission published the autopsy body chart without Admiral Burkley’s “Verified” and signature on it (Commission Exhibit 397). Pathologist Cmdr. J. Thornton Boswell testified before the Commission that he had mistakenly placed the bullet hole in the back too low on the chart. And with Admiral Burkley’s signature on it erased the Commission need not question him about it.

The Warren Commission also chose to not publish Admiral Burkley’s JFK Death Certificate. The Commission treated that like a poisonous snake, since it kills the single bullet theory.

Researcher Gerald McNight puts it this way: “Admiral Burkley’s plight was akin to that of the old Bolsheviks, who were airbrushed out of Soviet history books and the national narrative after they fell victim to one of Stalin’s purges.”

In the 26-volume Warren CommissionHearings and Exhibits, instead of JFK’s Death Certificate one will find things like these: A Certificate of smallpox vaccination for Oswald’s daughter, June (CE 73A); Jack Ruby’s income tax returns, but not Oswald’s, said to be withheld for National Security (CE 713-719); and the condition of Marina Oswald’s teeth (CE 1403). One I particularly like is Commission Exhibit 53, displaying a fragment of an aria from Tchaikovsky’s opera The Queen of Spades.

My connection with Dr. Malcolm Perry was a professional one. He moved to Seattle from Dallas in 1974 to be professor of vascular surgery at the University of Washington. We operated together on complex cases (thoraco-abdominal aortic aneurysms) and became friends.

Dr. Tom Shires left Dallas to become the Chair of Surgery at the University of Washington in 1974. He brought with him Dr. Jim Carrico, Dr. Malcolm Perry, and two other surgeons. Dr. Carrico, as a surgical resident then, was the first physician to treat Kennedy upon his arrival to Parkland’s Emergency Room.

I was the last UW faculty surgeon that Dr. Shires hired, in 1975, right before he left and moved to Cornell. Dr. Perry stayed on until 1978 and then joined Dr. Shires in New York. Dr. Carrico also stayed and was the UW’s Chair of Surgery from 1983 to 1990.

(The University of Washington School of Medicine in Seattle was founded after World War II. Its first Chair of Surgery, from 1959 to 1964 was Dr. Henry Harkins from Johns Hopkins University. He died suddenly from a heart attack while hosting a picnic on Lake Washington for his surgical residents. I performed heart surgery, coronary artery bypass grafts, on three of the next four Chairs of Surgery: Dr. K. Alvin Merendino, Chair 1964-1972; Dr. John Stevenson, 1972-1975; and Dr. John Schilling, 1975-1983. Dr. Merendino performed the first open heart operation on the West Coast using a heart-lung machine in 1956. He lived to age 97 and died in 2011. Dr. Shires and Dr. Carrico escaped heart disease and died from cancer, like Dr. Perry.)

The Bullet Wounds in JFK’s Neck and Head 

Dr. Perry was the first Parkland doctor to speak publicly about President Kennedy’s wounds at a news conference. He said, “There was an entrance wound in the neck…It [the bullet] appeared to be coming at him…” Questioned, he twice more affirmed that it was an entrance wound.

Threatened by an agent from the Secret Service (Elmer Moore), Dr. Perry agreed to change his view of the bullet wound in the neck when he went before the Warren Commission in 1964 and testify that it could have been an exit wound.

Dr. Perry always refused to discuss the Kennedy assassination with anyone, but one night, in 1977, after we had been operating together for many hours on a complex case, we sat alone having coffee in the surgeons’ lounge while our residents closed the incisions. Asked yet again, this time Malcolm told me that the bullet wound in Kennedy’s neck was a wound of entrance, unquestionably a wound of entrance.

A year later, in 1978, when testifying before the House Select Committee on Assassinations Dr. Perry once again reverted to publicly supporting the government’s single bullet narrative, like he did before the Warren Commission. He once again agreed that the bullet wound in the neck could be an exit wound. He explained that the wound was so neat and small that he had mistaken it for an entrance wound.

In 1986, Dr. Perry also privately disclosed to another physician that it was an entrance wound.

In his hand-written treatment report on the day of the assassination, Dr. Perry wrote: “A large wound of the right posterior cranium was noted, exposing a severely lacerated brain. Brain tissue was noted in the blood [pooled] at the head of the carriage.” Dr. Carrico wrote in his treatment report: “Two external wounds were noted. One small penetrating wound of the neck in the lower one  third. The other wound had avulsed the calvarium and shredded brain tissue present and profuse oozing.” More than 20 Parkland doctors and nurses observed a fist-sized hole in the back of Kennedy’s head. Nevertheless, a photograph taken at the autopsy shows the skin and hair on the back of the head to be intact and undisturbed.

Bobby Hargis, Clint Hill, Kenny O’Donnell and the Grassy Knoll

Bobby Hargis, the patrolman riding a motorcycle just behind and to the left of the president’s limo, was splattered with blood, brain, and bone when Kennedy was shot in the head. Hargis dropped his motorcycle and ran up the grassy embankment where he and other spectators heard shots come from behind a fence there.

Agent Clint Hill assigned to protect Jackie Kennedy was standing on the Secret Service limo behind her. When Jackie reflexively reached out over the trunk for a piece of JFK’s skull, he jumped on the president’s limo as it sped up and pushed Jackie safely back into her seat. He saw, close up, that the back of JFK’s head was blown out.

JFK’s top aide and close friend Kenny O’Donnell, riding in that Secret Service limo, said he also heard shots coming from the front. But like with Dr. Perry, FBI agents, in his case, told O’Donnell that he must have been imagining things. Those agents said that it would be better for him to testify before the Warren Commission that the bullets sounded like they came from behind, which he did (and later regretted).

JFK Assassination Timeline

The first notable books critiquing the government narrative were:  Who killed Kennedy? Thomas G Buchanan Best Price: $4.95 (as of 01:20 EDT - Details) 

Who Killed Kennedy? (1964) by Thomas Buchanan.

Whitewash: the Report on the Warren Report (1965) by Harold Weisberg.

 Rush to Judgment (1966) by Mark Lane.

The Second Oswald (1966) by Richard Popkin.

Six Seconds in Dallas: A Micro-study of the Kennedy Assassination Proving that Three Gunmen Murdered the President (1967) by Josiah Thompson.

Accessories After the Fact: Warren Commission, the Authorities, & the Report on the JFK Assassination (1967) by Sylvia Meagher.

The Clark Panel (1968) and Rockefeller Commission (1975) addressed the matter and held to the lone nut assassin account.

Then, 22 years after the assassination, in 1975, the public finally got to see the Zapruder film showing JFK’s head violently thrown backwards from a head shot. Hearings by the House Select Committee on Assassinations followed (1976-1978). The HSCA concluded that Oswald did kill Kennedy but that there was a second shooter, who missed, thus making it a conspiracy.

Oliver Stone’s film JFK (1991), which showed the CIA and U.S. military playing a role in Kennedy’s murder created a public outcry. This film played a key role in passage of the JFK Records Act of 1992. This Act released many thousands of records on the Kennedy assassination the government was withholding. Its Assassination Records Review Board (ARRB) reviewed them and questioned involved witnesses now absolved from their compulsory oaths of silence. Its findings basically clear Oswald of the crime.

Who Killed President Kennedy? 

The six main suspects in JFK’s assassination are: Castro, Anti-Castro Cuban Exiles, Russians (Soviet Union), the Mafia, Texas Oil Barons, and the U.S. Government’s Central Intelligence Agency.

Given the medical evidence the ARRB uncovered, the first five suspects, from Castro to Texas Oil Barons, are all innocent. There is no way any of them could have orchestrated Kennedy’s autopsy in a U.S. military hospital done by U.S. military pathologists. That was beyond any of those suspects’ sphere of influence.

The CIA planned and staged JFK’s assassination. It was a palace coup, a coup d’état, the murder of a leader by forces within his own government, like Caesar and his senators.

Six weeks before the CIA killed him, Arthur Krock in the New York Times quoted a high-level source who said:

“If the U.S. government ever experienced [a coup attempt], it will come from the CIA and not the Pentagon. The Agency represents a tremendous power and total unaccountability to anyone.” 

Three Key Books on the CIA Conspiracy to Kill President Kennedy

Harvey and Lee: How the CIA Framed Oswald by John Armstrong (983 pages, 2003, along with an enclosed CD of documents and photos, now available online,). Armstrong has done more field investigation on Oswald than anyone. One seasoned JFK assassination researcher states, “Of all the homerun hitters in this league, John Armstrong is the ‘Babe Ruth.’”

JFK and the Unspeakable: Why He Died and Why It Matters by Jim Douglass (488 pages, 2008)This statement is on the top of its dust jacket: “He chose peace. They marked him for death.” James DiEugenio’s review of it, “James W. Douglass, JFK and the Unspeakable,” describes well its importance. Douglass has written what is perhaps the best book on the subject so far.

Last Word: My Indictment of the CIA in the Murder of JFK written by the dean of assassination researchers Mark Lane, with a chapter by Oliver Stone (300 pages, 2011). This is Mark Lane’s last book, published five years before he died at age 89. The book ends with a Postscript that begins: “There is more than sufficient evidence for the attorney general of the United States and for United States attorneys serving various jurisdictions to impanel a grand jury and consider asking for an indictment of the CIA and its leaders.”

CIA Conspirators

 Whitewash: The Report . Harold Weisberg Best Price: $9.49 Buy New $9.99 (as of 01:20 EDT - Details)  Allen Dulles most likely first came come up with the idea of assassinating JFK after Kennedy fired him as Director of the CIA following the Bay of Pigs debacle. John Armstrong, in Harvey and Lee: How the CIA Framed Oswald, writes, in italics: “In the author’s opinion Allen Dulles was almost certainly one of high-level conspirators in the assassination of President Kennedy and was also instrumental in the cover-up.” He identifies the four other CIA conspirators shown here as simply conspirators and not instrumental in the cover-up.

James Jesus Angleton, Chief of Counterintelligence, was most likely its architect with Oswald a pawn in the plot. Both Richard Helms, Deputy Director of CIA Plans and later Director of the CIA, and James Angleton worked closely with Allen Dulles in the World War II Office of Strategic Services (OSS), which predated the CIA.

Career CIA officers David Atlee Phillips and E. Howard Hunt started working together in 1954 when they plotted and engineered the overthrow of Guatemalan President Jacobo Arbenz.  Hunt and Phillips were in Mexico City when Oswald was supposed to have visited the Russian Embassy and Cuban Consulate. And they were both there in Dallas.

James Angleton promoted the idea that Oswald was a Soviet agent.

It has been said that most people holding high-level positions in government are sociopaths, with no conscience and are “cold, unemotional and predatory as reptiles.”

President Truman on the Subject

The National Security Act of 1947 created the CIA, and President Truman signed it into law. Along with intelligence-gathering activities, the Act empowers the CIA “to perform such other functions and duties related to intelligence affecting the national security…” [emphasis added]. Secretary of State General George Marshall warned Truman this Act would grant the new intelligence agency powers that were “almost unlimited.”

Truman began writing a Public Statement on the CIA after Kennedy was killed. It reads:  JFK and the Unspeakabl. James W. Douglass Best Price: $3.04 Buy New $8.00 (as of 06:35 EDT - Details) 

“I think it has become necessary to take another look at the purpose and operations of our Central Intelligence Agency… For some time, I have been disturbed the way the CIA has been diverted from its original assignment. It has become an operational and at times a policy-making arm of the Government…There is something about the way the CIA has been functioning that is casting a shadow over our historic position and I feel that we need to correct it.”

TheWashington Post published President Truman’s Statement on the CIA Dec 21, 1963, under the title “Harry Truman Writes: Limit CIA Role To Intelligence,” on page A11 in the morning edition. No other newspapers, including The New York Times, ran it. No television newscasters touched it, and even TheWashingtonPost deleted this statement in its evening edition. Truman called the CIA “an American Gestapo.”

Collaborators

Lyndon Johnson and J. Edgar Hoover had foreknowledge of the CIA’s plot to kill Kennedy. They had the most to gain from JFK’s murder. Johnson was on the verge of facing a criminal indictment on scandals linked to aid Bobby Baker and tycoon Billy Sol Estes. With Kennedy dead he’d be president and all that would be forgotten. Allen Dulles flew down to Texas to meet with Johnson at his ranch a week before the assassination.

Edgar Hoover faced mandatory retirement at age 70 on January 1, 1965, his birthday. With JFK gone he was able to continue as FBI director until he died in office in 1972 at age 77.

The Secret Service aided the shooters. It was the Secret Service, not President Kennedy as conspiracy denialists would have it, that ordered the two agents assigned to stand on the back of the president’s limo to remain at the airport, rendering JFK more exposed.

Dallas parades and motorcades down Main St. would always stay on Main St. through Dealey Plaza, like President Franklin Roosevelt’s motorcade did when he visited Dallas. But the route the Secret Service approved for JFK’s motorcade, several days before the event, was unique. It made a right turn off Main St. onto Houston St. bordering Dealey Plaza and then a hairpin, 120-degree turn onto Elm St., violating the Secret Service rule that the president’s limousine never makes a turn greater than 90-degrees.

Agent William Greer driving the president’s limo slowed down on Elm St. and brought it to a momentary halt after the first shot was fired. (This was edited out of the Zapruder film.)

It was a sniper’s gallery, with shooters positioned behind the fence on the grassy knoll; on the southwest 6th floor of the Texas School Book Depository (closer to the limo than the southeast corner where Oswald was supposed to be); the roof of the Dallas County Records Building; and the 2nd floor of the Dal-Tex building on Elm St. (adjacent to the Book Depository and County Records Building), which provided a straight shot down Elm St.  Last Word: My Indictme. Mark Lane Best Price: $5.22 Buy New $52.33 (as of 01:20 EDT - Details) 

President Johnson and FBI Director Hoover played major roles in the cover-up. Johnson signed an Executive Order a week after the assassination that established The President’s Commission on the Assassination of President Kennedy (the “Warren Commission”), and Hoover supplied reports to the Commission. Angleton allegedly let Hoover know the CIA had a photo of him having sex with another man (partner Clyde Tolson), to encourage him to stifle any allegations of CIA involvement in the assassination.

Allen Dulles attended the most meetings and was the defacto leader of the Warren Commission. He kept it from looking into any CIA activities.

The government-controlled establishment media assumed the role of court conspiracy deniers and dutifully portrayed Oswald as the lone nut assassin. Former CIA Director William Colby declared that everyone of any significance in the U.S. media was owned by the CIA.

The Two Oswalds

There were two Lee Harvey Oswalds, Lee and “Harvey.” Jim Douglass calls it “a double Oswald drama directed by the CIA.”

Using doubles, like the exotic dancer and German spy Mata Hari did during World War I is a long-established practice in intelligence work.

The CIA found an East European refugee living in New York who spoke perfect Russian and looked like an American boy his age in New Orleans. The two boys led parallel lives for seven years up to age 19. At that point the Russian-speaking “Harvey” assumed Lee’s American identity in preparation for his false defection to the Soviet Union.

Posing as an American dissident, “Harvey” lived in Russia for 2½ years, mostly in Minsk observing what was going on. He spoke English, cultivated English-speaking Russians and pretended not to know the Russian language.

“Harvey” and Lee shared the same military ID card and the same social security number. The card featured a composite photo of the two of them. They each carried two cards, one in the name Lee Harvey Oswald and the other, Alek J. Hidell, most likely the birth name of this refugee. Given his Slavic accent Alek was probably born in one of the three Baltic States, perhaps Latvia.

In 1961 Hoover learned that someone was impersonating Lee Harvey Oswald in the U.S. when he (“Harvey”) was in Russia. Hoover wrote a memo about it. James Angleton himself most likely told Hoover then about the CIA’s Oswald Project. Angleton once said, “You could take Mr. Hoover as long as you put your cards on the table.”

After “Harvey” returned from Russia the CIA used his double, Lee, to help set him up as the “patsy” for the JFK assassination. Lee would go to a rifle range, gun shop, sporting store and make a nuisance of himself, loudly denouncing Kennedy and saying that he should be shot. So, people in these places who had heard Oswald (Lee) condemn Kennedy would come forward and help confirm Oswald (“Harvey”) as the killer when authorities arrested him for the assassination.

Deputy Sheriff Roger Craig and four other eyewitnesses saw Oswald leave the Book Depository after the shooting and get in a Nash Rambler on Elm Street. Sheriff Craig’s unwavering certainty about seeing Oswald do this, the real Oswald in this case, cost him his life. After surviving multiple assassination attempts, Roger Craig, at age 39, was killed by a bullet shot from a rifle.

The Warren Commission bungled its biography of Lee Harvey Oswald. The Commission has him in the fall of 1953 attending two schools at the same time—the 8th grade at Public School 44 in New York City (CE 1384) and Beauregard Junior High in New Orleans (CE 1413), sporting a perfect attendance record at this school. That would be Harvey.

In another misstep, the Office of Naval Intelligence (ONI) missed confiscating medical records that shows Lee Harvey Oswald (Lee) being treated for gonorrhea at the Atsugi Station Hospital in Japan while, at the same time, the Marine Corps Diary has Lee Harvey Oswald (“Harvey”) billeted in Taiwan.

John Armstrong puts it this way:

“If you understand who Harvey and Lee really were, who created them, who directed them then you will know who was responsible for the assassination of John Kennedy.”

Jack Ruby shot the Baltic-born “Lee Harvey Oswald” (Alek James Hidell). The American-born Lee Harvey Oswald disappeared after the assassination.

For more on Harvey and Lee, visit the website harveyandlee.net, from which the table here is taken. Assassination researcher Jim Hargrove created the site in 1999 and last updated it on July 1, 2019.

Why Was Kennedy Killed?  

The motive for Kennedy’s murder was the perceived need to bring about a regime-change based on National Security. It arose after the abortive April 17-20, 1961 Bay of Pigs invasion of Cuba by 1,800 anti-Castro Cuban exiles. JFK inherited this CIA-planned invasion from the Eisenhower Administration. Pressed to approve it, Kennedy made clear that he would not under any circumstances permit any U.S. military intervention. When the invasion failed (as its planners expected) the CIA and top military brass figured the new, young president would cave in and authorize U.S. military air support and troops to bail out the now trapped Cuban exile force. Refusing permission, Kennedy made himself an enemy of the National-Security State and its CIA-Pentagon-Arms Industry War Machine.

JFK’s so-called “Second Bay of Pigs” was the Oct 16-28, 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis, arising when the U.S. discovered the Soviet Union was installing nuclear missiles in Cuba. The Pentagon’s Joint Chiefs of Staff, in particular Air Force General Curtis LeMay, implored Kennedy to authorize them carry out a preemptive military strike against the Cuban missile sites and quickly put an end to the crisis. Much to their disgust, however, JFK held off and resolved the crisis peaceably, promising the U.S. would never invade Cuba and agreeing to remove all nuclear missiles the U.S. had in Turkey on the border of the Soviet Union. General Curtis LeMay branded this the “greatest defeat in our history.”

Little did the Joint Chiefs know that the Soviet Union had 47,000 Soviet troops and close to 100 tactical nuclear weapons on the island and had given its commander, General Issa Pliyev, hero of the defence of Stalingrad and Moscow, authority to use them should U.S. troops invade Cuba.

(If Kennedy had given his Joint Chiefs permission to invade Cuba, with U.S. forces suffering destruction from tactical nuclear weapons, a potentially civilization-destroying, full-scale nuclear war between the Soviet Union and the United States might well have happened.)

Another insult to the CIA-Pentagon-Arms Industry War Machine was Kennedy’s June 10, 1963 American University Commencement Address advocating world peace and nuclear disarmament. The National-Security establishment (named after the National Security Act of 1947) did not want peace, then or now.

In this commencement address, President Kennedy says:

“What kind of peace do I mean? What kind of peace do we seek? Not a Pax Americana enforced on the world by American weapons of war. Not the peace of the grave or the security of the slave. I am talking about genuine peace, the kind of peace that makes life on earth worth living, the kind that enables men and nations to grow and to hope and to build a better life for their children – not merely peace for Americans but peace for all men and women – not merely peace in our time but peace for all time.”

Its most heartfelt moment was this:

 ”For in the final analysis, our most basic common link is that we all inhabit this small planet. We all breathe the same air. We all cherish our children’s futures. And we are all mortal.”

JFK’s Sept. 24, 1963 National Security Action Memorandum 263 announced that he was going to bring home the 16,500 U.S. military “advisors” then in Vietnam. That and his Oct. 11 Nuclear Test Ban Treaty with the Soviet Union sealed his fate.

Jim Douglass writes in JFK and the Unspeakable:

“As we continue to reflect on John Kennedy’s vision at American University, which sought a way of peace, we can foresee the falling stars of lives that would be brought down with the death of that vision. Among them would be Lee Harvey Oswald, a young man on assignment in Russia for American intelligence… Oswald was a pawn in the game. He was a minor piece in the deadly game Kennedy wanted to end… Oswald was being moved square by square across a giant board stretching from Atsugi to Moscow to Minsk to Dallas. For the sake of victory in the Cold War, the hands moving Oswald were prepared to sacrifice him and any other piece on the board. However, there was one player, John Kennedy, who no longer believed in the game and was threatening to turn over the board.”

Mary Meyer, ex-wife of top CIA official Cord Meyer, was JFK’s lover and confidant. Mary came to Jack’s American University peace speech, not Jackie. Peter Janney, author of Mary’s Mosaic: The CIA Conspiracy to Murder John F. Kennedy, Mary Pinchot Meyer, and Their Vision for World Peace, was the son of high-ranking CIA official Wistar Janney and a close friend of the Mary and Cord Meyer family. He writes:

“The Warren Report was ultimately nothing more than a house of cards; once ignited with the right matchstick, it would be engulfed in flames. If Mary courageously went public with who she was, and what she knew, making clear her position in the final years of Jack’s life, people with influence would take notice; the fire of suspicion around Dallas would erupt into a conflagration… She had to be eliminated.”

The night of Mary’s murder her sister Tony Bradley found friend James Angleton rummaging through Mary’s house looking for her diary.

In her 2019 book, A Lie Too Big to Fail: The Real History of the Assassination of Robert F. Kennedy, Lisa Pease confirms that the CIA also killed Robert Kennedy. RFK was a particularly dangerous piece on the CIA’s chessboard, especially after he had secured the upcoming  Democratic nomination for President. He too had to be eliminated.

A few days after Robert Kennedy announced he was entering the 1968 presidential race, Jackie Kennedy told Arthur Schlesinger: “Do you know what I think will happen to Bobby? The same thing that happened to Jack.”

John F. Kennedy died at age 46, a martyr for world peace. Had he lived, there would not have been a Vietnam War costing the lives of 58,000 Americans, more than 2 million Vietnamese and 600,000 Cambodians. More than 270,000 Vietnam veterans have suffered from PTSD (Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder). And since the war ended 45 years ago somewhere between 50 to 100 thousand Vietnam veterans have committed suicide.

JFK was corresponding secretly with Khrushchev and Castro, gaining their trust when the CIA killed him. Kennedy and Khrushchev together would have ended the Cold War 25 years sooner if JFK had lived.

Castro was having lunch at his summer place with journalist Jean Daniel when an aide rushed in saying Kennedy had been shot. When word next came that Kennedy had died Castro stood up, looked at his guest and said, “Everything is changed. Everything is going to change.”

Recommended Reading

Three short books on the subject I highly recommend: Two by Jacob Hornberger, The Kennedy Autopsy (154 pages, 2015) and Regime Change (95 pages, 2014)Jacob is Founder and President of the Future of Freedom Foundation, and he writes well. The third is JFK’s War with the National Security Establishment (214 pages, 2014) by the ARRB’s Doug Horne. (Each is $2.99 on Kindle.)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    

Donald Miller  is a retired cardiac surgeon, a Professor Emeritus of Surgery and former Chief of the Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery at the University of Washington School of Medicine in Seattle. He is a member of Doctors for Disaster Preparedness and writes articles on a variety of subjects for LewRockwell.com. His website is www.donaldmiller.com.

                                

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The Tyler Chronicle            Winter, 2020          Worldwide Edition 

Big Boy Meets Chronicle Publisher, Bobby D. Moore

Marshall, Texas. From Archive, 11-11-2019

   *It was a date with destiny, this meeting between Tyler Chronicle publisher, Bobby D. Moore and the legendary steam locomotive affectionately known as “Big Boy&rdquo. Moore traveled about 60 miles to keep the rendezvous, but many of the thousand or more others who kept the date drove hundreds.

    A light, cold rain was blowing in from the north by the time we reached the rail siding in Marshall. Puddles of muddy water were collecting in shallow depressions beside the tracks and patrolmen were hard pressed to control the influx of traffic. Parking space was not easy to find so we walked in the rain, new shoes, video cameras and all, the final several hundred yards.

    We knew exactly what camera angles we wanted for the shots, but getting them was all but impossible.  Many of the spectators had brought umbrellas which made it even more difficult. They clustered around the million plus pounds of hot, breathing iron like baby chicks around a mother hen. They wanted to be intimately close, to touch, to smell and to feel the beast.

   Their attitude was that of awed respect and appreciation. Many of them seemed to understand, instinctively perhaps, the vital role that steam locomotives played in the history of our country. For it is true that the America we have known and loved was built on shining rails of steel. An unexpectedly high  percentage of them expressed concern that  many younger Americans do not understand and  share that appreciation.

    The spectators varied in age from babes in arms to octagenarians in wheel chairs, young and old, rich and poor, city slickers and country bumpkins, busloads of students, to down and out hoboes. They were all there, drawn by a common thread; the lore and mystery of steam.

    It is easy to understand how the operators of steam locomotives (the brave engineers) became bigger than life characters. They assumed an identity above and beyond common mortals; they became a living flesh and blood extension of the locomotive itself.

(stock photo)

Union Pacific's "Big Boy" steam locomotive was in Marshall, Texas on November 11, 2019 where hundreds gathered to experience this once in a lifetime opportunity. The enormous locomotive which weighs 1.2 million pounds is one of 25 built by the Alcoa Locomotive Works in New York in the 1940's and is the only remaining engine of its kind still in operation according to Union Pacific.


                           (photo courtesy Union Pacific)

If you were an engineer or fireman inside the cab of "Big Boy", this is part of what you would see; a bewildering maze of valves, levers gages and other controls, all necessary for the  successful operation of this enormous locomotive. The throttle (which serves the same purpose as the automobile accelerator) is on the right. Can you pick it out?

                            Numerous cruise lines have ships which depart Galveston and other Texas ports on a regular basis. And if you haven't taken a trip on one of these luxury liners, you owe it to yourself to give it a try! The cost can be less than you might expect, and if you enjoy travel in comfortable surroundings, with excellent food and good company, you can't lose with a cruise.

Consider food, for example. Just for fun we asked what it takes to supply a typical week-long cruise on Royal Caribbean's Freedom of the Seas, the largest ship afloat. Here's what is consumed every 7 days:

234,000 appetizers; 105,000 meals and 300,680 desserts
20,000 lbs. of beef, including 69,000 steaks
12,000 lbs. of chicken
4,000 lbs. of seafood; 2,500 lbs. of salmon and 1,400 lbs. of lobster
65,000 lbs. of fresh vegetables and 35,000 lbs. of fresh fruits
5,800 lbs. of cheese
28,000 fresh eggs
18,000 slices of pizza
8,000 gallons of ice cream
1,500 lbs. of coffee and 1,500 gallons of milk
11,500 cans of soda; 19,200 bottles and cans of beer and 2,900 bottles of wine
            
You cannot walk the corridors of Presidio La Bahia alone. The ghosts of Fannin's dead Texans walk with you. They whisper in the night, persistently demanding that you listen to the story they have to tell. Listen closely and you will hear the clash of armor, the shouting and shooting of battle and the cries of the dying. And the Dead. Fannin's soldiers have a story that must be told. Will you listen?

By 1835 American colonists in Texas had become frustrated enough with Mexican rule to fight a revolution.

On October 9, 1835, Captain George Coillinsworth led a group of angry Texans in an attack on the Mexican garrison stationed at Presidio La Bahia. They successfully took the fort and about two months later the first Declaration of Texas Independence from Mexico was signed at the fort near Goliad.

Goliad and the presidio are perhaps best remembered however, for what was probably the most infamous event of the Texas Revolution. In February, 1836, Colonel James Fannin of the Texas Army assumed command of the fort. But after the fall of the Alamo, Fannin and his soldiers were ordered by Sam Houston to retreat to Victoria.

The evacuation of the fort began March 19, but Fannin encountered Mexican General Jose' Urrea after about nine miles of travel. Fannin and his men were outnumbered and without provisions (even water). The battle of Coleto Creek resulted in Fannin's surrender with the agreement that he and his men would be held as prisoners of war. They were marched back to the fort and held in the chapel.

Although it is generally agreed that Urrea's intentions were to honor the terms of the surrender, Santa Anna ordered Fannin and his men to be executed. On Palm Sunday, March 27, the Texans were marched outside the presidio "for exercise". The story goes that Fannin paid his executioner not to shoot him in the face.
When the killing was done, Santa Anna's troops dumped the bodies of 342 dead and dying Texans into bonfires that burned long into the night.

The Goliad Massacre aroused sympathy and support for Texas from the United States, and "Remember Goliad" became a battle cry in the Texas War for Independence.

A memorial shaft near the presidio stands over the burial site of those killed in the massacre and about 10 miles northeast, Fannin Battleground State Historical Park marks the site of the Battle of Coleto Creek. (Tyler's "Camp Fannin" was named after Colonel James Fannin.)


     Go to Goliad.     
You'll like it, and you may learn a little about Texas history in the process. One thing is certain, you will come away from the old Mission Espiritu Santo and the fort (La Bahia) with a deeper sense of understanding and respect for the Texans who fought and died to make Texas an independent republic.

Goliad State Historical Park is a must-see. The central feature of the park is the Mission Espiritu Santo. this Spanish mission existed as an active mission for over 110 years (longer than any other in Texas).It was later used as a Protestant college, but was a shambles when the land was deeded to the state in 1932. The mission was carefully restored using authentic materials and methods by the Civilian Conservation Corps.

Mission tours are $2 per person; money well spent. A map will guide you through the ruins of the original structures along the banks of the San Antonio River.
Two camping areas are featured. One area caters to group campers with spacious sites and a dining hall. The other features RV hookups in addition to primitive riverside camping and picnicking. Both areas are along the meandering and steep banks of the San Antonio River and are heavily wooded. Screened shelters complete with overhead fans and lighting are available for rent. There's a nice swimming pool available too.

Here's a part of what's in or near Goliad: Presidio La Bahia, the Fannin Memorial, Fannin Battleground, ruins of the Mission Rosario, the town of Goliad itself, Goliad State Historical Park and Mission Espiritu Santo.


  Fannin; Texas Hero, or Incompetent Leader?     
BACKGROUND--- James Walker Fannin Jr. (1804-1836)was the illigitimate son of Er Isham Fannin of Georgia. Fannin was adopted by his maternal grandfather, James W. Walker and was reared on a plantation near Marion.

He entered the United States Military Academy at West Point under the name of James Walker, but withdrew after disagreements with classmates. In 1834 he moved to Texas with his wife and two daughters and settled at Velasco. There he operated a small plantation and bought and sold slaves.
In 1835, Fannin became a supporter of the Texas Revolution and an active member of the volunteer army for the revolution. he was commissioned as a colonel in the regular army of Texas by Sam Houston in 1836.

After an ill-fated plan to invade Matamoros, Mexico, Fannin withdrew to the Presidio La Bahia (Fort by the Bay) near Goliad. The presidio was strengthened to resist an expected attack by Mexican General Jose' Urrea.

DEFECTS AS A COMMANDER--- Fannin was accustomed to the discipline of a regular army and adapted poorly to being head of a group of volunteers; he dispised the idea of electing officers and was bothered by the absence of a clearly defined chain of command in his forces. His arrogance and overriding ambition served to earn him the contempt of many of those under his command. In the final weeks before the massacre at Goliad, Fannin repeatedly requested to be relieved of his command.

Today most historians concur that Fannin made many serious mistakes as a commander, ultimately resulting in his own death and that of 342 others fighting for the Texas cause at Goliad. But despite his indecisiveness, and obviously poor military judgement, he held out bravely until the end.

  Fannin, Texas     
As you might guess, the town located on U.S. Highway 59 about ten miles from Goliad is named for the controversial commander, James W. Fannin. The original settlement on Perdido Creek near the site of Fannin's defeat at the Battle of Coleto was established before 1852. A post office was established there in 1852 and was called Fannin's Defeat.

The town's name had been changed to "Perdido" by the time the second post office opened in 1873. By that time prosperity of a sort had come to the tiny community, a general store was in operation, a combination steam gin and gristmill was built as cotton became a local crop and a school and church wee constructed. Daily stages to Goliad and Victoria served the fifty residents in 1884.

Now comes the railroad. In 1889 the Gulf, Western Texas and Pacific Railway was routed a mile to the south of the settlement. The depot was called "Fannin", and the town moved to the railhead. As was often the case, the railroad brought prosperity and the town's population quickly grew.

By the early 1900's more than 300 residents populated Fannin, which by now had a cotton gin, a flour mill, two saloons, a hotel, a dance hall, a jail, and a blacksmith shop. as well as two houses of ill repute.

But trouble was on the way. In 1911, a feud between two locals resulted in gunplay at one of the town's saloons and a stray bullet just happened to strike a kerosene cookstove. The resulting conflagration destroyed most of the town. By 1933 the population had declined to about 100. The Fannin school closed in 1944 and the gin was torn down in the early 40's.

The railhead cattle pens were removed when ranchers began shipping cattle by truck, and the hotel, which had operated continuously from 1880 to 1950 closed it's doors. In 1990 Fannin had about 90 residents if you counted stray dogs and roosters!

   Fannin Battleground State Historic Site     
It's a mile south of U.S. Hwy. 59 at Fannin, in eastern Goliad County and marks the location of the Battle of Coleto between Texas Colonel Fannin and Mexican General Urrea during the Texas Revolution in 1836.

The battlefield was marked originally by a pile of rocks placed by William L. Hunter, one of Fannin's men who survived the battle and the resulting massacre at Goliad. In 1891 the pile of rocks was replaced by a massive iron screw from a cotton gin.

In 1914, the state constructed a rock wall around the area and erected a monument. In 1965 the thirteen acre park was placed under the care of the Texas Parks and Wildlife Dept. The iron screw still marks the entrance to the park and small museum.

     Where Are the Heroes?
Where are the heroes in this story of Fannin and his men? There may not be any. does a man become a hero because he exercises poor judgement in a wartime situation which results in the murder of over 300 men?

There may be heroes in war, but war itself is ugly and in general, not a heroic undertaking. The Texas War for Independence from Mexico was no exception.
The Texans at Goliad were not, for the most part, professional soldiers. They were not recruits. They were a mixed bag of undisciplined volunteers whose motives probably varied widely.

Their leadership, in the person of Fannin, was inadequate, as Fannin himself admitted. If Fannin had followed the orders of Texas General Sam Houston, he would not have been "slouching" away from Goliad to be overtaken by Mexican General Urrea. In fact, he would not have been at the persidio at all.
The decision to establish himself at Goliad was Fannin's own. The Texas government at that time was rife with confusion and intrigue. Orders were often contradicted or ignored.

The Mexican army under general Urrea, although better disciplined than Fannin's, was itself, quite a hodgepodge. The Mexican "soldiers" who actually carried out the execution of Fannin and his men were Yucatan Indians.

But regardless of how heroic we may or may not consider Fannin, one cannot visit the persidio at Goliad without feeling the spirits of the men who died there. One thing is certain, a very great price was paid to secure the freedom of the Republic of Texas.

We live in a sea of myths. They seem to be a necessary part of human existence. if we dispel the myths of Goliad, others will come to take their place. so, let us not be myth-busters. But let us recognize that a great price was paid for our freedom and must be continually. repaid.


                  



           

 


 

The Tyler Chronicle     Autumn,  2020     Worldwide Edition 

 

Follow Your Dream, & Doors Will Open

     ".Lewis and Clark headed west. Isak Dinesen took off for Africa. We all have our Africas, those dark and romantic notions that call to our deepest selves. When we answer that call, when we commit to it, we set in motion the principle that C. G. Jung dubbed synchornicity, loosely defined as a fortuitous intermeshing of events. Back in the sixties, we called it serendipity. Whatever you choose to call it, once you begin your creative recovery you may be startled to find it cropping up everywhere.
.I have learned, as a rule of thumb, never to ask whether you can do something. Say instead, that you are doing it. Then fasten your seat belt. The most remarkable things follow.
    In my experience, the universe falls in with worthy plans and most especially with festive and expansive ones. I have seldom conceived a delicious plan without being given the means to accomplish it. Understand that the what must come before the how. First choose what you would do. The how usually falls into place of itself.
.We like to pretend it is hard to follow our heart's dreams. The truth is, it is difficult to avoid walking through the many doors that will open. Turn aside your dream and it will come back to you again. Get willing to follow it again and a second mysterious door will swing open.
.Take a small step in the direction of a dream and watch the synchronous doors flying open."
THE ARTIST'S WAY
Julia Cameron

"Whatever you think you can do or believe you can do, begin it. Action has magic, grace, and power in it."
W.H. Murray
The Scottish Himalayan Expedition


Here is your opportunity to be a "published" poet. Just send your original work to The Tyler Chronicle's Dead Space Poetry Society, and we will publish it as space and time permit. And now, not only can your poem appear in the printed editions of the the Chronicle, but also in the web version you are reading now!
Just think! Your poem can appear right alongside the likes of Keats, Shelley, Byron, and Shakespeare. Not only that, but if your poem is published we will send you a gen-u-ine certificate (suitable for framing) telling the world that you are indeed a member of this elite society. We suggest that you always copyright your works before releasing them.
Send your original poems to: bmcntyler@yahoo.com.

Come, Little Leaves

             

by George Cooper

     

 " Come, little leaves, "  said the wind one day,
" Come o'er the meadows with me and play;
Put on your dresses of red and gold,
For summer is gone and the days grow cold. "

Soon as the leaves heard the wind's loud call,
Down they came fluttering, one and all;
Over the brown fields they danced and flew,
Singing the glad little songs they knew.

" Cricket, good-by, we've been friends so long,
Little brook, sing us your farewell song;
Say you are sorry to see us go;
Ah, you will miss us, right well we know.

" Dear little lambs in your fleecy fold,
Mother will keep you from harm and cold;
Fondly we watched you in vale and glade,
Say, will you dream of our loving shade? "

Dancing and whirling, the little leaves went,
Winter had called them, and they were content;
Soon, fast asleep in their earthy beds,
The snow laid a coverlid over their heads.



If
By Rudyard Kipling

If you can keep your head when all about you
Are losing theirs and blaming it on you,
If you can trust yourself when all men doubt you,
But  make allowance for their doubting too; 

If you can wait and not be tired by waiting,
Or being lied about, don't deal in lies,
Or being hated, don't give way to hating,
And yet don't look too good, nor talk too wise;

If you can dream - and not make dreams your master,
If you can think - and not make thoughts your aim;
If you can meet with Triumph and Disaster
And treat those two imposters just the same; 

If you can bear to hear the truth you've spoken
Twisted by knaves to make a trap for fools,
Or watch the things you gave your life to broken,
And stoop and build 'em up with wornout tools; 

If you can make one heap of all your winnings
And risk it on one turn of pitch and toss,
And lose, and start again at your beginnings
And never breathe a word about  your loss; 

If you can force your heart and nerve and sinue
To serve your turn long after they are gone,
And so hold on when there is nothing in you
Except the Will which says to them: 'Hold on!'

 If you can walk with crowds and keep your virtue,
Or walk with kings - nor lose the common touch,
If neither foes nor loving friends can hurt you,
If all men count with you, but none too much; 

If you can fill the unforgiving minute
With sixty seconds' worth of distance run -
Yours is the Earth and everything that's in it,
And - which is more - you'll be a Man my son!

 

 Who Am I? 
By Anonymous

I am rich, but I am poor.
I am lonely, but not alone
I am smart, but very dumb.

I am the son of Noah and Sam Bodie.

I am Noah Bodie.

 My Friend 
By Woodine Wiley

My friend you are so very nice.
To my life you have added spice.
My heart is happy every day;
Since you came along my way.


God bless you for the things you do.
Most of all just being you.
A gentle word, and kindly smile;
Make my life seem worthwhile.


Keep on being the things you are.
To me you are God's shining star.
A shining light to lead the way.
For songs to sing and music to play.

 Love Poems from Ancient Egypt 

(Extract from a 3,000 year-old papyrus)

She is one girl, there is no one like her.
She is more beautiful than any other.
Look, she is like a star goddess arising
at the beginning of a happy new year;
brilliantly white, bright skinned;
with beautiful eyes for looking,
with sweet lips for speaking;
she has not one phrase too many.

With a long neck and white breasts,
her hair of genuine lapis lazuli;
her arm more brilliant than gold;
her fingers like lotus flowers,
with heavy buttocks and girt waist.

Her thighs offer her beauty,
with a brisk step she treads on ground.
She has captured my heart in her embrace.
She makes all men turn their necks
to look at her.
One looks at her passing by,
this one, the unique one.

 Untitled 

I wish I were your mirror
so that you always looked at me.
I wish I were your garment
so that you would always wear me.
I wish I were the water that washes
your body.

I wish I were the unguent, O woman,
that I could annoit you.
And the band around your breasts,
and the beads around your neck.
I wish I were your sandal
that you would step on me!

O my beautiful one,
I wish I were part of your affairs, like a wife.
With your hand in mine
your love would be returned.
I implore my heart:
"If my true love stays away tonight,
I shall be like someone already
in the grave."
Are you not my health and my life?
How joyful is your good health
for the heart that seeks you!



 The Young Man's Wish  

(An old copy, without printer's name; probably one from the Aldermary Church-yard press. Poems in triplets were very popular during the reign of Charles I., and are frequently to be met with during the Interregnum, and the reign of Charles II.)

IF I could but attain my wish,
I'd have each day one wholesome dish,
Of plain meat, or fowl, or fish.

A glass of port, with good old beer,
In winter time a fire burnt clear,
Tobacco, pipes, an easy chair.

In some clean town a snug retreat,
A little garden 'fore my gate,
With thousand pounds a year estate.

After my house expense was clear,
Whatever I could have to spare,
The neighbouring poor should freely share.

To keep content and peace through life,
I'd have a prudent cleanly wife,
Stranger to noise, and eke to strife.

Then I, when blest with such estate,
With such a house, and such a mate,
Would envy not the worldly great.

Let them for noisy honours try,
Let them seek worldly praise, while I
Unnoticed would live and die.

But since dame Fortune's not thought fit
To place me in affluence, yet
I'll be content with what I get.

He's happiest far whose humble mind,
Is unto Providence resigned,
And thinketh fortune always kind.

Then I will strive to bound my wish,
And take, instead of fowl and fish,
Whate'er is thrown into my dish.

Instead of wealth and fortune great,
Garden and house and loving mate,
I'll rest content in servile state.

I'll from each folly strive to fly,
Each virtue to attain I'll try,
And live as I would wish to die.


One Ticket Should Be Enough
Author Unknown
(Copied from a one cent post card postmarked March 22, 1941 and addressed to F.G. Swanson, Tyler, Texas.)

How would you like to travel on a train,
From Portland Oregon to Portland Maine,
And stop at every station on the line
To buy another ticket? I opine

You would call that crack-brain, but anyhow
It is the way we pay our taxes now.
One cannot spend a nickel anywhere,
But the Tax Eater is already there,
Hiding behind a Price Tag to collect
A rake-off very few of us suspect.

He pickets every show place, every store,
Where sight-unseen, he reaches out for more.

ONE TICKET AT THE START SHOULD BE ENOUGH!
And where all things must start from, in the rough
Is Mother Earth. Those who have got control
Are ticket-takers, and they charge a toll
Which should provide the revenue.

(Only when we are tax-free shall we become free men.) Horatio 

One Drop
Original attributed to Lord Byron
(Copied from a one cent post card postmarked March 22, 1941 and addressed to F.G. Swanson, Tyler, Texas.)

Truth is contageous and a Drop of Ink
May make a thousand --even millions-- think.

Why then should I --Truth's custodian--
Shrink from spreading that one precious Drop of Ink
When all the world is trembling on the brink
Of Ruin's crater and about to sink.

Eighty Years
By Woodine Wiley (September 2007)

Eighty years old, that I AM;
With spirits as frisky as a lamb.
JOYS AND PLEASURES I have many.
TROUBLES AND WOES; I don't have any.


The Lord has blessed me with a family so dear;
Adding three more "great grands" just this year.
He brought a daughter-in-law who brings much joy.
She has three children; all of them boys.


So, if you think being eighty could be a drag;
Look at all the things about which to brag.
Look forward to being eighty years young.
God will bless you with so much fun.

(It is bad if your enemies are unfriendly-- and worse if they are your friends.) Leonardo da Vinci 


IT HAS BEEN A YEAR
By Woodine Wiley

My loved one passed away; it has been a year,
One year with many a fear and many a tear.
Days, weeks and months of loneliness and feeling blue;
Wondering oft times "with my life, what should I do?"


Just as in times past, as along life's path I did plod,
My path and direction were relinquished to God.
What a difference it made in life's troubled pathway;
To seek His will, as I walked day by day.


"Enlarge my territory, Lord" I prayed as Jabez did.
Many events happened which I felt were spirit led.
A Grief Support Group shared heartfelt pain;
From each other, new courage we would gain.


Attending church was lonely too;
My love's place was empty in the pew.
God provided neighbor children with me to go.
You can't be lonely with children in tow.


So life continues bringing joy and sorrow,
Also hope with each new tomorrow.
God will provide my needs I know;
With Him to guide me, I will onward go!


Halloween, Betwixt, Between!
By Bobby Moore (copyright 2007)

It is the night of things unseen! Halloween, Betwixt, Between!
Creepies, Ghoulies, Witches, Cats,
Skulls and Mummies, Vampire Bats!
Spiders, Toads, and Voodoo Charms,
Zombies wait with open arms!

Halloween, Halloween!
Halloween! Betwixt, Between!

The moon is full; the moon is red,
This is the night of living dead!
Monsters, chains, and screams of freight!
The undead dance with keen delight!

Halloween, Halloween!
Life and death, betwixt, between!

Graves and tombs, and castles stark,
Werewolves prowling in the dark!
Demons crawl beneath your skin,
Nightmares beckon you, "Come in!"

This is the night of Halloween!
Life and death, betwixt, between!

Owls and broomsticks, familiars fly,
Across the moon and through the sky!
Voices moan throughout the night,
Jack 'O Lantern's eerie light!

Halloween!
Life and death, betwixt, between!
Outside My Front Door
By Wanda Jennings (2006)

The hummingbirds come dancing
Outside my front door,

The hummingbirds come dancing
And leave me longing for more,

They dash across one way and then back the other
They fly up high and dive toward one another,

They come dancing in the morning
And then they're back close to noon,

But they do their best dancing
When the day is almost through,

So small and yet so graceful
They put on quite a show,

The hummingbirds come dancing
Outside my front door.

Wanda Jennings, 8-4-2006


Kindness. Anonymous 

If you had a kindness shown
Pass it on--
'Twas not meant for you alone
Pass it on--
Let it travel down the years
Till in heaven,
The deed appears--
Pass it on, pass it on.


The Family. Anonymous 

The family is like a book--
The children are the leaves;
The parents are the cover, that
Protective beauty gives.


At first the pages of the book
Are blank and purely fair;
But time soon writes memories,
And paints pictures there.


Love is the little golden clasp
That bindeth up the trust;
Oh, break it not lest all the leaves
Shall scatter and be lost!


The Builder. Submitted by the late Judge Harry Loftis 

I watched them tearing a building down
A gang of men in a busy town,
With a ho heave ho and a lusty yell
They swung a beam and a sidewalk fell.
I asked the Foreman, Are these men skilled
And the men you'd hire if you had to build?
He gave a laugh and said, "No indeed
Just common labor is all I need.
I can easily wreck in a day or two
What builders have taken a year to do."

And I thought to myself as I walked away
Which of these roles have I tried to play?
Am I a builder who walks with care
Measuring life by the rule and square?
Am I shaping my deeds to a well made plan
Patiently doing the best I can?
Or am I a wrecker who walks the town
Content with the labor of tearing down?

"Tall Paul" Williams

 Ode to The Tyler Chronicle. By Paul Williams

How old was I when I first knowed Bobby Moore?
Shucks, I can't remember when he weren't around.
That ole boy did a heap of work.
Sniffin' out news like an ole bloodhound.

From the Whitehouse Journal, to the Tyler Star, to the Tyler Chronicle
He's made his mark on East Texas journalism
For about forty years
And he's gettin' better every day.

I rekon you heard about him finding K-DOK's "Tall Paul", "Wild Child" Williams?
Took him a year, but he never gave up
Until he found him
Down Houston way.

Well, I got a letter today from the folks back home in Tyler.
Everybody's fine. Crops is dry.
Down at the end, cousin Linda Jean said,
"You knowed the Tyler Chronicle is 28 years old
And ole Bobby Moore (Rupert's boy)
Is still the "Head-Guy".

You know, one of these days I'm gonna climb a mountain,
Walk up there among them clouds,
Where the cotton's high and the corn's a-growin'
And there ain't no fields to plow.
With the sun beatin' down ore the fields I'll see.
That Tyler Chronicle, Bobby Moore, "Daddy Julz". and me. Whatever Happened?. By Bobby D. Moore

Whatever happened to the dancing daffodils
Who smiled in the springtime sun,
Whatever happened to the forest
Who surrounded them with arms of oak,
Whatever happened?

Whatever happened to the happy brook
Who laughed on her way to the sea,
Whatever happened to the meadow lark
Who nested in the tall grass,
Whatever happened?

Whatever happened to the peaceful pond
Who made a home for sunfish,
Whatever happened to it's denizens
Who nipped at my skin in it's warmth,
Whatever happened?

Whatever happened to the leaves of autumn
Who painted the woodland floor,
When did the warmth of Thanksgiving leave us,
Whatever happened to Halloween,
Whatever happened?

Where is the warm smoke that wafted from chimneytops
When winter's white cloaked the hills,
Where are the friends and loves of my youth,
How did I lose them?
Do Not Stand at My Grave and Weep 
Author Unknown

I am not there. I do not sleep.
I am a thousand winds that blow:
I am the diamond glint on snow
I am the sunlight on ripened grain:
I am the gentle autumn rain.

When you awaken in the morning hush,
I am the swift, uplifting rush
Of quiet birds in circling flight.
I am the soft stars that shine at night.

Do not stand by my bed and cry;
I am not there; I did not die.

(Contributed by Duffie Lee Sinclair in memory of his mother, Gladys Ella Sinclair, 1902-1979)


 MY HERO 

WHEN I LOOK BACK UPON MY LIFE,
THE YEARS THAT I HAVE HAD;
THE HERO OF MY YOUTH SHINES BRIGHT,
IN THE FIGURE OF MY DAD.
MY FATHER WAS A GENTLE MAN,
AND FUNNY IN HIS WAY.
HE SEEMED SO TALL WHEN I WAS YOUNG,
HIS SMILE COULD LIGHT MY DAY.
THERE SEEMED NOTHING THAT HE COULDN'T DO;
HE GAVE MY LIFE SUCH JOY.
HE COULD FIX A SCRAPED UP KNEE,
OR MEND A BROKEN TOY.
MY FAVORITE PLACE WAS IN HIS LAP,
OR PERCHED UPON HIS KNEE.
MY WORLD SEEMED SAFE WITHIN HIS ARMS;
HE WAS THE WORLD TO ME.
MY DAD'S BEEN GONE FOR SOME YEARS NOW;
BUT HE LIVES ON IN MY HEART,
AND WHAT I AM OR MAY BECOME
HE MOLDED FROM THE START.
HE SAID THE PRIZE WAS IN THE TRYING,
NOT EVERYONE COULD WIN,
AND IF YOU FAILED THE FIRST TIME,
WELL, THE NEXT TIME TRY AGAIN.
HE TAUGHT ME EVERYONE WAS SPECIAL,
EACH HAD A JOB TO DO,
AND THOUGH LIFE DEALT US LOUSY CARDS,
THE LORD WOULD SEE US THROUGH.
HE TAUGHT ME ALL OF US ARE EQUAL,
IT'S WHAT'S INSIDE YOUR HEART,
AND IN GOD'S GAME OF LIFE, YOU SEE,
WE EACH PLAY A SPECIAL PART.
HE TAUGHT ME HOW TO SMILE AT LIFE,
WHEN ALL WAS LOOKING GRIM.
I WANT TO BE THE BEST I CAN,
I WANT TO BE LIKE HIM.
NML


The Fever. By Karl Ries 


The sun went down, the sky's still red:
Helpless I lie here on my bed.
And as the evening light turns low,
I watch the darkness subtly grow.
There is a stillness all around,
There's naught to see and not a sound.

But nothing seems at rest or ease;
I am in pain, I find no peace.
My throat is parched, my head's aglow,
My body aches from head to toe
When, drifting from the darkest gloom,
A swirling shadow shares my room.

Now there are more, they're everywhere;
Could that be just my fever's flare?
Or am I suddenly aware
Of things that have always been there?
The things don't seem to threaten me,
They are just there-- I let them be.

I can't see clear, I try in vain,
I watch as fever wracks my brain.
I stress my eyes, the strain's enorm.
Then slowly, some of them take form;
And what I see then has the look
Of something from a Lovecraft book.

I won't describe them in detail,
Some are quite massive, some seem frail.
They differ all in size and shape;
I sense we can't communicate.
The air is thick, the silence deep.
They linger as I fall asleep.

As I awake again somehow,
They are still there, but resting now.
They crouch, some low and some up high.
And are on guard as I pass by.
They make no move, I walk real slow;
Their eyes keep watching me, I know.

The next night, as I wait for them
I fail to sense their presence then.
I wonder: Were they real last night,
Or were they just my fever's sight?
My fever's down, I take some food:
I wonder: Are they gone for good?
 KDOK
By Charles Wright (1959)

 
KDOK the number one sound,
It can be heard all over town,
The one station that gives you a regular beat
And makes you forget all about the heat.

If you get lonely, just turn the dial
1330 hi-fi style.
The time & temperature are kept up to date
With the latest news from around the state

The dejays are of the very best
They swing the music out our way
From sunrise to sunset --
Every hour of the day

Bill Atkins is probably the oldest one there
But who cares, if he has gray hair --
He does a swell job on his "Timekeeper Show"
And that's what counts as you all know.

Then comes the shyest one of them all
Bouncing Bob Lloyd as you recall
With slow moving rhythm and funny jokes,
It's his pleasure to entertain the folks

When four o'clock finally comes 'round
Tall Paul Williams wears the crown,
He is slated as the hi-fi king
With his weird laugh and everything:

Coca Cola is his faithful sponsor
With prizes and gifts in store
If you will stay tuned for awhile
You'll surely want to hear more.

So as time progresses
Let's help in every way
And try to always be faithful
To the sound of KDOK.

DEMOCRATIC DIALOG 

“Father, Must I go to work?”
No, my lucky son
We're living on easy street
On Dough from Washington
“We’ve left it up to Uncle Sam
So don’t get exercised
Nobody has to give a damn

But if Sam treats us all so well
And feeds us milk and honey
Please, Daddy, tell us what the hell
He’s going to use for money

“Don’t worry bub, there’s not a hitch
In this here Noble Plan,---
He simply soaks the filthy rich
And helps the common man

“But father, won’t there come a time
When they run out of cash
And we have left them not a dime
When things will go to smash?

“My faith in you is shrinking, son
You Nosey little Brat,
You do too damn much thinking, son,
TO BE A DECOCRAT!”

Fable of the Nut Tree:
The nut tree displayed its fruits. Everyone who passed beneath it cast stones at it. (Leonardo da Vinci)
 


EFFICIENCY SUGGESTION! 

Too many Congressmen in Washington
Just waste and waste the public revenues!
They soak us poorer folks with taxes now—
No nation ever paid, and then survived.

Two thirds of congressmen in Washington
could do a better job than all of them:
Since cutting force is now in style again,
We ought to fire at least one third of them.

Some better men might add to pay they get,
And still reduce our growing public debt:

F.G. Swanson
Tyler, Texas
January 22, 1954


ALL SIRENS SHOULD RE-ARM!

Cheer up! For here’s a Valentine!
For you, we’ve worked it up in faulty rhyme.
For Life is a problem, and a hard one—too,
And Love is a traitor to all but a few.
Perhaps, you may find, in Life’s mystery,
Some hours are like pearls in a rosary;
With sweetest of memories of fitful flames
That flickered, went out; in it’s loosing games
But vows of the past, by whomever uttered,
Like castles of fairies are barred and shuttered
So why should you worry, or possiblly fret
Or waste any time, in any vain regret?
Whatever has happened, whatever the reason,
ALL SIRENS SHOULD ARM FOR ANOTHER SEASON!

F.G. Swanson
February 14, 1940
 Tyler High's Last Class of "58". By Paul Williams

How old was I when I first knowed about old Tyler High School? Shucks! I can't remember when it weren't around. That Old School did a heap of work. educating us silly clowns.

She was built in 1882. 17 years after the Civil War bloodied America's ground. By 1945, the year World War II ended, the school was 63 years old. Most of us in this room were only 5.

We were a long way from fulfilling our destinies that would include old Tyler High.

None of us had any idea we would be gathered here tonight. still very much alive.

Well, by the time 1958 rolled around, the high school was 76 years old. time to retire. and that it did, stepping aside for the youngsters: John Tyler and Robert E. Lee.

This year, 1998 marks 40 years since we, the last seniors graduated and survived.

We are the last that will honor that old school and hold it close to our hearts for the rest of our lives.

Well sir. I got a letter today from the folks back home. crops is dry, everybody fine. Down at the end Aunt Grace said "Son, you knowed Old Tyler High School died. they turned it into a playschool and tore most of it down."

Well, Uh. sittin' here now in this new plowed earth. tryin' to find me a little shade, with the sun beatin' down o'er the fields I see, that ole' school, the class of '58. and me.

One of these days I'm gonna climb a mountain. walk up there among them clouds. where the cotton's high and the corn's a growin'. and there ain't no fields to plow. with the sun beatin' down o'er the fields I'll see. that old school, the class of '58 and me.

And to the ones who've died and gone on before, we'll be lookin' forward to walkin' with them, up there among them clouds. for a joyous reunion for the last class of Tyler High.

1958 was a year to be proud!!

Daily Devotion 
By Rod Smith

For each and every new day
My Lord and Savior paves the way
Providing me hope
Which will never fade away

For without faith
We may not make it through the day
May I remember to live
A single day by day

For it is written
That his love and charity
Is the greatest of all
Just how grateful I should be

For this provides me
A life filled with purpose
And unconditional love
For our prayers are answered
From above

For we will always be
Friends now and forever
With our Lord and Savior

So long as we shall both believe
Yielding to our Father we will find our destiny
Each day remembering all of his humility

As one-day
We both bow down to our knees
Finding His prosperity
Living together

Into

ETERNITY


When Earth's Last Picture Is Painted

By Rudyard Kipling

When Earth's last picture is painted and the tubes are twisted and dried,
When the oldest colours have faded, and the youngest critic has died,
We shall rest, and faith, we shall need it - lie down for an aeon or two,
Till the Master of All Good Workmen Shall put us to work anew.


And those that were good shall be happy: they shall sit in a golden chair;
They shall splash at a ten-league canvas with brushes of comet's hair.
They shall find real saints to draw from - Magdalene, Peter, and Paul;
They shall work for an age at a sitting and never be tired at all!


And only the Master shall praise us, and only the Master shall blame;
And no one will work for the money, and no one will work for the fame,
But each for the joy of the working, and each, in his separate star,
Shall draw the Thing as he sees It for the God of Things as They are!




(Do not count as riches anything that can be lost.) Leonardo da Vinci 


 Have You Received Your "Deadspace" Certificate? 

If you have submitted a poem to our Deadspace Poetry Society which has been published. and you have not yet received your certificate, please write or email us.
We came across several certificates the other day which had been signed and placed in envelopes, but never mailed. There may be more.
We would like very much to establish an annual meeting time and place for everyone who has had poetry published in our column. A dinner together might be nice. So if you have any suggestions, send them along.
Contact: The Tyler Chronicle, Deadspace Poetry Society. Email: editor@thetylerchronicle.com


 
 

The Tyler Chronicle            Winter, 2020          Worldwide Edition


By Karl Ries

“In a few days it’ll be Halloween again,” Alvin remarked. “Let’s see what kind of spooks will be on the loose that night.” Alvin reached for his coffee as he sat in the diner with two of his co-workers. Jesse and his close friend Harold grinned at the remark. They were all in their twenties and worked at the steel mill across the street.

“It used to be fun, when we were kids. Sometimes it was really scary and I kind’a miss that,” reminisced Jesse.

“Oh come on, guys,” protested Harold, “I don’t remember ever being scared. I always found it all so silly.”

“Silly or not,” Alvin replied, “everybody is scared of something at the right time and under the right circumstances.”

“That may be true,” conceded Harold, “but no phony Halloween prank would ever excite me.”

“Oh yeah? I say that even you would be scared out of your wits if some spook would show up at night in your bedroom.”

“Let him try,” Harold boasted, “I won’t be scared. My trusty revolver in my nightstand drawer would take care of any uninvited spook, real or otherwise.”

That gave Alvin a clever idea. “Well, I’m willing to bet a case of suds that even you can be scared. Is it a deal?”

“Why not,” grinned Harold, “you fix up the spook and I’ll enjoy the beer.”

A strange noise had aroused Harold from deep sleep. He wasn’t fully awake yet but he was listening intently. There it was again – an erie, undefinable sound seemed to come from a corner of his bedroom. It was to dark for Harold to see anything. He carefully reached for the switch of the little lamp on his nitestand, then hesitated, intently listening.

That’s when he heard it once more, this time it sounded even more erie than before. It was like an awful, wailing moan but there was also the faint clatter of heavy chains. Harold turned on the lamp, quickly getting accustomed to the mellow light. Fine beads of sweat formed on his forehead as he discovered that he was not alone. In the far corner of his room stood a hooded figure entirely wrapped in a black cloak. The face of a skull was faintly discernable within the shadows of its hood and a heavy chain hanging from its shoulder was wrapped about its thin waist. The apparition stood perfectly still. It made no sound.

Harold sat frozen in his bed staring at the intruder which still had not moved. His mind raced to comprehend the situation and thankfully grasped the idea that it was just a prank. At that moment, accompanied by the tinkle of the chain, the intruder took a step towards Windows Repair Pro 4.11.7 Crack With Keygen Key Free Download 2021. Harold had partly recovered his wits.

“Stop where you are or I’ll shoot,” Harold ordered calmly. A sneering sound emanated as the figure advanced another step. With one fluid move Harold took his revolver from his drawer, cocked it and pointed it squarely at the dark shape.

“One more step and you’re dead,” Harold threatened. When the black thing advanced again, Harold aimed and fired.

The noise of the shot was deafening. However, there was just the slightest indication of movement from the intruder as the bullet impacted, but the specter did not fall. Instead a bony, skeletal hand appeared out of the utter darkness of this spooky apparition, reaching for the spot where Harold’s bullet must have hit. It seemed to pluck something out of itself. Then, with a smooth movement, the specter tossed something at Harold. It landed on the bed cover in front of him. Harold instantly recognized it. It was the very bullet he had just fired pointblank at the apparition.

Harold’s hair stood on edge, his jaw trembled but with a steady hand he fired the second shot. The results were the same, only this time a horrible, hollow laughter accompanied the return of the bullet. Acrid powder smell hung in the air as Harold fired again and again, but after every shot, spent bullet was nonchalantly tossed back to him. Then, although Harold tried to shoot again, only an ineffective click could be heard. With the realization that his gun was empty Harold’s body went limp. He fell back onto his pillow – dead.

“I didn’t mean to harm him, Your Honor, and I certainly didn’t mean to kill him,” Alvin pleaded.

“Explain in your won words what happened,” the judge demanded at the hearing.

“Harold, Jesse and I were talking about Halloween while eating lunch the other day,” started Alvin, “when Harold insisted that he could not be scared by any means. This somehow represented a challenge to try and do just that. When Harold further announced that he kept a loaded revolver by his bed and would not hesitate to shoot at any intruder, and idea of how to really scare him presented itself. We made a bet and Harold accepted.

“I needed Jesses’ help since Harold rented a room in the same house where Jesse lived. The two were close friends and Jesse had a key to Harold’s room. Jesse obtained Harold’s loaded gun for me. I loosened the crimp on all six cartridges and carefully removed and kept the bullets from the casing. I then made certain that the powder remained in place by sealing it with a few drops of candle wax. I replaced the harmless cartridges into the gun, knowing that it would sound like a real show when fired, but that it would be completely harmless.

"I dressed up as 'Father Time' and after Harold was asleep, Jesse, using his key, let me into his room. I didn’t know if Harold would really shoot at easeus data recovery wizard license code 12.9.1, but if he did, I would just toss his projectiles back at him.”

Alvin cleared his throat, but had to wait a moment until he could continue. With a choking voice Alvin added, “Harold did not appear scared. He fired and I tossed the bullets at him. When his gun was empty, he fell back on his bed. At first I thought he had just fainted, but when my attempts at reviving him failed I immediately called 911.”

 

 REVENGE IS MINE.Another Short Story

By Karl Ries

With reservations, Mark moved into the small apartment he had found in this foreign city. His knowledge of the subject and his fluency in the Italian language had brought the opportunity to teach at this prestigious university in Milan, Italy. Milan, with it’s magnificent Cathedral and its world renowned opera house, the La Scala. Mark was thrilled with living in Italy, a country he had always admired for its elegance, but the scarcity and the price of accommodations had forced him to accept these rather primitive lodgings. At least it was within walking distance to where he would be working, saving him from the tumultuous traffic jams that this otherwise beautiful city was famous for.

His first day at the university had been exciting and rewarding. The faculty had made him welcome and the students cheerfully accepted him. Any lingering doubts about moving to a place so far from home dissolved rapidly.

Mark was on his way to his little flat when a traffic light stopped him and seemingly hundreds of other pedestrians at a busy intersection. Up to then, he hadn’t even noticed the many people all around him. He had been too absorbed with the way his first day at the university had gone. Just then, he thought he had felt a slight bump from behind. As he turned around, the light changed and the masses of pedestrians started moving, pushing him along with them across the intersection.

With no further delay Mark arrived at his new address and swiftly climbed the stairs to his apartment on the fourth floor. In changing for dinner, he quickly became aware that his wallet was missing. The slight bump he had felt, waiting for the traffic light, came to mind immediately. Luckily, he had not carried much money. However, the loss of his credit cards and identification papers caused him much inconvenience and unexpected hassles to say the least.

From now on, Mark carried his papers and his money in a small, unobtrusive pouch which he hung on a string around his neck. Just for the heck of it, he also filled another cheap wallet with insignificant papers and very little change. This he carried as usual in his back pocket. The very next day on his way home, however, this was lifted at the very same intersection.

With Mark’s suspicions confirmed, he wasted no time and started and action of his own. With the help of an acquaintance well versed with chemicals, and with information readily available from the Internet, Mark constructed a very small letter bomb. Small enough to fit into a normal wallet. Its effect would be very localized but, more importantly, very deadly. Next, Mark bought an assortment of cheep wallets from a nearby dime store. To build a small detonator with an effective range of only about a hundred yards was no problem at all for Mark.

With this fake wallet in his pocket and the detonator in his shirt pocket, Mark was ready and very willing to teach an unknown thief a healthy lesson. One evening, as if nothing at all had happened, Mark waited at the same intersection for the light to change and – you guessed it – for the slight bump. He didn’t have to wait long for either. He followed the crowd across and when he felt safe, he reached for his shirt pocket and activated the detonator.

When Mark heard the sound of a muffled explosion somewhere in the distance, not near as noisy as he had expected, he forced himself not to look, but to walk on as if nothing had happened. The next day, somewhere on page four of the local paper, one could read a small article headlined: “Notorious Pickpocket Succumbs to Mysterious Explosion&rdquo.

Several more such mysterious explosions could be heard at early evening hours. When he no longer felt the by now familiar bump of his disappearing wallet, Mark found new routes to his flat, frequenting several different busy intersections. Sure enough – there it was again: the familiar bump and then the familiar muffled explosion somewhere in the distance.

By now, alarm had sounded in the underworld of Milan. It wasn’t the Mafia, it was just a band of loosely organized pickpockets that, gotten worried, clamored for action. And action they got. Antonio, considered the master of pickpockets, had a plan. Spies were put into action. It didn’t take long until one of the spies observed what was happening and who was responsible.

Again Mark felt the familiar bump of his disappearing wallet. What he didn’t feel, however, was a much less noticeable touch as his wallet was reinserted into his other pocket. The next day, somewhere on page four of the local paper, one could read a small article headlined: “Foreign University Professor Succumbs to Mysterious Explosion&rdquo.  

 

"Mom What Is Peace" by Karl Ries  (A Book Review)

    Prologue from the book.

As a young child in Germany, I lived through World War II and it's aftermath. This book tells of my varid childhood experiences. Imagine how terrible an ordeal it must have been for the German civilian population and for the small child who wrote about it decades later. I strove to portray my impressions in an honest, informal, upbeat and positive way with no desire to bore my readers with negative characterizations or whining self-pity.

Most Americans view Germany of that time as the villain not the victim. The unique element of this book is that it starts out in the style of a little nine year old boy. As the boy grows older and matures, the 'elan of telling his story matures right along with him. Some friends felt that, because of the war, I must have been deprived of a "happy childhood", but this is not so. I percieve that term as relative. I certainly thought of myself as a happy child. A youngster growing up amongst war, bombs, sufferings and death cannot possibly comprehend times of normality, peace and plenty and is therefore unable to draw comparisons. I believe a child's capabilikty to feel happy and make the best of things rests as much on the circumstances of his surroundings as on the individual personality of the child. Unfortunately this often changes as the child "matures". It is also lamentable that such a hostile environment tends to harden a child's perception of the suffering of others and even of the value of a human life. This book was not intended to be a historical reference but rather a narrative of my personal experiences.

The stated opinions, observations and emotions of the different characters are related justs they were encountered first hand at that time and location.

------ Karl Ries.

Karl Ries

Karl Ries was a prolific writer, an avid hunter,  an accomplished pilot and a skilled technician but above all, he was an honorable man. He was a regular feature writer for The Tyler Chronicle and gave us "on the scene" accounts of his many exciting journeys, most notable of which was a trip around the world. He died of cancer in ------- but his writings remain.

"Mom What Is Peace" was a self-published paperback of 221 pages. In all respects it was a top quality book. It is currently out of print and is a much sought after collector's item. It is a "must have" for every serious collector.

--- Editor

      

Fully one year before Orville and Wilber Wright took flight at Kitty Hawk in 1903, a Texan had already taken to the skies. At least that's what proponents of the Ezekiel Airship story would have us believe. And who is to say they are wrong?      

      

The Reverend Burrell Cannon, a Pittsburg, Texas minister, who was a lifelong Bible student with particular interest in the biblical account of Ezekiel and his vision of the "flying wheels". But in addition to being a Bible scholar, the reverend was a skilled machinist and an inventor, as you shall soon see.

      

The story of Ezekiel's wheels fascinated Cannon to the point of obsession, and for twenty years he refined plans and designs for a flying machine based upon the biblical description.

      

"The appearance of the wheels and their work was like unto the color of beryl; and they four had one likeness; and their appearance was as it were a wheel within the middle of a wheel." Ezekiel 1:16"And when the living creatures went, the wheels went with them; and when the living creatures were lifted up from the earth, the wheels were lifted up." Ezekiel 1:19.

      

The Reverend Cannon took this account literally and by 1902 he had constructed a full sized craft ready for a test flight

      

The device was launched from a nearby pasture owned by a man named Thorsell (who also owned the machine shop where the airship was built) and was flown by a "Mr. Stamps" who had worked on the construction of the machine. Those present at the intial flight reported that the airship moved forward a short distance before becoming airborne. It then rose vertically and began to drift. Excessive vibration caused the engine to be turned off and the machine settled back to the ground without accident.

      

If this account is true, then the Ezekiel Airship, which seems to have been a cross between a helicopter, hover-craft, and airplane did indeed beat the Wrights into the air! But now the story begins to turn muddy.

      

The contraption was loaded onto an open rail car to be shipped to the World's Fair Exhibition at St. Louis. But near Texarkana, a storm blew it off the car, totally destroying this one and only working model of what may have been the world's first flying machine.

      

Cannon is reported to have said,"God never willed that this airship should fly; I want no more to do with it." 

      

But if this is the case, something seems to have changed the inventor's mind, because in 1908, he again sold stock in his airship venture in the Longview area. A second "Ezekiel Flying Machine was built in Chicago, Illinois and was flown by a test pilot named "Wilder". 

      

But alas! Tragedy struck again. This time the thing is said to have hit a telegraph pole, ripping the bottom out of it. Again Cannon vowed never to build another flying machine. 

      

He then turned his attention to perfecting a "boll-weevil destroyer" where he lived in Marshall, Texas until his death at age 74 or thereabouts. 

      

You can take this story for what it's worth, but you can see the model of the Ezekiel Airship on display at Pittsburg, Texas, and you can drive by the old Thorsell Machine Shop where the original was constructed. 

      

Did it fly? Or did they lie? 

      

You be the judge!



The Tyler Chronicle           Winter, 2020          Worldwide Edition

The Tyler Chronicle Cookbook


        

Grandma’s  Fried Raisin Pies

           

Filling--
2 c. Raisins
1 1/2 c. Water
2 c. Sugar
1 1/2 Tbsp. Corn Starch to thicken

Crust--
2 c. Flour
1 Tbsp. shortening
Add ice cold water until it makes dough.      

Directions:  

Filling--
Bring raisins and water to a boil, add sugar and thicken with cornstarch. Simmer till raisins are tender then cool.

Crust--
Mix flour and shortening until incorporated. add water teaspoon at a time till forms a dough. Roll out on a floured surface to 1/4 " thick. Cut out the size of a large saucer. Place 1 1/2 Tbsp. filling in center, fold over half moon style and pinch together with a fork dipped in flour.
Fry in 1/2" shortening until golden brown, turn and cook other side. place on paper towel to drain.        

Fried Cherry Pies

Ingredients

  • 1 cup all-purpose flour

  • 1/4 teaspoon baking powder

  • 1/4 teaspoon salt

  • 2 tablespoons shortening

  • 1/3 cup boiling water

  • 1 cup cherry pie filling

  • Oil for deep-fat frying

  • 1/4 cup maple syrup

  • 1/4 cup whipped topping

Directions    

  • In a small bowl, combine the flour, baking powder and salt. Cut in shortening until mixture  resembles coarse crumbs. Stir in water just until moistened. Turn onto a lightly floured surface; knead 8-10 times.         

  • Divide dough into four portions; roll each into an 8-in. circle. Place 1/4 cup of pie filling in the  center of each circle. Fold dough over filling; secure with  toothpicks.        

  • In an electric skillet or deep fat-fryer, heat 1 in. of oil to 375°. Fry pies, folded side down, in oil for 2-3 minutes or     until lightly browned. Turn and fry 2-3 minutes longer. Drain on paper towels. Remove toothpicks. Serve with syrup and whipped  topping.     



 Crabapple Kugel 
Ingredients
1 8oz. pkg. wide noodles
2 eggs (beat with 1 tbsp. sugar)
Salt to taste
Cinnamon to taste
2 heaping tbsp. crabapple jelly (stirred)
2 lg. or 4 sm. apples, grated
Handful of raisins
1 tbsp. oil
Cinnamon for top

Cook noodles until tender. Drain well. Add remaining ingredients except for cinnamon for topping. Turn into large casserole dish. Top with cinnamon and bake for 1 hour at 350 degrees.

       Pickled Crab Apples      
Ingredients
* 6 cups vinegar
* 8 cups brown sugar
* 2 teaspoons cloves
* 1 stick cinnamon
* 8 pounds washed crab apples
Directions
Boil vinegar, brown sugar, cloves, and cinnamon together.
Leave stems on crab apples. Add to syrup and boil until fruit is tender.
Remove the fruit and pack into sterilized jars.
Pour in syrup. Seal.


            PEANUT MAPLE-SUGAR FUDGE     
1 cup chopped peanuts
1 tablespoon butter
1 cup milk
2 cups maple sugar

Boil the sugar, milk, and butter to a soft ball stage when tested in cold water; add the nut-meats; remove from the fire and stir until creamy; pour into buttered pans; when cool cut into squares.

       Grannie's Good Ol' Pumpkin Bread   
Here's How!: Cream: 2/3 cup of shortening, 2 and 2/3 cups sugar.
Add: 4 eggs, 1 - 16 ounce can of pumpkin, and 2/3 cup of water.
Blend: 3 1/3 cup flour, 2 tsp. soda, 1 1/2 tsp. salt, 2 tsp. baking powder, 1 tsp. cinnamon, 1 tsp. cloves, and 2/3 cup chopped pecans.
Bake: 1 hour and 10 minutes in 2 loaf pans.
Short and sweet, and what a treat!

       Grannie's Cucumber Pickles     
Soak cucumbers overnight in cold water. Slice, but not too thin. Make a syrup of: 2 cups cider vinegar, 1 cup sugar, 1 teaspoon mixed spices (pickling), 1/2 teaspoon mustard seed. Bring to a boil. Then add cucumbers and boil about 3 minutes (until they lose their green look). Pack pickles solidly into sterilized jars. Add 1 teaspoon salt to each quart, 1/2 onion sliced, cover with boiling syrup and seal at once.


       Good Ol'Fashioned Oatmeal Cookies     
Ingredients: 3/4 cup vegetable shortning, 1 cup firmly packed brown sugar, 1/2 cup granulated sugar, 1 egg, 1/4 cup water, 1 teaspoon vanilla, 3 cups rolled oats (uncooked), 1 cup all purpose flour, 1 teaspoon salt, 1/2 teaspoon baking soda. Preheat Oven to 350 degrees F. Beat together shortening, sugar, egg, water, and vanilla until creamy. Add combined remaining ingredients. Mix well. Drop by reounded teaspoons on greased cookie sheet. Bake at 350 degrees F for 12 to 15 minutes. For Variety, add chopped nuts, raisins, chocolate chips, or coconut. Makes about 5 dozen cookies.


       Grandma's Tea Cakes (Sugar Cookies)     
Cream 1 cup sugar, 1/4 pound butter; add 2 eggs. Beat. Add 2 tsp baking powder and 1 tsp vanilla.
Mix and add about 1 1/2 cups flour. Place on floured board and work into a dough. just stiff enough to handle. Roll out and cut. Cook on ungreased cookie sheet at 350 degrees F about 10 or 12 minutes.


       Dinner in a Pumpkin!     
Ingredients: 1 medium pumpkin, 2 lbs. ground beef, cooked, 1 chopped onion, 3 sliced carrots, 1 can cream of chicken soup, 1 can sliced mushroom, drained, 1 tablespoons garlic salt, 1 celery stalk, sliced, 2-3 potatoes, diced, 1 tablespoon Worcestershire sauce, salt and pepper to taste.
Bring all ingredients (except pumpkin) to a boil in a pot. Boil 10 minutes. Place pumpkin in sturdy baking pan. Fill pumpkin with hot mixture. Bake at 350 degrees, for approximately 45 minutes, until pumpkin is tender and brown.

"Dinner in a Pumpkin" (version # 2) 2 lbs. ground beef 6 oz. ground sausage 6 oz. can tomatoe sauce 2 1/2 tsp. salt 1/4 cup chopped onion 3/4 cup raisins 1/2 green bell pepper, chopped 2 tsp. oregano 1 tsp. vinegar 3 eggs, beaten 1/3 cup chopped stuffed green olives 1tsp. pepper Brown ground beef and sausage. Combine meats with all other ingredients. Fill in a medium cleaned pumpkin. Bake in 1 inch of water of 350 degrees for 1 hour. Serve in pumpkin, scraping sides for the vegetable.

"Dinnner in a Pumpkin" (version # 3) 1 small-med. sized pumpkin 1 onion, chopped 2 tablespoons oil 1 1/2 - 2 lbs. ground beef 2 tablespoons soy sauce 2 tablespoons brown sugar 4 oz. can sliced mushrooms, drained 10 3/4 can cream of chicken soup 1 1/2 cups cooked rice 1 8oz. sliced water chestnuts, drained

Cut off top of pumpkin and thoroughly clean out seeds and pulp. Preheat oven to 350 degrees. In a large skillet, saute onions in oil until tender. Add meat and brown. Drain drippings from skillet. Add soy sauce, brown sugar, mushrooms, and soup. Simmer 10 minutes, stirring occasionally. Add cooked rice and water chestnuts. Spoon mixture into cleaned pumpkin shell. Replace pumpkin top and place entire pumpkin with filling, on a baking sheet. Bake 1 hour or until inside meat of pumpkin is tender. Put pumpkin on a plate. Remove lid and serve. Scoop cooked pumpkin from sides for vegetable. Serves 6

"Pumpkin Cake in a Jar" 2/3 cup shortening 2 2/3 cups sugar 4 eggs 2 cups canned pumpkin 2/3 cup water 3 1/3 cups flour 1/2 tsp. baking powder 1 1/2 tsp. salt 1 tsp. ground cloves 1/2 tsp. ground allspice 1 tsp. ground cinnamon 2 tsp. baking soda 1 cup chopped walnuts 8 pint-size wide mouth canning jars with lids and rings Preheat oven to 325 degrees. Cream shortening and sugar together, adding sugar slowly. Beat in eggs, pumpkin, and water; set aside. In another bowl, stir together flour, baking powder, salt, cloves, allspice, cinnamon, and baking soda. Add to pumpkin mixture and stir well. Stir in nuts. Grease jars well and fill each jar about half full. Place jars on baking sheet and bake for approximately 45 minutes. When done, remove jars, and wipe the sealing edge of the jars. Place lids on jars and close tightly with the ring. Notes: Proper sealing of cakes in a jar: After the cake is cooked be sure to wipe the sealing edge of the jar clean. Place the lids on and close them tightly with the ring. You should here a "plinking" sound as the jar cools, meaning that they are sealed. You can also press on the lids after the jars have cooled -- if they are properly sealed, they should not move at all. How to serve a cake in a jar: Open jar and slide knife around the inside of the jar to loosen the cake, and then slide the cake out. Slice and serve alone, with whipped cream, or even some ice cream! A 1-pint jar equals approximately 5 slices. How long they keep: A cake in a jar that has been properly sealed will keep for up to a year.       

           SUGAR

           HONEY

        

           LESS LIQUID

        

           SODA

        

           1 Tbsp

           2 tsp 

        

           no need

        

           no need

        

           2 Tbsp 

        

           1 Tbsp 1 tsp 

        

           no need

        

           no need

        

           1/4 Cup 

        

           2 Tbsp 2 tsp 

        

           no need

        

           1/8 tsp 

        

           1/3 Cup 

        

           4 Tbsp 

        

           no need

        

           1/4 tsp 

        

           1/2 Cup 

        

           1/3 Cup 

        

           2 tsp 

        

           1/4 tsp 

        

           2/3 Cup 

        

           1/2 Cup 

        

           5 tsp 

        

           1/4 tsp 

        

           3/4 Cup 

        

           2/3 Cup 

        

           2 Tbsp 

        

           1/2 tsp 

        

           1 Cup 

        

           3/4 Cup 

        

           2 1/2 Tbsp 

        

           1/2 tsp 

        

           2 Cups 

        

           1 1/4 Cup 

        

           5 Tbsp 

        

           1 tsp 

        

Turn Back the Clock with These Recipes from 1922!

MENU I

Fruit Cup
Hot Ham Sandwich
Currant or Grape Jelly
Tomato Salad with Cheese Dressing
Cocoa Ice Cream
Fig Marguerites
Tea with Candied Mint Leaves

PRELIMINARY PREPARATIONS

Fruit cup ready to chill
Ham prepared for the sandwiches
Tomatoes peeled and placed in ice box
Salad dressing made
Fig marguerites made
Candied mint leaves prepared
Ice cream ready to freeze
Jelly made

MARKET ORDER

1 pound cooked ham
1 cream cheese (Roquefort flavor if desired)
1 quart milk
1 pint cream
½ pound butter
6 eggs
½ pound white grapes
3 or 4 oranges
2 lemons
1 pound (4 small) tomatoes
1 green pepper
1 head lettuce
1 bunch mint
½ can sliced pineapple
8 maraschino cherries
2 tablespoons mayonnaise dressing
½ pint raspberry or strawberry syrup
¼ pound figs
2 ounces walnut meats
1 ounce tea
⅛ pound cocoa
1 loaf sandwich bread
½ pint grape or currant jelly or juice
Oil of spearmint
1 package small round crackers
1 ounce marshmallow cream
1 cup salad oil
Loaf sugar

FRUIT CUP

Remove skin and seeds from
  ½ pound white grapes. If grapes are firm, boiling water may be poured over them and allowed to stand 1 minute, when skins will come off easily.

Pare
  2 oranges, removing white part with the skin, and remove sections free from membrane.

Cut
4 slices canned pineapple in dice. Mix the fruit with
⅓ cup sugar
1 tablespoon lemon juice
½ cup orange juice
½ cup syrup from canned pineapple, and
  Few grains salt.

Put into ice cream freezer, surround with ice and salt, and stir occasionally until juice begins to freeze. Serve in cocktail glasses, garnishing each glass with a

  

Maraschino cherry.

FRUIT CUP

HOT HAM SANDWICHES

Put
1 pound cooked ham through food chopper. Add
4 tablespoons creamed butter,
1 teaspoon mustard and
  1 teaspoon paprika, and mix well.

Cut
  Bread in sixteen ¼-inch slices, spread eight slices bread with the ham mixture, cover with remaining bread and press slices firmly together. Cut each sandwich in three strips.

Beat
2 eggs slightly and add
  2 cups milk. Dip sandwiches, one at a time, in this mixture, and sauté in butter, cooking on one side until browned, and then turning and browning the other side. Serve very hot.

Other meat, or marmalade or jam may be used in sandwiches in place of ham.

HOT HAM SANDWICHES

GRAPE OR CURRANT JELLY

Wash and pick over
  Fruit. Crush in kettle one layer at a time and boil, stirring frequently, until juice is extracted from pulp. Let drip through double piece of cheesecloth, rinsed in cold water, over night or till juice no longer drips. Do not squeeze.

To
1 tablespoon juice add
  1 tablespoon alcohol; stir and let stand 10 minutes.

If ⅔ of the mixture is cloudy use
  ⅔ cup sugar to each cup juice. If all is cloudy use equal parts sugar and juice. (This is called the Pectin Test.) Be sure that juice mixed with alcohol is discarded immediately. Measure remaining juice into kettle, bring to boiling point, add required amount of sugar and cook to 220 degrees F. or until mixture will show two distinct, firm drops when dripped from side of spoon, or when small amount will become firm when dropped on very cold saucer. Then skim and pour into sterilized glasses.

Second Extraction

Return fruit pulp to kettle, add barely enough cold water to cover it, bring slowly to boiling point, stirring to prevent burning on; cook 5 minutes, drain and finish as for first extraction, boiling 5 minutes before adding the sugar.

Third Extraction

Proceed as for second extraction. Oftentimes the juice from second and third extractions may be combined before being made up into jelly. By making three extractions the amount of jelly obtainable from a given amount of fruit may be almost doubled.

TOMATO SALAD WITH CHEESE DRESSING

Cut
  4 tomatoes in halves in such a way that they come apart in points.

Arrange each half in a nest of
Lettuce leaves. In the center of tomato pile
Cream cheese forced through a coarse strainer. In center of cheese put a
Few bits of green pepper finely chopped. Serve with cheese dressing.

TOMATO SALAD

CHEESE DRESSING

Mix
2 tablespoons mayonnaise dressing with
2 tablespoons cream cheese. Add
½ teaspoon salt
½ teaspoon table sauce
½ teaspoon paprika and add very slowly
  ¼ cup salad oil, beating with egg beater until very thick. Add slowly  1 ½ tablespoons vinegar. Keep in cool place till ready to serve.

Cream cheese with Roquefort flavor is desirable in both the above recipes, but the usual cottage or cream cheese may be used if preferred.

COCOA ICE CREAM

Mix very thoroughly
½ cup dry powdered cocoa
Few grains salt
1 cup sugar and
  1 tablespoon cornstarch.

Add slowly
  2 cups milk, scalded, and cook over boiling water 20 minutes, stirring until thickened and occasionally afterward.

Pour over
2 eggs well beaten, chill, and add
2 cups cream beaten stiff
1 teaspoon vanilla and
  1 cup syrup drained from canned raspberries or strawberries, and freeze.

If frozen in a vacuum freezer, put mixture in center can of freezer; cover, invert freezer, and fill outer compartment with finely crushed ice mixed with half the amount of rock salt. Open the freezer occasionally, scrape cream from sides and mix well, using a long-bladed knife. If frozen in an ordinary freezer, it is not necessary to beat the cream. Put mixture in can of ice cream freezer, surround with three parts ice and one part salt.

Let mixture stand 5 minutes, then turn crank slowly until mixture is stiff. When frozen drain off ice water and repack, using four parts ice and one part salt.

FIG MARGUERITES

Put in top of double boiler
⅞ cup sugar and
  3 tablespoons water.

Stir until sugar is dissolved as much as possible. There will still be small sugar crystals remaining. Wash sugar crystals from inside of double boiler with pastry brush dipped in cold water.

Add
  1 egg white, unbeaten. Place over hot water and cook, beating constantly with egg beater for 7 to 12 minutes or until mixture will hold its shape.

Add
  1 tablespoon marshmallow cream and  ¼ teaspoon vanilla, and fold over and over until again stiff enough to hold its shape.

Add
⅓cup (3) figs cut in small pieces and
  ⅓cup nut meats cut in small pieces.

Pile on
Small round crackers and bake at 375 degrees F. for 10 minutes or until delicately brown. This rule will cover 3 dozen small crackers.

Should frosting be too soft to hold its shape after adding marshmallow cream, it may be again placed over hot water, and folded gently over and over, until it becomes slightly granular around the edges. Remove from hot water, and continue folding over gently until of the desired stiffness.

MARSHMALLOW FROSTING

Use above mixture with or without figs and nuts as a cake filling or frosting. It need not be baked.

CANDIED MINT LEAVES

Wipe
Fresh mint leaves, remove from stems and rub each leaf gently with the finger dipped in
  Egg white slightly beaten.

Mix
3 tablespoons granulated sugar with
3 drops oil of spearmint, and sift over each side of the mint leaves.

Lay close together on a cake rack covered with wax paper and leave in a warm but not a hot place until crisp and dry.

Serve in
Tea with
Sliced lemon and
  Loaf sugar.

TEA

Half fill a perforated tea spoon or tea ball with
  Orange Pekoe, or other preferred tea.

Place in cup, add fresh
  Boiling water, until cup is two-thirds full. Remove tea spoon as soon as tea is of the desired strength.

Two or three cups of tea can usually be made without emptying and refilling the tea spoon.

MENU II

Grapefruit Baskets with Mints
Open Cheese and Bacon Sandwich
Mixed Sweet Pickles
Crab Meat and Tomato Jelly Salad
Egg Biscuits
Orange Layer Cake
Iced Coffee with Vanilla

PRELIMINARY PREPARATIONS

Grapefruit prepared and put on ice
Cheese grated (or chopped) for sandwiches
Bacon cut same length as bread slices
Pickles may be made at any time
Tomato jelly and mayonnaise dressing made
Eggs, hard cooked
Celery (or endive) cut and put in cold water
Crab meat picked over and put on ice
Lettuce washed and put on ice in cheesecloth
Cake baked and one layer frosted
Cake filling made, except the whipped cream
Dry ingredients and shortening for biscuits combined

MARKET ORDER

½ pound crab meat
¾ pound bacon
¾ pound cheese
½ pint milk
1 pint cream
¾ pound butter
1 dozen eggs
½ pint salad oil
4 grapefruit
1 head lettuce
2 roots celery or ½ pound endive
5 oranges
2 lemons
1 green pepper
1 onion
¼ can (½ pint) tomatoes
2 ounces (8) cream peppermints
¼ pound cluster raisins
1 loaf bread
¼ pound candied cherries
1 ½ doz. small sweet cucumber pickles
2 yards narrow ribbon
Small fresh flowers or fresh mint leaves
½ package gelatin
¼ pound finely ground coffee

GRAPEFRUIT BASKETS

Cut in two
  4 grapefruit.

Insert two toothpicks opposite each other on each half. From one-half inch on each side of toothpick cut through the skin around the grapefruit one-fourth inch from the top of each half, leaving skin whole where toothpicks are inserted.

Loosen pulp and remove and discard seeds, membrane and toothpicks.

Sprinkle pulp of each half with
  1 cream peppermint, broken in pieces, and chill.

Bring the two strips of skin together above the grapefruit and tie together with
Narrow ribbon, for the handle. Insert in the knot a sprig of
  Flowers, berries or mint, and place on doily on individual serving plates.

GRAPEFRUIT BASKET

OPEN CHEESE AND BACON SANDWICH

Beat
3 eggs until light, add
¾ pound soft cheese grated or put through food chopper
1½ teaspoons table sauce
¾ teaspoon salt
½ teaspoon paprika
  Few grains cayenne.

Mix well and spread on
  8 slices bread cut one-third inch thick.

Cut
  ¾ pound bacon in very thin slices the length of the slice of bread.

Make bacon still thinner by pressing each strip on a board with a broad knife. Cover cheese with bacon and bake 8 or 10 minutes under gas flame, or in hot oven.

MIXED SWEET PICKLES

Put in small agate or enamel saucepan
1 cup vinegar
½ cup sugar
¼ teaspoon peppercorns
¼ teaspoon blades of mace
  ¼ teaspoon whole cloves, and cook 2 minutes.

Add
½ cup candied cherries, cook 5 minutes; skim out, add
  ½ cup large Malaga raisins in clusters of two or three.

Cook 10 minutes, remove raisins and add
  18 small sweet cucumber pickles and cook 10 minutes.

Arrange in glass jar in closely packed layers, putting raisins in first, then cherries, then pickles; repeat until jar is full. Strain hot syrup into jar, and seal.

MIXED SWEET PICKLES

CRAB MEAT AND TOMATO JELLY SALAD

In a salad bowl lined with
Lettuce leaves, arrange separate piles of
½ pound crab meat
3 hard-cooked eggs, chopped (use silver knife so white will not discolor)
2 roots celery or
½ pound endive cut in small pieces, and
  Tomato jelly cut in cubes.

Between piles place
  Green pepper free from seeds and cut in strips.

Make a nest of heart leaves of lettuce in center and fill with
  Mayonnaise dressing.

The salad ingredients may be mixed lightly together, when salad is being served, or only those ingredients that are desired may be served to each person.

TOMATO JELLY

Heat to boiling point in agate saucepan
1 cup tomato juice and pulp
2 tablespoons mild vinegar
1 tablespoon gelatin
½ tablespoon sugar
Bit of bay leaf
1 slice onion
1 tablespoon lemon juice, and leaves from
  1 stalk celery.

Stir until gelatin is dissolved, strain through fine strainer, and mold in small bread pan that measures about 4½ inches by 8 inches.

Cut in ½ inch cubes for serving.

MAYONNAISE DRESSING

Sift into a bowl
½ teaspoon mustard
½ teaspoon sugar
½ teaspoon salt and
Few grains cayenne. Add
1 egg yolk, mix well and add
  1 tablespoon vinegar, stirring constantly.

Measure
  ¾ cup salad oil and add 3 teaspoons of the oil a drop at a time, beating constantly. Then while beating, add it 1 teaspoon at a time till mixture begins to thicken.

When very thick, add
  1 tablespoon lemon juice and add remaining oil rapidly. The whole process should take about 7 minutes.

EGG BISCUITS

Sift together
2 cups bread flour, measured after sifting once
5 teaspoons baking powder
1 teaspoon salt and
  1 tablespoon sugar.

Work in with fingers
2 tablespoons shortening. Add
1 egg yolk, slightly beaten, mixed with
  ⅔ cup milk, cutting it in with a knife.

Toss on floured cloth or board and knead 5 minutes. Shape in any way suggested below. Bake 15 minutes at 400 degrees F. Brush with milk or melted butter just before removing from the oven.

BISCUIT SHAPES

Make in small round balls and bake in muffin pans.

Bake 2 round balls in each muffin pan, brushing between with melted butter.

Bake 3 round balls in each muffin pan.

Roll ¼ inch thick, spread with butter, roll up like a jelly roll, cut in pieces 1 inch thick, and bake in muffin pans.

Prepare as above, sprinkling with sugar and cinnamon before rolling.

Prepare as above, sprinkling with chopped nuts and maple sugar before rolling.

Roll ¼ inch thick, spread with butter, fold in 3 layers, cut off strips 1 inch wide, twist and coil. When baked spread with confectioners' frosting.

Shape and roll in strips 8 inches long and about as large around as a lead pencil and bake.

Roll ½ inch thick, cut with small oval cutter, brush with butter, double over and place close together and bake.

ORANGE LAYER CAKE

Beat together until thick
2 egg yolks
¼ teaspoon grated orange rind
4 tablespoons orange juice and
½ tablespoon lemon juice. Add
  ¾ cup sugar gradually, continuing to beat with egg beater.

Fold in
2 egg whites, beaten stiff and
1 cup pastry flour, sifted 4 times with
¼ teaspoon soda and
  ¼ teaspoon salt.

Grease an angel cake or deep round tin and line bottom with greased paper. Pour in cake mixture and bake 30 minutes at 375 degrees F.

Split, put
Orange cream filling between layers, and frost top with
  Boiled orange frosting.

ORANGE CREAM FILLING

Melt
2 tablespoons butter, add
4 tablespoons cornstarch, and when mixed add
Grated rind 1 orange
1 cup orange juice and
  1 cup sugar.

Bring to boiling point, stirring all the time. Cook 15 minutes over boiling water.

Add
½ teaspoon salt and
  1 ½ tablespoons lemon juice.

Cool and fold in
  1 cup cream beaten stiff.

BOILED ORANGE FROSTING

Put
1 cup sugar and
  ¼ cup water in a small saucepan.

Stir until sugar is dissolved and boiling point is reached. Do not stir after it boils. Wash down sides of saucepan with pastry brush dipped in cold water to prevent formation of crystals. Cook until syrup spins a 4 inch thread when dropped from spoon held at least 8 inches above pan.

Pour slowly onto
2 egg yolks beaten until thick and lemon colored, beating constantly with egg beater until mixture will hold its shape, then add
Few gratings orange rind and
  ½ tablespoon orange juice and spread on cake.

2 egg whites may be used instead of egg yolks if preferred.

ICED COFFEE WITH VANILLA

Add to
6 cups cold boiled or percolated coffee
½ teaspoon vanilla1 cup cream and
  Sugar to taste.

Serve in tall glasses with
  Cracked ice.


            

Here's a basic rule. If you're in a hurry, don't cook over a charcoal fire.Charcoal is for people who take time to enjoy living. It is for those individuals who take "cooking out" seriously.

            

So, if you're in a big rush to get it all done and over with, use a gas or electric grille. Or better yet, forget "cooking out" entirely and go to a restaurant, or call a caterer.

            

The key to being a successful outdoor cook is being in control. knowing what to do to achieve a desired result, and then doing it. If you are one of those folks (or would like to become one of them) this column is for you. So, let's begin with basics.

            

For our purposes we will use three and only three fuels; wood charcoal, wood charcoal briquets, and wood.

            

CHARCOAL. Wood charcoal is one of the oldest and best fuels known to man. It was used by primitive cave dwellers, the Greeks and the Romans, the early Spaniards and other Europeans who explored and settled the New World.

            

Wood charcoal is made by heating wood in huge air-tight ovens. All the moisture and other non-solid components are driven off by the heat, leaving almost pure carbon. The resulting hot chunks of carbon are cooled, screened to remove fine pieces, and bagged for your use.

            

Well made wood charcoal retains all the cell and tissue structure of the original wood, but loses about 75% of it's weight and 30 - 50% of it's volume. The best charcoal for cook out purposes is made from dense hardwoods like oak. Charcoal made from pine and other resinous woods is not desirable as a fuel for back yard chefs. Wood charcoal which has not been formed into the familiar briquets is relatively easy to ignite, and produces a quick, very hot flame.

            

It is surprising that some people do not know the difference between the natural wood charcoal we have been writing about, and charcoal briquets. Natural wood charcoal is often referred to as "lump" or "chunk style" charcoal. The pieces are irregularly shaped, and still show all the grain structure and many other characteristics of the wood from which they were made. Well made wood charcoal is about 95% carbon.

            

Contrary to popular belief, high quality wood charcoal produces little or no smoke when it burns. The smoke is produced by meat drippings which fall into the hot coals or from woods like hickory or mesquite which may be added to the fire. A wood charcoal fire can become extremely hot.

            

Briquets are a different story entirely. More about them later.

            

TIMING. One of the most important considerations in cooking over a wood or charcoal fire is timing. Equally important is temperature, but that is the subject of a future column. Today, timing is the thing!

            

Last time, we discussed outdoor cooking using aromatic woods as fuel and fuel additives (mesquite, hickory, etc.). Let's continue along that line of thought and consider the timing of a fire of hickory. Let's say we have splurged on some really nice, thick steaks, suitable for grilling. The meat market man gave us exactly the cut we wanted, and now the moment of truth approaches. We have some really great steaks, but now we gotta' cook 'em to bring out their best for all those hungry carnivores soon to be gathered around the picnic table.

            

Getting the right fire is important. And good timing is absolutely necessary in order to get the right fire. Here we go! 

            

We have a good stack of green and seasoned firewood piled up by the charcoal grill, and like all good outdoor cooks, we have a nice supply of very dry hardwood kindling on hand. You could get by with pine or other resinous wood kindling in a pinch, but using very dry, very small hardwood twigs, prevents any possibility of undesirable flavors or odors. We wouldn't use charcoal lighter fluid or any other liquid fire starters unless it were a matter of life or death. Under no circumstamces use gasoline, or any other highly volatile fuel for this purpose. The object is to cook your steaks, not incinerate yourself!

            

We will assume that you know how to start a wood fire and within a few minutes you have a good open fire with plenty of excess air and little smoke. We will also assume that you have used the seasoned hickory rather than the green pieces piled by your cooker.      

            

Now. Simply put, here is the secret. DON'T put the steaks on the grille too soon! Make sure you have plenty of wood in the fire to begin with, and then let it burn down to a beautiful, even, bed of glowing, hot coals. As the fire burns down to the "coals" stage, you may need to distribute the pieces a bit with your fire poker. Getting a smooth, uniform bed is important.      

            

And it is ironic that although we are talking about timing. you can't use a clock to tell you when the fire is right. Experience will tell you. Here are some things that will let you know when that time has arrived.      

            

 1. Your fire will be hot. hot as blue blazes!      

            

 2. There will be little or no smoke.      

            

 3. Flames will not be large, and will not be yellow or orange. Clear blue is the color to achieve.      

            

Once this condition has been obtained, cut the air supply to your cooker to almost nothing. (We assume that you are cooking with an open top grille).      

            

Now bring the steaks which have been previously prepared for cooking. (Preparation is the subject of another article.) Oh boy! It won't be long now!      

            

The object is to sear the steaks on both sides quickly to seal in juices and to preserve tenderness. The tenderest steak in the world can become tough as a boot if you cook it incorrectly.              

__________________________________________________________________________________________________

Great New Cookbook. Coming Soon

Page after page jam-packed with great recipes collected over the years from far and wide!  Watch this space for ordering information.

Book #1. "How Bobby Moore Gained 20 Pounds Without Even Trying!"

UnitAbbrev.Definedfl ozmL
[note 1]
Binary Submultiples
Dry & Fluid Measures
dropdr., gt., gtt. (plural)196 tsp15760.0513429
smidgensmdg., smi.132 tsp12560.1155222 smidgens = 1 pinch
pinchpn.116 tsp11280.2310432 pinches = 1 dash
dashds.18 tsp1640.4620862 dashes = 1 saltspoon
saltspoon or scruplessp.14 tsp1320.9241732 saltspoons = 1 coffeespoon
coffeespooncsp.12 tsp1161.848352 coffeespoons = 1 fluid dram
Fluid dram[note 2]fl.dr.34 tsp183.696692 fluid drams = 1 dessertspoon (Australia)
teaspoon (culinary)[note 3]tsp. or t.13 tbsp164.928922 teaspoons = 1 dessertspoon
dessertspoon[20]dsp., dssp. or dstspn.2 tsp139.85784
tablespoontbsp. or T.116 cup1214.78682 tablespoons = 1 fluid ounce
fluid ouncefl.oz. or oz.18 cup129.57352 fluid ounce = 1 wineglass
wineglasswgf.14 cup259.14712 wineglasses = 1 teacup
gill or teacuptcf.12 cup4118.2942 teacups = 1 cup
cupC12 pint8236.5882 cups = 1 pint
pintpt.12 qt16473.1762 Maxon CINEMA 4D Studio S22.116 Crack Free Download = 1 quart
quartqt.14 gal32946.3532 quarts = 1 pottle
pottlepot.2 qt641892.712 pottles = 1 gallon
gallongal.231 in31283,785.412 gallons = 1 peck 

How to Can Pickled Onions

Ingredients    

  • 8     cups thinly sliced sweet onions

        
  • 2     tablespoons canning salt

        
  • 1-3/4     cups white vinegar

        
  • 1     cup sugar

        
  • 1 teaspoon dried thyme

Directions    

  • Place onions in a colander over a plate; sprinkle with canning salt and toss. Let stand 1 hour. Rinse and drain onions, squeezing to remove excess liquid.

        
  • In     a Dutch oven, combine vinegar, sugar and thyme; bring to a boil. Add onions and return to a boil. Reduce heat; simmer, uncovered, 10  minutes. Remove from heat.

        
  • Carefully ladle hot mixture into four hot half-pint jars, leaving 1/2-in. headspace. Remove air bubbles and adjust headspace, if necessary, by adding hot mixture. Wipe rims. Center lids on jars; screw on bands until fingertip tight.    

        
  • Place jars into canner with simmering water, ensuring that they are completely covered with water. Bring to a boil; process for 10 minutes. Remove jars and cool.

Nutrition Facts

2 tablespoons: 36 calories, 0 fat (0 saturated fat), 0 cholesterol, 395mg sodium, 9g carbohydrate (7g sugars, 1g fiber), 0 protein.

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British Writers: Supplement 10

BRITISH WRITERS Acknowledgments Acknowledgment is gratefully made to those publishers and individuals who permitted t.

Author: Ian Scott Kilvert


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BRITISH WRITERS

Acknowledgments Acknowledgment is gratefully made to those publishers and individuals who permitted the use of the following materials in copyright:

DOUGLAS DUNN Dunn, Douglas. From Barbarians. Faber and Faber, 1979. © Douglas Dunn, 1979. All rights reserved. Reproduced by permission of Faber & Faber Ltd. From Dante’s Drum-kit. Faber and Faber, 1993. © Douglas Dunn, 1993. All rights reserved. Reproduced by permission of Faber & Faber Ltd. From Elegies. Faber and Faber, 1985. © Douglas Dunn, 1985. All rights reserved. Reproduced by permission of Faber & Faber Ltd. From Love or Nothing. Faber & Faber, 1974. © 1974 by Douglas Dunn. All rights reserved. Reproduced by permission of Faber & Faber Ltd. From Northlight. Faber and Faber, 1988. © Douglas Dunn, 1988. All rights reserved. Reproduced by permission of Faber & Faber Ltd. From Secret Villages. Faber & Faber 1985. © 1985 by Douglas Dunn. All rights reserved. Reproduced by permission of Faber & Faber Ltd. From St. Kilda’s Parliament. Faber and Faber, 1981. © Douglas Dunn, 1981. All rights reserved. Reproduced by permission of Faber & Faber Ltd. From Terry Street. Faber and Faber, 1969. © Douglas Dunn, 1969. All rights reserved. Reproduced by permission of Faber & Faber Ltd. From The Donkey’s Ears: Politovsky’s Letters Home. Faber and Faber, 2000. © Douglas Dunn, 2000. All rights reserved. Reproduced by permission of Faber & Faber Ltd. From The Happier Life. Chilmark Press, 1972. © Douglas Dunn, 1972. All rights reserved. Reproduced by permission of Faber & Faber Ltd. From The Year’s Afternoon. Faber and Faber, 2000. © Douglas Dunn, 2000. All rights reserved. All reproduced by permission of Faber & Faber Ltd. Haffenden, John. From Viewpoints: Poets in Conversation. Faber and Faber, 1981. © 1981 by John Haffenden. Reproduced by permission of Faber & Faber Ltd. Verse, no. 4, 1985 for “Douglas Dunn Talking with Robert Crawford” by Douglas Dunn. © 1985. Copyright Douglas Dunn. Reproduced by permission of PFD on behalf of Douglas Dunn.

Poetry Matters, v. 6, 1988 for “Frontliners” by Romesh Gunesekera. Reproduced by permission of the author. The Pen, no. 24, winter, 1988 for “Indefinite Exposure” by Romesh Gunesekera. Reproduced by permission of the author. JAN MORRIS Morris, Jan. From Conundrum, Revised Edition. By Jan Morris. Faber and Faber, 2001. Copyright 1974, 2001 by Jan Morris. Reproduced by permission of Faber & Faber Ltd. From an Introduction in Eothen. Oxford University Press, 1982. Reproduced by permission of A.P. Watt Ltd on behalf of Jan Morris. Users must not reproduce, download, store in any medium, distribute, transmit, retransmit or manipulate any text contained in this. From “Traveling Writer,” in The Writer on Her Work, Vol. II. Edited by Janet Sternberg. W. W. Norton & Company, 1991. Copyright © Janet Sternberg. Times Literary Supplement, August 12, 1960; January 11, 1974; © The Times Supplements Limited 1960, 1974. Reproduced from The Times Literary Supplement by permission. ROBERT NYE Nye, Robert. From A Collection of Poems 1955-1988. Hamish Hamilton, 1989. © 1989 Robert Nye. Reproduced by permission of Curtis Brown Group Ltd., London on behalf of Robert Nye. From Collected Poems. Sinclair-Stevenson, 1995. Copyright © Robert Nye. Reproduced by permission of Curtis Brown Group Ltd., London on behalf of Robert Nye. From Darker Ends. Hill & Wang, 1969. Copyright © 1969 by Robert Nye. All rights reserved. Reproduced by permission of Hill & Wang, a division of Farrar, Straus and Giroux, LLC. In the UK by permission of Curtis Brown Group Ltd., London on behalf of Robert Nye. From Divisions on a Ground. Carcanet, 1976. © 1976 Robert Nye. Reproduced with permission of Curtis Brown Group Ltd., London on behalf of Robert Nye. From Juvenilia 1. Scorpion Press, 1961. Reproduced by permission of Curtis Brown Group Ltd., London on behalf of Robert Nye. From Juvenilia 2. Scorpion Press, 1963. Reproduced by permission of Curtis Brown Group Ltd., London on behalf of Robert Nye. From New and Selected Poems. Cecil Woolf. Copyright © Robert Nye. Reproduced by permission of Curtis Brown Group Ltd., London on behalf of Robert Nye.

ROMESH GUNESEKERA Gunesekera, Romesh. London Review of Books, v. 11, February 16, 1989 for “Pigs”. Reproduced by permission of the London Review of Books. Poetry Durham, v. 11, winter, 1985 for “Circled by Circe”; “Going Home (A Letter to Colombo)”; “House Building”; “Indian Tree.” All reproduced by permission of Romesh Gunesekera.

v

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS DENNIS POTTER Potter, Dennis. From Waiting for the Boat. Faber and Faber, 1984. Reproduced by permission of Faber & Faber Ltd.

2, 1993 for “A Conversation with Vikram Seth. Mixed Beasts and Cultural Products” by Makarand Paranjape. Reproduced by permission of the author.

IAN RANKIN Pierce, J. Kingston. From “Ian Rankin: The Accidental Crime Writer,” www.januarymagazine.com, February 23, 2004. Reproduced by permission of the author.

JON STALLWORTHY Stallworthy, Jon. From A Familiar Tree. Chatto and Windus, 1978. Copyright © Jon Stallworthy and David Gentleman 1978. All rights reserved. Reproduced by permission of The Random House Group Limited. From Anzac Sonata: New and Selected Poems. W. W. Norton & Company, 1986. Copyright © 1986 Jon Stallworthy. All rights reserved. Reproduced by permission of W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. From Hand in Hand. Chatto and Windus with the Hogarth Press Ltd., 1974. Copyright © Jon Stallworthy 1974. All rights reserved. Reproduced by permission of The Random House Group Limited. From Root and Branch. Chatto and Windus with the Hogarth Press Ltd., 1969. Copyright © Jon Stallworthy 1969. Reproduced by permission of The Random House Group Limited. From Skyhorse. Thumbscrew Press, 2002. Reproduced by permission. From The Almond Tree. Turret Books, 1967. Copyright © Jon Stallworthy 1967. Reproduced by permission of The Random House Group Limited. From The Guest from the Future. Carcanet, Copyright © Jon Stallworthy 1995. All rights reserved. Reproduced by permission of Carcanet Press Limited. Critical Quarterly, v. 3, summer, 1961 for “Review of The Astronomy of Love” by Robin Skelton. Reproduced by permission of Blackwell Publishers. London Review of Books, v. 21, March 4, 1999 for “Untouched by Eliot” by Denis Donoghue. Reproduced by permission of the London Review of Books. Ploughshares, v. 17, spring, 1991 for “The Girl from Zlot” by Jon Stallworthy. Copyright © 1991 by Emersen College. Reproduced by permission of the author. Times Literary Supplement v. 8, January, 1999 for “Singing School: The Making of a Poet” by Peter McDonald. Copyright © The Times Supplements Limited 1999. Reproduced from The Times Literary Supplement by permission.

KEITH ROBERTS Roberts, Keith. From “Calais Encounter,” in A Heron Caught in Weeds. Edited by Jim Goddard. Kerosina, 1987. Reproduced by permission of the author. From “Grainne,” in A Heron Caught in Weeds. Edited by Jim Goddard. Kerosina, 1987. Reproduced by permission of the author. From “Home Thoughts from a Coach,” in A Heron Caught in Weeds. Edited by Jim Goddard. Kerosina, 1987. Reproduced by permission of the author. From “Synth,” in New Writings in SF 8. Edited by John Carnell. Dobson, 1966. Copyright © 1966 by John Carnell. Reproduced by permission of the author. From “The Grain Kings,” in The Grain Kings, Hutchinson, 1976. Reproduced by permission of the author. From “Verulam,” in A Heron Caught in Weeds. Edited by Jim Goddard. Kerosina, 1987. Reproduced by permission of the author. From “At Hellfire Corner” in A Heron Caught in Weeds. Edited by Jim Goddard. Kerosina, 1987. Reproduced by permission of the author. VIKRAM SETH Seth, Vikram. From All You Who Sleep Tonight. Alfred A. Knopf, 1990. © 1990 by Vikram Seth. Reproduced by permission of Alfred A. Knopf, a division of Random House, Inc., and Curtis Brown Group Ltd., London on behalf of Vikram Seth. From Arion and the Dolphin. Phoenix House, 1994. Reproduced by permission of Curtis Brown Group Ltd., London on behalf of Vikram Seth. From Mappings. Writer’s Workshop, 1981. Reproduced by permission of the author. Indian Review of Books, v.

vi

Editorial and Production Staff

Project Editors LARRY TRUDEAU MAIKUE VANG Copyeditors ROBERT E. JONES LINDA SANDERS Proofreader ALLISON LEOPOLD Indexer SYNAPSE CORPORATION Permission Researcher JULIE VAN PELT Composition Specialist GARY LEACH Buyer RHONDA WILLIAMS Publisher FRANK MENCHACA

vii

Contents

Contents .ix Introduction .xi Chronology .xiii List of Contributors .lv Subjects in Supplement X AYI KWEI ARMAH / Robert Sullivan .1 ISABELLA BIRD / Cornelius Browne .17 VERA BRITTAIN / Susan Butterworth .33 RICHARD BROME / Dan Brayton .49 DOUGLAS DUNN / Gerry Cambridge .65 ROMESH GUNESEKERA / Gautam Kundu .85 JAMES HOGG / Les Wilkinson .103 ALAN HOLLINGHURST / Clare Connors .119 ROHINTON MISTRY / Yumna Siddiqi .137 NANCY MITFORD / Patrick Flanery .151 JAN MORRIS / Michele Gemelos .171 ROBERT NYE / Helena Nelson .191 MARGARET OLIPHANT / Antonia Losano .209 DENNIS POTTER / Fred Bilson .227 IAN RANKIN / John Lennard .243 KEITH ROBERTS / Fred Bilson .261 VIKRAM SETH / Thomas Wright .277 JON STALLWORTHY / Sandie Byrne .291 MASTER INDEX to Volumes I–VII, Supplements I–X, Retrospective Supplements I–II .305

ix

Introduction

peared in four volumes entitled American Writers: A Collection of Literary Biographies (1974). British Writers began with a series of essays originally published by the British Council, and regular supplements have followed. The goal of the supplements has been consistent with the original idea of the series: to provide clear, informative essays aimed at the general reader. These essays often rise to a high level of craft and critical vision, but they are meant to introduce a writer of some importance in the history of British or Anglophone literature, and to provide a sense of the scope and nature of the career under review. The authors of these critical articles are mostly teachers, scholars, and writers. Most have published books and articles in their field, and several are well–known writers of poetry or fiction as well as critics. As anyone glancing through this volume will see, they have been held to the highest standards of clear writing and sound scholarship. Jargon and theoretical musings have been discouraged, except when strictly relevant. Each of the essays concludes with a select bibliography of works by the author under discussion and secondary works that might be useful to those who wish to pursue the subject further. Supplement X centers on contemporary writers from various genres and traditions who have had little sustained attention from critics, although most are well known. Ayi Kwei Armah, Douglas Dunn, Romesh Gunesekera, Alan Hollinghurst, Rohinton Mistry, Jan Morris, Robert Nye, Ian Rankin, Vikram Seth, and Jon Stallworthy have all been written about in the review pages of newspapers and magazines, often at considerable length, and their work has acquired a substantial following, but their careers have yet to attract significant scholarship. That will certainly follow, but the essays included in this volume constitute a beginning of sorts, an attempt to map out the particular universe of each writer.

“Reading is to the mind what exercise is to the body,” wrote Richard Steele, the great English essayist from the eighteenth century. The articles in this collection point to a wealth of good exercise for the mind, treating a wide range of British authors, or authors who write in the tradition of British literature, often in a postcolonial setting. In Supplement X we present detailed, articulate introductions to authors, mostly contemporary, although some are from the recent past, and two—Richard Brome and James Hogg —belong to the distant past. In each case the articles have been written in a way designed to increase the reader’s pleasure in the work of the subject, and to make the shape of that career, its evolution and influence, comprehensible. As a whole, this series brings together a wide range of articles on British writers who have a considerable reputation in the literary world. As in previous volumes, the subjects have been chosen for their significant contribution to the traditions of literature, and each has influenced intellectual life in Britain in some way. Readers will find these essays lively and intelligent, designed to interest readers unfamiliar with their work and to assist those who know the work quite well by providing close readings of individual texts and a sense of the biographical, cultural, and critical context of that work. Detailed bibliographies of work by the given subject and work about this writer are included. British Writers was originally an off–shoot of a series of monographs that appeared between 1959 and 1972, the Minnesota Pamphlets on American Writers. These pamphlets were incisively written and informative, treating ninety–seven American writers in a format and style that attracted a devoted following of readers. The series proved invaluable to a generation of students and teachers, who could depend on these reliable and interesting critiques of major figures. The idea of reprinting these essays occurred to Charles Scribner, Jr., an innovative publisher during the middle decades of the twentieth century. The series ap-

xi

INTRODUCTION Four classic writers from the distant past included here are Richard Brome, James Hogg, Margaret Oliphant (usually known as Mrs. Oliphant), and Isabella Bird—important authors who, for one reason or another, have yet to be treated in this series. Some writers from the recent past, such as Vera Brittain, Nancy Mitford, Dennis Potter, and Keith Roberts, have attracted a following but not yet been considered in this series. All six deserve the quality of attention paid to them in this articles. These are well–known figures in the literary world, major voices, and it is time they were added to the series.

As ever, our purpose in presenting these critical and biographical essays is to bring readers back to the texts discussed, to help them in their reading. These are especially strong and stimulating essays, and they should enable students and general readers to enter into the world of these writers freshly, encouraging them on their intellectual journeys. They should help readers to appreciate the way things are said by these authors, thus enhancing their pleasure in the texts. Above all, these essays should lengthen the reading list of those wishing to exercise their minds.

—JAY PARINI

xii

Chronology

ca. 1342 1348 ca. 1350 1351

1356 1360

1362

1369

1369–1377 ca. 1370 1371 1372 1372–1382 1373–1393

ca. 1375–1400 1376 1377–1399 ca. 1379 ca. 1380 1381 1386

1399–1413 ca. 1400 1400 1408 1412–1420 1413–1422 1415 1420–1422

1422–1461 1431



1440–1441 1444 1450 ca. 1451 1453 1455–1485 ca. 1460 1461–1470 1470–1471 1471 1471–1483 1476–1483

1483–1485 1485 1485–1509 1486

1492 1493

1497–1498 1497–1499 1499

1503 1505 1509–1547

xiii

Paul’s: founds St. Paul’s School Reign of Henry VIII

CHRONOLOGY 1509 1511 1513 1515 1516 1517

1519 1519–1521 1525 1526

1529 1529–1536 1531 1532

1533

1534

1535

1536

1537

1538 1540



1542 1543

1546 1547 1547–1553 1548–1552 1552 ca. 1552 1553 1553–1558 ca. 1554 1554

ca. 1556 1557

ca. 1558 1558

1558–1603 1559 ca. 1559 1561

1562

1562–1568 1564 1565

xiv



CHRONOLOGY 1566

1567

1569 1570 1571 ca. 1572 1572 1574 1576

1576–1578 1577–1580 1577 1579

1581 1582 1584–1585 1585

1586

1587

William Painter’s Palace of Pleasure, a miscellany of prose stories, the source of many dramatists’ plots Darnley murdered at Kirk o’Field Mary Queen of Scots marries the earl of Bothwell Rebellion of the English northern earls suppressed Roger Ascham’s The Schoolmaster Defeat of the Turkish fleet at Lepanto Ben Jonson born St. Bartholomew’s Day massacre John Filmora Video Editor Licensed Email and Serial key Free 2020 born The earl of Leicester’s theater company formed The Theater, the first permanent theater building in London, opened The first Blackfriars Theater opened with performances by the Children of St. Paul’s John Marston born Martin Frobisher’s voyages to Labrador and the northwest Sir Francis Drake sails around the world Holinshed’s Chronicles of England, Scotlande, and Irelande John Lyly’s Euphues: The Anatomy of Wit Thomas North’s translation of Plutarch’s Lives The Levant Company founded Seneca’s Ten Tragedies translated Richard Hakluyt’s Divers Voyages Touching the Discoverie of America Sir John Davis’ first voyage to Greenland First English settlement in America, the “Lost Colony” comprising 108 men under Ralph Lane, founded at Roanoke Island, off the coast of North Carolina Kyd’s Spanish Tragedy Marlowe’s Tamburlaine William Camden’s Britannia The Babington conspiracy against Queen Elizabeth Death of Sir Philip Sidney Mary Queen of Scots executed

1588 1590

1592

1593 1594

1595 1596

ca. 1597 1597 1598 1598–1600

1599 1600 1601 1602

1603–1625 1603

1604 ca. 1605 1605 1606

xv

Birth of Virginia Dare, first English child born in America, at Roanoke Island Defeat of the Spanish Armada Marlowe’s Dr.

CHRONOLOGY 1607 1608 1609 1610 1611 1612

ca. 1613 1613 1614 1616

ca. 1618 1618

1619

1620 1621

1622 1623

1624 1625–1649 1625 1626



1627

1627–1628

1628

1629

1629–1630 1631 1633

1634 1635 1636 ca. 1637 1637

ca. 1638 1638

xvi



CHRONOLOGY ca. 1639 1639

1639–1640 1640

1641

1642

1643

1644

1645

1646



1647

1648

1649–1660 1649

1650 1651

1652 1653

1654 1655

xvii



CHRONOLOGY 1656

1657

1658

1659 1660

1660–1685 1661

1662

1664

1665

1666

1667



1668

1670

1671 1672

1673

1674

1676 1677

1678

1679

1680 1681

xviii

The war with Holland ended by the Treaty of Breda Milton’s Paradise Lost Thomas Sprat’s History of the Royal Society Death of Abraham Cowley Sir Christopher Wren begins to rebuild St.

CHRONOLOGY 1682

1683

1685–1688 1685

1686

1687

1688

1689–1702 1689

1690

1692



1694

1695 1697

1698

1699 1700

1701

1702–1714 1702

1703

1704

1706

1707

1709

xix



CHRONOLOGY

1710 1711

1712

1713

1714–1727 1714 1715

1716 1717

1718

1719 1720

1721 1722 1724

Marlborough defeats the French at Malplaquet Charles XII of Sweden defeated at Poltava South Sea Company founded First copyright act Swift’s The Conduct of the Allies The Spectator founded (1711–1712; 1714) Marlborough dismissed David Hume born Pope’s The Rape of the Lock (Cantos 1–2) Jean Jacques Rousseau born War with France ended by the Treaty of Utrecht The Guardian founded Swift becomes dean of St. Patrick’s, Dublin Addison’s Cato Laurence Sterne born Reign of George I Pope’s expended version of The Rape of the Lock (Cantos 1–5) The Jacobite rebellion in Scotland Pope’s translation of Homer’s Iliad (1715–1720) Death of Louis XIV Death of William Wycherley Thomas Gray born Pope’s Eloisa to Abelard David Garrick born Horace Walpole born Quadruple Alliance (Britain, France, the Netherlands, the German Empire) in war against Spain Defoe’s Robinson Crusoe Death of Joseph Addison Inoculation against smallpox introduced in Boston War against Spain The South Sea Bubble Gilbert White born Defoe’s Captain Singleton and Memoirs of a Cavalier Tobias Smollett born William Collins born Defoe’s Moll Flanders, Journal of the Plague Year, and Colonel Jack Defoe’s Roxana Swift’s The Drapier’s Letters

1725 1726

1727–1760 1728

1729

1731

1732 1733

1734 1736 1737 1738 1740

1742

1744

1745

1746

xx

Richard Savage Death of Alexander Pope Second Jacobite rebellion, led by Charles Edward, the Young Pretender Death of Jonathan Swift The Young Pretender defeated at Culloden Collins’ Odes on Several Descriptive and Allegorical Subjects

CHRONOLOGY 1747

1748

1749

1750 1751

1752 1753

1754

1755

1756

1757



1758 1759

1760–1820 1760

1761

1762

1763

1764 1765

1766

xxi



CHRONOLOGY 1768

1769

1770

1771

1772 1773

1774

1775



1776

1777

1778

1779

1780 1781

1782

xxii



CHRONOLOGY 1783

1784

1785

1786

1787

1788

1789

American War of Independence ended by the Definitive Treaty of Peace, signed at Paris William Blake’s Poetical Sketches George Crabbe’s The Village William Pitt the younger becomes prime minister Henri Beyle (Stendhal) born Beaumarchais’s Le Mariage de Figaro first performed (published 1785) Death of Samuel Johnson Warren Hastings returns to England from India James Boswell’s The Journey of a Tour of the Hebrides, with Samuel Johnson, LL.D. Cowper’s The Task Edmund Cartwright invents the power loom Thomas De Quincey born Thomas Love Peacock born William Beckford’s Vathek published in English (originally written in French in 1782) Robert Burns’s Poems Chiefly in the Scottish Dialect Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart’s The Marriage of Figaro Death of Frederick the Great The Committee for the Abolition of the Slave Trade founded in England The Constitutional Convention meets at Philadelphia; the Constitution is signed The trial of Hastings begins on charges of corruption of the government in India The Estates-General of France summoned U.S. Constitution is ratified George Washington elected president of the United States Giovanni Casanova’s Histoire de ma fuite (first manuscript of his memoirs) The Daily Universal Register becomes the Times (London) George Gordon, Lord Byron born The Estates-General meets at Versailles

1790

1791

1792

1793

xxiii

The National Assembly (Assemblée Nationale) convened The fall of the Bastille marks the beginning of the French Revolution The National Assembly draws up the Declaration of Rights of Man and of the Citizen First U.S. Congress meets in New York Blake’s Songs of Innocence Jeremy Bentham’s Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation introduces the theory of utilitarianism Gilbert White’s Natural History of Selborne Congress sets permanent capital city site on the Potomac River First U.S. Census Burke’s Reflections on the Revolution in France Blake’s The Marriage of Heaven and Hell Edmund Malone’s edition of Shakespeare Wollstonecraft’s A Vindication of the Rights of Man Death of Benjamin Franklin French royal family’s flight from Paris and capture at Varennes; imprisonment in the Tuileries Bill of Rights is ratified Paine’s The Rights of Man (1791– 1792) Boswell’s The Life of Johnson Burns’s Tam o’Shanter The Observer founded The Prussians invade France and are repulsed at Valmy September massacres The National Convention declares royalty abolished in France Washington reelected president of the United States New York Stock Exchange opens Mary Wollstonecraft’s Vindication of the Rights of Woman William Bligh’s voyage to the South Sea in H.M.S. Bounty Percy Bysshe Shelley born Trial and execution of Louis XVI and Marie-Antoinette

CHRONOLOGY

1794

1795

1796

1797

1798

1799



1800

1801 1802

1803

1804

1805

1806

1807

xxiv



CHRONOLOGY 1808

1809

1810

1811–1820 1811

1812

1813



1814

1815

1816

1817

xxv

Shelley’s Queen Mab Southey’s Life of Nelson Napoleon abdicates and is exiled to Elba; Bourbon restoration with Louis XVIII Treaty of Ghent ends the war between Britain and the United States Jane Austen’s Mansfield Park Byron’s The Corsair and Lara Scott’s Waverley Wordsworth’s The Excursion Napoleon returns to France (the Hundred Days); is defeated at Waterloo and exiled to St. Helena U.S.S. Fulton, the first steam warship, built Scott’s Guy Mannering Schlegel’s Lectures on Dramatic Art and Literature translated Wordsworth’s The White Doe of Rylstone Anthony Trollope born Byron leaves England permanently The Elgin Marbles exhibited in the British Museum James Monroe elected president of the United States Jane Austen’s Emma Byron’s Childe Harold (Canto 3) Coleridge’s Christabel, Kubla Khan: A Vision, The Pains of Sleep Benjamin Constant’s Adolphe Goethe’s Italienische Reise Peacock’s Headlong Hall Scott’s The Antiquary Shelley’s Alastor Rossini’s Il Barbiere di Siviglia Death of Richard Brinsley Sheridan Charlotte Brontë born Blackwood’s Edinburgh magazine founded Jane Austen’s Northanger Abbey and Persuasion Byron’s Manfred Coleridge’s Biographia Literaria Hazlitt’s The Characters of Shakespeare’s Plays and The Round Table Keats’s Poems Peacock’s Melincourt David Ricardo’s Principles of Political Economy and Taxation Death of Jane Austen

CHRONOLOGY

1818

1819

1820–1830 1820

Agnes, and Other Poems Hazlitt’s Lectures Chiefly on the Dramatic Literature of the Age of Elizabeth Charles Maturin’s Melmoth the Wanderer

1821

1822

1823

1824

xxvi



CHRONOLOGY 1825

1826

1827

1828

1829

1830–1837 1830

1831

Inauguration of steam-powered passenger and freight service on the Stockton and Darlington railway Bolivia and Brazil become independent Alessandro Manzoni’s I Promessi Sposi (1825–1826) André-Marie Ampère’s Mémoire sur la théorie mathématique des phénomènes électrodynamiques James Fenimore Cooper’s The Last of the Mohicans Disraeli’s Vivian Grey (1826–1827) Scott’s Woodstock The battle of Navarino ensures the independence of Greece Josef Ressel obtains patent for the screw propeller for steamships Heinrich Heine’s Buch der Lieder Death of William Blake Andrew Jackson elected president of the United States Births of Henrik Ibsen, George Meredith, Margaret Oliphant, Dante Gabriel Rossetti, and Leo Tolstoy The Catholic Emancipation Act Robert Peel establishes the metropolitan police force Greek independence recognized by Turkey Balzac begins La Comédie humaine (1829–1848) Peacock’s The Misfortunes of Elphin J. M. W. Turner’s Ulysses Deriding Polyphemus Reign of William IV Charles X of France abdicates and is succeeded by Louis-Philippe The Liverpool-Manchester railway opened Tennyson’s Poems, Chiefly Lyrical Death of William Hazlitt Christina Rossetti born Michael Faraday discovers electromagnetic induction Charles Darwin’s voyage on H.M.S. Beagle begins (1831–1836) The Barbizon school of artists’ first exhibition Nat Turner slave revolt crushed in Virginia

1832

1833

1834

1835

1836

xxvii

Peacock’s Crotchet Castle Stendhal’s Le Rouge et le noir Edward Trelawny’s The Adventures of a Younger Son Isabella Bird born The first Reform Bill Samuel Morse invents the telegraph Jackson reelected president of the United States Disraeli’s Contarini Fleming Goethe’s Faust (Part 2) Tennyson’s Poems, Chiefly Lyrical, including “The Lotus-Eaters” and “The Lady of Shalott” Death of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe Death of Sir Walter Scott Lewis Carroll born Robert Browning’s Pauline John Keble launches the Oxford Movement American Anti-Slavery Society founded Lamb’s Last Essays of Elia Carlyle’s Sartor Resartus (1833– 1834) Pushkin’s Eugene Onegin Mendelssohn’s Italian Symphony first performed Abolition of slavery in the British Empire Louis Braille’s alphabet for the blind Balzac’s Le Père Goriot Nikolai Gogol’s Dead Souls (Part 1, 1834–1842) Death of Samuel Taylor Coleridge Death of Charles Lamb William Morris born Hans Christian Andersen’s Fairy Tales (1st ser.) Robert Browning’s Paracelsus Births of Samuel Butler and Mary Elizabeth Braddon Alexis de Tocqueville’s De la Democratie en Amerique (1835– 1840) Death of James Hogg Martin Van Buren elected president of the United States Dickens’ Sketches by Boz (1836– 1837)

CHRONOLOGY 1837–1901 1837

1838

1839

1840

1841

1842



xxviii

1843

1844

1845

1846

1847

1848

Tennyson’s Poems, including “Morte d’Arthur,” “St. Simeon Stylites,” and “Ulysses” Wordsworth’s Poems Marc Isambard Brunel’s Thames tunnel opened The Economist founded Carlyle’s Past and Present Dickens’ A Christmas Carol John Stuart Mill’s Logic Macaulay’s Critical and Historical Essays John Ruskin’s Modern Painters (1843–1860) Rochdale Society of Equitable Pioneers, one of the first consumers’ cooperatives, founded by twentyeight Lancashire weavers James K. Polk elected president of the United States Elizabeth Barrett Browning’s Poems, including “The Cry of the Children” Dickens’ Martin Chuzzlewit Disraeli’s Coningsby Turner’s Rain, Steam and Speed Gerard Manley Hopkins born The great potato famine in Ireland begins (1845–1849) Disraeli’s Sybil Repeal of the Corn Laws The Daily News founded (edited by Dickens the first three weeks) Standard-gauge railway introduced in Britain The Brontës’ pseudonymous Poems by Currer, Ellis and Action Bell Lear’s Book of Nonsense The Ten Hours Factory Act James Simpson uses chloroform as an anesthetic Anne Brontë’s Agnes Grey Charlotte Brontë’s Jane Eyre Emily Brontë’s Wuthering Heights Bram Stoker born Tennyson’s The Princess The year of revolutions in France, Germany, Italy, Hungary, Poland Marx and Engels issue The Communist Manifesto The Chartist Petition

CHRONOLOGY

1849

1850

1851

1852



1853

1854

1855

1856

1857

xxix

David Livingstone begins to explore the Zambezi (1852–1856) Franklin Pierce elected president of the United States Arnold’s Empedocles on Etna Thackeray’s The History of Henry Esmond, Esq. Crimean War (1853–1856) Arnold’s Poems, including “The Scholar Gypsy” and “Sohrab and Rustum” Charlotte Brontë’s Villette Elizabeth Gaskell’s Crawford and Ruth Frederick D. Maurice’s Working Men’s College founded in London with more than 130 pupils Battle of Balaklava Dickens’ Hard Times James George Frazer born Theodor Mommsen’s History of Rome (1854–1856) Tennyson’s “The Charge of the Light Brigade” Florence Nightingale in the Crimea (1854–1856) Oscar Wilde born David Livingstone discovers the Victoria Falls Robert Browning’s Men and Women Elizabeth Gaskell’s North and South Olive Schreiner born Tennyson’s Maud Thackeray’s The Newcomes Trollope’s The Warden Death of Charlotte Brontë The Treaty of Paris ends the Crimean War Henry Bessemer’s steel process invented James Buchanan elected president of the United States H. Rider Haggard born The Indian Mutiny begins; crushed in 1858 The Matrimonial Causes Act Charlotte Brontë’s The Professor

CHRONOLOGY

1858

1859

1860

1861

1862

Elizabeth Barrett Browning’s Aurora Leigh Dickens’ Little Dorritt Elizabeth Gaskell’s The Life of Charlotte Brontë Thomas Hughes’s Tom Brown’s School Days Trollope’s Barchester Towers Carlyle’s History of Frederick the Great (1858–1865) George Eliot’s Scenes of Clerical Life Morris’ The Defense of Guinevere Trollope’s Dr. Thorne Charles Darwin’s The Origin of Species Dickens’ A Tale of Two Cities Arthur Conan Doyle born George Eliot’s Adam Bede Fitzgerald’s The Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyám Meredith’s The Ordeal of Richard Feverel Mill’s On Liberty Samuel Smiles’s Self-Help Tennyson’s Idylls of the King Abraham Lincoln elected president of the United States The Cornhill magazine founded with Thackeray as editor James M. Barrie born William Wilkie Collins’ The Woman in White George Eliot’s The Mill on the Floss American Civil War begins Louis Pasteur presents the germ theory of disease Arnold’s Lectures on Translating Homer Dickens’ Great Expectations George Eliot’s Silas Marner Meredith’s Evan Harrington Francis Turner Palgrave’s The Golden Treasury Trollope’s Framley Parsonage Peacock’s Gryll Grange Death of Prince Albert George Eliot’s Romola Meredith’s Modern Love Christina Rossetti’s Goblin Market Ruskin’s Unto This Last Trollope’s Orley Farm

1863 1864

1865

1866

1867

1868

1869

xxx

Thomas Huxley’s Man’s Place in Nature The Geneva Red Cross Convention signed by twelve nations Lincoln reelected president of the United States Robert Browning’s Dramatis Personae John Henry Newman’s Apologia pro vita sua Tennyson’s Enoch Arden Trollope’s The Small House at Allington Assassination of Lincoln; Andrew Johnson succeeds to the presidency Arnold’s Essays in Criticism (1st ser.) Carroll’s Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland Dickens’ Our Mutual Friend Meredith’s Rhoda Fleming A. C. Swinburne’s Atalanta in Calydon First successful transatlantic telegraph cable laid George Eliot’s Felix Holt, the Radical Elizabeth Gaskell’s Wives and Daughters Beatrix Potter born Swinburne’s Poems and Ballads The second Reform Bill Arnold’s New Poems Bagehot’s The English Constitution Carlyle’s Shooting Niagara Marx’s Das Kapital (vol. 1) Trollope’s The Last Chronicle of Barset George William Russell (AE) born Gladstone becomes prime minister (1868–1874) Johnson impeached by House of Representatives; acquitted by Senate Ulysses S. Grant elected president of the United States Robert Browning’s The Ring and the Book (1868–1869) Collins’ The Moonstone The Suez Canal opened Girton College, Cambridge, founded

CHRONOLOGY

1870

1871

1872

1873

1874

1875

1876

1877

1878

Arnold’s Culture and Anarchy Mill’s The Subjection of Women Trollope’s Phineas Finn The Elementary Education Act establishes schools under the aegis of local boards Dickens’ Edwin Drood Disraeli’s Lothair Morris’ The Earthly Paradise Dante Gabriel Rossetti’s Poems Saki [Hector Hugh Munro] born Trade unions legalized Newnham College, Cambridge, founded for women students Carroll’s Through the Looking Glass Darwin’s The Descent of Man Meredith’s The Adventures of Harry Richmond Swinburne’s Songs Before Sunrise Max Beerbohm born Samuel Butler’s Erewhon George Eliot’s Middlemarch Grant reelected president of the United States Hardy’s Under the Greenwood Tree Arnold’s Literature and Dogma Mill’s Autobiography Pater’s Studies in the History of the Renaissance Trollope’s The Eustace Diamonds Disraeli becomes prime minister Hardy’s Far from the Madding Crowd James Thomson’s The City of Dreadful Night Britain buys Suez Canal shares Trollope’s The Way We Live Now T. F. Powys born F. H. Bradley’s Ethical Studies George Eliot’s Daniel Deronda Henry James’s Roderick Hudson Meredith’s Beauchamp’s Career Morris’ Sigurd the Volsung Trollope’s The Prime Minister Rutherford B. Hayes elected president of the United States after Electoral Commission awards him disputed votes Henry James’s The American Electric street lighting introduced in London

1879

1880

1881

1882

1883

1884

xxxi

Hardy’s The Return of the Native Swinburne’s Poems and Ballads (2d ser.) Births of A. E. Coppard and Edward Thomas Somerville College and Lady Margaret Hall opened at Oxford for women The London telephone exchange built Gladstone’s Midlothian campaign (1879–1880) Browning’s Dramatic Idyls Meredith’s The Egoist Gladstone’s second term as prime minister (1880–1885) James A. Garfield elected president of the United States Browning’s Dramatic Idyls Second Series Disraeli’s Endymion Radclyffe Hall born Hardy’s The Trumpet-Major Lytton Strachey born Garfield assassinated; Chester A. Arthur succeeds to the presidency Henry James’s The Portrait of a Lady and Washington Square D. G. Rossetti’s Ballads and Sonnets P. G. Wodehouse born Triple Alliance formed between German empire, Austrian empire, and Italy Leslie Stephen begins to edit the Dictionary of National Biography Married Women’s Property Act passed in Britain Britain occupies Egypt and the Sudan Uprising of the Mahdi: Britain evacuates the Sudan Royal College of Music opens T. H. Green’s Ethics T. E. Hulme born Stevenson’s Treasure Island The Mahdi captures Omdurman: General Gordon appointed to command the garrison of Khartoum Grover Cleveland elected president of the United States

CHRONOLOGY

1885

1886

1887

1888

1889 1890

1891

1892

The Oxford English Dictionary begins publishing The Fabian Society founded Hiram Maxim’s recoil-operated machine gun invented The Mahdi captures Khartoum: General Gordon killed Haggard’s King Solomon’s Mines Marx’s Das Kapital (vol. 2) Meredith’s Diana of the Crossways Pater’s Marius the Epicurean The Canadian Pacific Railway completed Gold discovered in the Transvaal Births of Frances Cornford, Ronald Firbank, and Charles Stansby Walter Williams Henry James’s The Bostonians and The Princess Casamassima Stevenson’s The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde Queen Victoria’s Golden Jubilee Rupert Brooke born Haggard’s Allan Quatermain and She Hardy’s The Woodlanders Edwin Muir born Benjamin Harrison elected president of the United States Henry James’s The Aspern Papers Kipling’s Plain Tales from the Hills T. E. Lawrence born Yeats’s The Wanderings of Oisin Death of Robert Browning Morris founds the Kelmscott Press Agatha Christie born Frazer’s The Golden Bough (1st ed.) Henry James’s The Tragic Muse Morris’ News From Nowhere Jean Rhys born Gissing’s New Grub Street Hardy’s Tess of the d’Urbervilles Wilde’s The Picture of Dorian Gray Grover Cleveland elected president of the United States Conan Doyle’s The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes Shaw’s Widower’s Houses J. R. R. Tolkien born Rebecca West born Wilde’s Lady Windermere’s Fan

1893

1894

1895

Wilde’s A Woman of No Importance and Salomé Vera Brittain born Kipling’s The Jungle Book Moore’s Esther Waters Marx’s Das Kapital (vol. 3) Audrey Beardsley’s The Yellow Book begins to appear quarterly Shaw’s Arms and the Man Trial and imprisonment of Oscar Driver easy pro key - Crack Key For U William Ramsay announces discovery of helium The National Trust founded Conrad’s Almayer’s Folly Hardy’s Jude the Obscure Wells’s The Time Machine Wilde’s The Importance of Being Earnest Yeats’s Poems

1896

William McKinley elected president of the United States Failure of the Jameson Raid on the Transvaal Housman’s A Shropshire Lad

1897

Queen Victoria’s Diamond Jubilee Conrad’s The Nigger of the Narcissus Havelock Ellis’ Studies in the Psychology of Sex begins publication Henry James’s The Spoils of Poynton and What Maisie Knew Kipling’s Captains Courageous Shaw’s Candida Stoker’s Dracula Wells’s The Invisible Man Death of Margaret Oliphant

1898

Kitchener defeats the Mahdist forces at Omdurman: the Sudan reoccupied Hardy’s Wessex Poems Henry James’s The Turn of the Screw C. S. Lewis born

xxxii

CHRONOLOGY

1899

1900

1901–1910 1901

1902

Shaw’s Caesar and Cleopatra and You Never Can Tell Alec Waugh born Wells’s The War of the Worlds Wilde’s The Ballad of Reading Gaol The Boer War begins Elizabeth Bowen born Noël Coward born Elgar’s Enigma Variations Kipling’s Stalky and Co. McKinley reelected president of the United States British Labour party founded Boxer Rebellion in China Reginald A. Fessenden transmits speech by wireless First Zeppelin trial flight Max Planck presents his first paper on the quantum theory Conrad’s Lord Jim Elgar’s The Dream of Gerontius Sigmund Freud’s The Interpretation of Dreams V. S. Pritchett born William Butler Yeats’s The Shadowy Waters Reign of King Edward VII William McKinley assassinated; Theodore Roosevelt succeeds to the presidency First transatlantic wireless telegraph signal transmitted Chekhov’s Three Sisters Freud’s Psychopathology of Everyday Life Rudyard Kipling’s Kim Thomas Mann’s Buddenbrooks Potter’s The Tale of Peter Rabbit Shaw’s Captain Brassbound’s Conversion August Strindberg’s The Dance of Death Barrie’s The Admirable Crichton Arnold Bennett’s Anna of the Five Towns Cézanne’s Le Lac D’Annecy Conrad’s Heart of Darkness Henry James’s The Wings of the Dove William James’s The Varieties of Religious Experience Kipling’s Just So Stories

xxxiii

1903

1904

Maugham’s Mrs. Cradock Stevie Smith born Times Literary Supplement begins publishing At its London congress the Russian Social Democratic Party divides into Mensheviks, led by Plekhanov, and Bolsheviks, led by Lenin The treaty of Panama places the Canal Zone in U.S. hands for a nominal rent Motor cars regulated in Britain to a 20-mile-per-hour limit The Wright brothers make a successful flight in the United States Burlington magazine founded Samuel Butler’s The Way of All Flesh published posthumously Cyril Connolly born George Gissing’s The Private Papers of Henry Ryecroft Thomas Hardy’s The Dynasts Henry James’s The Ambassadors Alan Paton born Shaw’s Man and Superman Synge’s Riders to the Sea produced in Dublin Yeats’s In the Seven Woods and On Baile’s Strand Roosevelt elected president of the United States Russo-Japanese war (1904–1905) Construction of the Panama Canal begins The ultraviolet lamp invented The engineering firm of Rolls Royce founded Barrie’s Peter Pan first performed Births of Cecil Day Lewis and Nancy Mitford Chekhov’s The Cherry Orchard Conrad’s Nostromo Henry James’s The Golden Bowl Kipling’s Traffıcs and Discoveries Georges Rouault’s Head of a Tragic Clown G. M. Trevelyan’s England Under the Stuarts Puccini’s Madame Butterfly First Shaw-Granville Barker season at the Royal Court Theatre

CHRONOLOGY

1905

1906

1907

The Abbey Theatre founded in Dublin Death of Isabella Bird Russian sailors on the battleship Potemkin mutiny After riots and a general strike the czar concedes demands by the Duma for legislative powers, a wider franchise, and civil liberties Albert Einstein publishes his first theory of relativity The Austin Motor Company founded Bennett’s Tales of the Five Towns Claude Debussy’s La Mer E. M. Forster’s Where Angels Fear to Tread Richard Strauss’s Salome H. G. Wells’s Kipps Oscar Wilde’s De Profundis Births of Norman Cameron, Henry Green, and Mary Renault Liberals win a landslide victory in the British general election The Trades Disputes Act legitimizes peaceful picketing in Britain Captain Dreyfus rehabilitated in France J. J. Thomson begins research on gamma rays The U.S. Pure Food and Drug Act passed Churchill’s Lord Randolph Churchill William Empson born Galsworthy’s The Man of Property Kipling’s Puck of Pook’s Hill Shaw’s The Doctor’s Dilemma Yeats’s Poems 1899–1905 Exhibition of cubist paintings in Paris Henry Adams’ The Education of Henry Adams Henri Bergson’s Creative Evolution Conrad’s The Secret Agent Births of Barbara Comyns, Daphne du Maurier, and Christopher Fry Forster’s The Longest Journey André Gide’s La Porte étroite Shaw’s John Bull’s Other Island and Major Barbara

1908

1909

xxxiv

Synge’s The Playboy of the Western World Trevelyan’s Garibaldi’s Defence of the Roman Republic Christopher Caudwell (Christopher St. John Sprigg) born Herbert Asquith becomes prime minister David Lloyd George becomes chancellor of the exchequer William Howard Taft elected president of the United States The Young Turks seize power in Istanbul Henry Ford’s Model T car produced Bennett’s The Old Wives’ Tale Pierre Bonnard’s Nude Against the Light Georges Braque’s House at L’Estaque Chesterton’s The Man Who Was Thursday Jacob Epstein’s Figures erected in London Forster’s A Room with a View Anatole France’s L’Ile des Pingouins Henri Matisse’s Bonheur de Vivre Elgar’s First Symphony Ford Madox Ford founds the English Review The Young Turks depose Sultan Abdul Hamid The Anglo-Persian Oil Company formed Louis Bleriot crosses the English Channel from France by monoplane Admiral Robert Peary reaches the North Pole Freud lectures at Clark University (Worcester, Mass.) on psychoanalysis Serge Diaghilev’s Ballets Russes opens in Paris Galsworthy’s Strife Hardy’s Time’s Laughingstocks Malcolm Lowry born Claude Monet’s Water Lilies Stephen Spender born Trevelyan’s Garibaldi and the Thousand

CHRONOLOGY

1910–1936 1910

1911

1912

Wells’s Tono-Bungay first published (book form, 1909) Reign of King George V The Liberals win the British general election Marie Curie’s Treatise on Radiography Arthur Evans excavates Knossos Edouard Manet and the first postimpressionist exhibition in London Filippo Marinetti publishes “Manifesto of the Futurist Painters” Norman Angell’s The Great Illusion Bennett’s Clayhanger Forster’s Howards End Galsworthy’s Justice and The Silver Box Kipling’s Rewards and Fairies Norman MacCaig born Rimsky-Korsakov’s Le Coq d’or Stravinsky’s The Firebird Vaughan Williams’ A Sea Symphony Wells’s The History of Mr. Polly Wells’s The New Machiavelli first published (in book form, 1911) Lloyd George introduces National Health Insurance Bill Suffragette riots in Whitehall Roald Amundsen reaches the South Pole Bennett’s The Card Chagall’s Self Portrait with Seven Fingers Conrad’s Under Western Eyes D. H. Lawrence’s The White Peacock Katherine Mansfield’s In a German Pension Edward Marsh edits Georgian Poetry Moore’s Hail and Farewell (1911– 1914) Flann O’Brien born Strauss’s Der Rosenkavalier Stravinsky’s Petrouchka Trevelyan’s Garibaldi and the Making of Italy Wells’s The New Machiavelli Mahler’s Das Lied von der Erde Woodrow Wilson elected president of the United States

1913

1914

1915

xxxv

SS Titanic sinks on its maiden voyage Five million Americans go to the movies daily; London has four hundred movie theaters Second post-impressionist exhibition in London Bennett’s and Edward Knoblock’s Milestones Constantin Brancusi’s Maiastra Wassily Kandinsky’s Black Lines D. H. Lawrence’s The Trespasser Second Balkan War begins Henry Ford pioneers factory assembly technique through conveyor belts Epstein’s Tomb of Oscar Wilde New York Armory Show introduces modern art to the world Alain Fournier’s Le Grand Meaulnes Freud’s Totem and Tabu D. H. Lawrence’s Sons and Lovers Mann’s Death in Venice Proust’s Du Côté de chez Swann (first volume of À la recherche du temps perdu, 1913–1922) Barbara Pym born Ravel’s Daphnis and Chloé The Panama Canal opens (formal dedication on 12 July 1920) Irish Home Rule Bill passed in the House of Commons Archduke Franz Ferdinand assassinated at Sarajevo World War I begins Battles of the Marne, Masurian Lakes, and Falkland Islands Joyce’s Dubliners Norman Nicholson born Shaw’s Pygmalion and Androcles and the Lion Yeats’s Responsibilities Wyndham Lewis publishes Blast magazine and The Vorticist Manifesto The Dardanelles campaign begins Britain and Germany begin naval and submarine blockades The Lusitania is sunk Hugo Junkers manufactures the first fighter aircraft

CHRONOLOGY

1916

1917

First Zeppelin raid in London Brooke’s 1914: Five Sonnets Norman Douglas’ Old Calabria D. W. Griffith’s The Birth of a Nation Gustav Holst’s The Planets D. H. Lawrence’s The Rainbow Wyndham Lewis’s The Crowd Maugham’s Of Human Bondage Pablo Picasso’s Harlequin Sibelius’ Fifth Symphony Denton Welch born Evacuation of Gallipoli and the Dardanelles Battles of the Somme, Jutland, and Verdun Britain introduces conscription The Easter Rebellion in Dublin Asquith resigns and David Lloyd George becomes prime minister The Sykes-Picot agreement on the partition of Turkey First military tanks used Wilson reelected president president of the United States Henri Barbusse’s Le Feu Griffith’s Intolerance Joyce’s Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man Jung’s Psychology of the Unconscious Moore’s The Brook Kerith Edith Sitwell edits Wheels (1916– 1921) Wells’s Mr. Britling Sees It Through United States enters World War I Czar Nicholas II abdicates The Balfour Declaration on a Jewish national home in Palestine The Bolshevik Revolution Georges Clemenceau elected prime minister of France Lenin appointed chief commissar; Trotsky appointed minister of foreign affairs Conrad’s The Shadow-Line Douglas’ South Wind Eliot’s Prufrock and Other Observations Modigliani’s Nude with Necklace Sassoon’s The Old Huntsman Prokofiev’s Classical Symphony

1918

1919

1920

xxxvi

Yeats’s The Wild Swans at Coole Wilson puts forward Fourteen Points for World Peace Central Powers and Russia sign the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk Execution of Czar Nicholas II and his family Kaiser Wilhelm II abdicates The Armistice signed Women granted the vote at age thirty in Britain Rupert Brooke’s Collected Poems Gerard Manley Hopkins’ Poems Joyce’s Exiles Lewis’s Tarr Sassoon’s Counter-Attack Oswald Spengler’s The Decline of the West Strachey’s Eminent Victorians Béla Bartók’s Bluebeard’s Castle Charlie Chaplin’s Shoulder Arms The Versailles Peace Treaty signed J. W. Alcock and A. W. Brown make first transatlantic flight Ross Smith flies from London to Australia National Socialist party founded in Germany Benito Mussolini founds the Fascist party in Italy Sinn Fein Congress adopts declaration of independence in Dublin Eamon De Valera elected president of Sinn Fein party Communist Third International founded Lady Astor elected first woman Member of Parliament Prohibition in the United States John Maynard Keynes’s The Economic Consequences of the Peace Eliot’s Poems Maugham’s The Moon and Sixpence Shaw’s Heartbreak House The Bauhaus school of design, building, and crafts founded by Walter Gropius Amedeo Modigliani’s Self-Portrait The League of Nations established Warren G. Harding elected president of the United States

CHRONOLOGY

1921

1922

Senate votes against joining the League and rejects the Treaty of Versailles The Nineteenth Amendment gives women the right to vote White Russian forces of Denikin and Kolchak defeated by the Bolsheviks Karel Cˇapek’s R.U.R. Galsworthy’s In Chancery and The Skin Game Sinclair Lewis’ Main Street Katherine Mansfield’s Bliss Matisse’s Odalisques (1920–1925) Ezra Pound’s Hugh Selwyn Mauberly Paul Valéry’s Le Cimetière Marin Yeats’s Michael Robartes and the Dancer Edwin Morgan born Britain signs peace with Ireland First medium-wave radio broadcast in the United States The British Broadcasting Corporation founded Braque’s Still Life with Guitar Chaplin’s The Kid Aldous Huxley’s Crome Yellow Paul Klee’s The Fish D. H. Lawrence’s Women in Love John McTaggart’s The Nature of Existence (vol. 1) Moore’s Héloïse and Abélard Eugene O’Neill’s The Emperor Jones Luigi Pirandello’s Six Characters in Search of an Author Shaw’s Back to Methuselah Strachey’s Queen Victoria Births of George Mackay Brown and Brian Moore Lloyd George’s Coalition government succeeded by Bonar Law’s Conservative government Benito Mussolini marches on Rome and forms a government William Cosgrave elected president of the Irish Free State The BBC begins broadcasting in London Lord Carnarvon and Howard Carter discover Tutankhamen’s tomb

xxxvii

1923

1924

The PEN club founded in London The Criterion founded with T. S. Eliot as editor Kingsley Amis born Eliot’s The Waste Land A. E. Housman’s Last Poems Joyce’s Ulysses D. H. Lawrence’s Aaron’s Rod and England, My England Sinclair Lewis’s Babbitt O’Neill’s Anna Christie Pirandello’s Henry IV Edith Sitwell’s Façade Virginia Woolf’s Jacob’s Room Yeats’s The Trembling of the Veil Donald Davie born The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics established French and Belgian troops occupy the Ruhr in consequence of Germany’s failure to pay reparations Mustafa Kemal (Ataturk) proclaims Turkey a republic and is elected president Warren G. Harding dies; Calvin Coolidge becomes president Stanley Baldwin succeeds Bonar Law as prime minister Adolf Hitler’s attempted coup in Munich fails Time magazine begins publishing E. N. da C. Andrade’s The Structure of the Atom Brendan Behan born Bennett’s Riceyman Steps Churchill’s The World Crisis (1923– 1927) J. E. Flecker’s Hassan produced Nadine Gordimer born Paul Klee’s Magic Theatre Lawrence’s Kangaroo Rainer Maria Rilke’s Duino Elegies and Sonnets to Orpheus Sibelius’ Sixth Symphony Picasso’s Seated Woman William Walton’s Façade Ramsay MacDonald forms first Labour government, loses general election, and is succeeded by Stanley Baldwin Calvin Coolidge elected president of the United States

CHRONOLOGY

1925

1926

1927

Noël Coward’s The Vortex Forster’s A Passage to India Mann’s The Magic Mountain Shaw’s St. Joan Reza Khan becomes shah of Iran First surrealist exhibition held in Paris Alban Berg’s Wozzeck Chaplin’s The Gold Rush John Dos Passos’ Manhattan Transfer Theodore Dreiser’s An American Tragedy Sergei Eisenstein’s Battleship Potemkin F. Scott Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby André Gide’s Les Faux Monnayeurs Hardy’s Human Shows and Far Phantasies Huxley’s Those Barren Leaves Kafka’s The Trial O’Casey’s Juno and the Paycock Virginia Woolf’s Mrs. Dalloway and The Common Reader Brancusi’s Bird in Space Shostakovich’s First Symphony Sibelius’ Tapiola Ford’s A Man Could Stand Up Gide’s Si le grain ne meurt Hemingway’s The Sun also Rises Kafka’s The Castle D. H. Lawrence’s The Plumed Serpent T. E. Lawrence’s Seven Pillars of Wisdom privately circulated Maugham’s The Casuarina Tree O’Casey’s The Plough and the Stars Puccini’s Turandot Jan Morris born General Chiang Kai-shek becomes prime minister in China Trotsky expelled by the Communist party as a deviationist; Stalin becomes leader of the party and dictator of the Soviet Union Charles Lindbergh flies from New York to Paris J. W. Dunne’s An Experiment with Time

xxxviii

1928

1929

Freud’s Autobiography translated into English Albert Giacometti’s Observing Head Ernest Hemingway’s Men Without Women Fritz Lang’s Metropolis Wyndham Lewis’ Time and Western Man F. W. Murnau’s Sunrise Proust’s Le Temps retrouvé posthumously published Stravinsky’s Oedipus Rex Virginia Woolf’s To the Lighthouse The Kellogg-Briand Pact, outlawing war and providing for peaceful settlement of disputes, signed in Paris by sixty-two nations, including the Soviet Union Herbert Hoover elected president of the United States Women’s suffrage granted at age twenty-one in Britain Alexander Fleming discovers penicillin Bertolt Brecht and Kurt Weill’s The Three-Penny Opera Eisenstein’s October Huxley’s Point Counter Point Christopher Isherwood’s All the Conspirators D. H. Lawrence’s Lady Chatterley’s Lover Wyndham Lewis’ The Childermass Matisse’s Seated Odalisque Munch’s Girl on a Sofa Shaw’s Intelligent Woman’s Guide to Socialism Virginia Woolf’s Orlando Yeats’s The Tower Iain Chrichton Smith born The Labour party wins British general election Trotsky expelled from the Soviet Union Museum of Modern Art opens in New York Collapse of U.S. stock exchange begins world economic crisis Robert Bridges’s The Testament of Beauty

CHRONOLOGY

1930

1931

William Faulkner’s The Sound and the Fury Robert Graves’s Goodbye to All That Hemingway’s A Farewell to Arms Ernst Junger’s The Storm of Steel Hugo von Hoffmansthal’s Poems Henry Moore’s Reclining Figure J. B. Priestley’s The Good Companions Erich Maria Remarque’s All Quiet on the Western Front Shaw’s The Applecart R. C. Sheriff’s Journey’s End Edith Sitwell’s Gold Coast Customs Thomas Wolfe’s Look Homeward, Angel Virginia Woolf’s A Room of One’s Own Yeats’s The Winding Stair Second surrealist manifesto; Salvador Dali joins the surrealists Epstein’s Night and Day Mondrian’s Composition with Yellow Blue Allied occupation of the Rhineland ends Mohandas Gandhi opens civil disobedience campaign in India The Daily Worker, journal of the British Communist party, begins publishing J. W. Reppe makes artificial fabrics from an acetylene base John Arden born Auden’s Poems Coward’s Private Lives Eliot’s Ash Wednesday Wyndham Lewis’s The Apes of God Maugham’s Cakes and Ale Ezra Pound’s XXX Cantos Evelyn Waugh’s Vile Bodies Ruth Rendell born The failure of the Credit Anstalt in Austria starts a financial collapse in Central Europe Britain abandons the gold standard; the pound falls by twenty-five percent Mutiny in the Royal Navy at Invergordon over pay cuts

1932

1933

xxxix

Ramsay MacDonald resigns, splits the Cabinet, and is expelled by the Labour party; in the general election the National Government wins by a majority of five hundred seats The Statute of Westminster defines dominion status Ninette de Valois founds the VicWells Ballet (eventually the Royal Ballet) Coward’s Cavalcade Dali’s The Persistence of Memory John le Carré born O’Neill’s Mourning Becomes Electra Anthony Powell’s Afternoon Men Antoine de Saint-Exupéry’s Vol de nuit Walton’s Belshazzar’s Feast Virginia Woolf’s The Waves Caroline Blackwood born Franklin D. Roosevelt elected president of the United States Paul von Hindenburg elected president of Germany; Franz von Papen elected chancellor Sir Oswald Mosley founds British Union of Fascists The BBC takes over development of television from J. L. Baird’s company Basic English of 850 words designed as a prospective international language The Folger Library opens in Washington, D.C. The Shakespeare Memorial Theatre opens in Stratford-upon-Avon Faulkner’s Light in August Huxley’s Brave New World F. R. Leavis’ New Bearings in English Poetry Boris Pasternak’s Second Birth Ravel’s Concerto for Left Hand Peter Redgrove born Rouault’s Christ Mocked by Soldiers Waugh’s Black Mischief Yeats’s Words for Music Perhaps Roosevelt inaugurates the New Deal

CHRONOLOGY

1934

1935

Hitler becomes chancellor of Germany The Reichstag set on fire Hitler suspends civil liberties and freedom of the press; German trade unions suppressed George Balanchine and Lincoln Kirstein found the School of American Ballet Beryl Bainbridge born Lowry’s Ultramarine André Malraux’s La Condition humaine Orwell’s Down and Out in Paris and London Gertrude Stein’s The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas Anne Stevenson born The League Disarmament Conference ends in failure The Soviet Union admitted to the League Hitler becomes Führer Civil war in Austria; Engelbert Dollfuss assassinated in attempted Nazi coup Frédéric Joliot and Irene JoliotCurie discover artificial (induced) radioactivity Einstein’s My Philosophy Fitzgerald’s Tender Is the Night Graves’s I, Claudius and Claudius the God Toynbee’s A Study of History begins publication (1934–1954) Waugh’s A Handful of Dust Births of Alan Bennett, Christopher Wallace-Crabbe, and Alasdair Gray Grigori Zinoviev and other Soviet leaders convicted of treason Stanley Baldwin becomes prime minister in National Government; National Government wins general election in Britain Italy invades Abyssinia Germany repudiates disarmament clauses of Treaty of Versailles Germany reintroduces compulsory military service and outlaws the Jews Robert Watson-Watt builds first practical radar equipment

1936 1936–1952 1936

xl

Karl Jaspers’ Suffering and Existence Births of André Brink, Dennis Potter, Keith Roberts, and Jon Stallworthy Ivy Compton-Burnett’s A House and Its Head Eliot’s Murder in the Cathedral Barbara Hepworth’s Three Forms George Gershwin’s Porgy and Bess Greene’s England Made Me Isherwood’s Mr. Norris Changes Trains Malraux’s Le Temps du mépris Yeats’s Dramatis Personae Klee’s Child Consecrated to Suffering Benedict Nicholson’s White Relief Edward VII accedes to the throne in January; abdicates in December Reign of George VI German troops occupy the Rhineland Ninety-nine percent of German electorate vote for Nazi candidates The Popular Front wins general election in France; Léon Blum becomes prime minister Roosevelt reelected president of the United States The Popular Front wins general election in Spain Spanish Civil War begins Italian troops occupy Addis Ababa; Abyssinia annexed by Italy BBC begins television service from Alexandra Palace Auden’s Look, Stranger! Auden and Isherwood’s The Ascent of F-6 A. J. Ayer’s Language, Truth and Logic Chaplin’s Modern Times Greene’s A Gun for Sale Huxley’s Eyeless in Gaza Keynes’s General Theory of Employment F. R. Leavis’ Revaluation Mondrian’s Composition in Red and Blue Dylan Thomas’ Twenty-five Poems

CHRONOLOGY

1937

1938

1939

Wells’s The Shape of Things to Come filmed Reginald Hill born Trial of Karl Radek and other Soviet leaders Neville Chamberlain succeeds Stanley Baldwin as prime minister China and Japan at war Frank Whittle designs jet engine Picasso’s Guernica Shostakovich’s Fifth Symphony Magritte’s La Reproduction interdite Hemingway’s To Have and Have Not Malraux’s L’Espoir Orwell’s The Road to Wigan Pier Priestley’s Time and the Conways Virginia Woolf’s The Years Emma Tennant born Death of Christopher Caudwell (Christopher St. John Sprigg) Trial of Nikolai Bukharin and other Soviet political leaders Austria occupied by German troops and declared part of the Reich Hitler states his determination to annex Sudetenland from Czechoslovakia Britain, France, Germany, and Italy sign the Munich agreement German troops occupy Sudetenland Edward Hulton founds Picture Post Cyril Connolly’s Enemies of Promise du Maurier’s Rebecca Faulkner’s The Unvanquished Graham Greene’s Brighton Rock Hindemith’s Mathis der Maler Jean Renoir’s La Grande Illusion Jean-Paul Sartre’s La Nausée Yeats’s New Poems Anthony Asquith’s Pygmalion and Walt Disney’s Snow White Ngu˜gı˜wa Thiong’o born German troops occupy Bohemia and Moravia; Czechoslovakia incorporated into Third Reich Madrid surrenders to General Franco; the Spanish Civil War ends Italy invades Albania

1940

1941

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Spain joins Germany, Italy, and Japan in anti-Comintern Pact Britain and France pledge support to Poland, Romania, and Greece The Soviet Union proposes defensive alliance with Britain; British military mission visits Moscow The Soviet Union and Germany sign nonaggression treaty, secretly providing for partition of Poland between them Germany invades Poland; Britain, France, and Germany at war The Soviet Union invades Finland New York World’s Fair opens Eliot’s The Family Reunion Births of Ayi Kwei Armah, Seamus Heaney, Michael Longley and Robert Nye Isherwood’s Good-bye to Berlin Joyce’s Finnegans Wake (1922– 1939) MacNeice’s Autumn Journal Powell’s What’s Become of Waring? Churchill becomes prime minister Italy declares war on France, Britain, and Greece General de Gaulle founds Free French Movement The Battle of Britain and the bombing of London Roosevelt reelected president of the United States for third term Betjeman’s Old Lights for New Chancels Angela Carter born Chaplin’s The Great Dictator Bruce Chatwin born J. M. Coetzee born Disney’s Fantasia Greene’s The Power and the Glory Hemingway’s For Whom the Bell Tolls C. P. Snow’s Strangers and Brothers (retitled George Passant in 1970, when entire sequence of ten novels, published 1940–1970, was entitled Strangers and Brothers) German forces occupy Yugoslavia, Greece, and Crete, and invade the Soviet Union

CHRONOLOGY

1942

1943

Lend-Lease agreement between the United States and Britain President Roosevelt and Winston Churchill sign the Atlantic Charter Japanese forces attack Pearl Harbor; United States declares war on Japan, Germany, Italy; Britain on Japan Auden’s New Year Letter James Burnham’s The Managerial Revolution F. Scott Fitzgerald’s The Last Tycoon Huxley’s Grey Eminence Derek Mahon born Shostakovich’s Seventh Symphony Tippett’s A Child of Our Time Orson Welles’s Citizen Kane Virginia Woolf’s Between the Acts Japanese forces capture Singapore, Hong Kong, Bataan, Manila German forces capture Tobruk U.S. fleet defeats the Japanese in the Coral Sea, captures Guadalcanal Battle of El Alamein Allied forces land in French North Africa Atom first split at University of Chicago William Beveridge’s Social Insurance and Allied Services Albert Camus’s L’Étranger Joyce Cary’s To Be a Pilgrim Edith Sitwell’s Street Songs Waugh’s Put Out More Flags Douglas Dunn born German forces surrender at Stalingrad German and Italian forces surrender in North Africa Italy surrenders to Allies and declares war on Germany Cairo conference between Roosevelt, Churchill, Chiang Kaishek Teheran conference between Roosevelt, Churchill, Stalin Eliot’s Four Quartets Henry Moore’s Madonna and Child Sartre’s Les Mouches Vaughan Williams’ Fifth Symphony

1944

1945

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Allied forces land in Normandy and southern France Allied forces enter Rome Attempted assassination of Hitler fails Liberation of Paris U.S. forces land in Philippines German offensive in the Ardennes halted Roosevelt reelected president of the United States for fourth term Education Act passed in Britain Pay-as-You-Earn income tax introduced Beveridge’s Full Employment in a Free Society Cary’s The Horse’s Mouth Huxley’s Time Must Have a Stop Maugham’s The Razor’s Edge Sartre’s Huis Clos Edith Sitwell’s Green Song and Other Poems Graham Sutherland’s Christ on the Cross Trevelyan’s English Social History W. G. Sebald born British and Indian forces open offensive in Burma Yalta conference between Roosevelt, Churchill, Stalin Mussolini executed by Italian partisans Roosevelt dies; Harry S. Truman becomes president Hitler commits suicide; German forces surrender The Potsdam Peace Conference The United Nations Charter ratified in San Francisco The Labour Party wins British General Election Atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki Surrender of Japanese forces ends World War II Trial of Nazi war criminals opens at Nuremberg All-India Congress demands British withdrawal from India De Gaulle elected president of French Provisional Government; resigns the next year

CHRONOLOGY

1946

1947



1948

1949

1950

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CHRONOLOGY

1951

1952–

R. H. S. Crossman’s The God That Failed T. S. Eliot’s The Cocktail Party Fry’s Venus Observed Doris Lessing’s The Grass Is Singing C. S. Lewis’ The Chronicles of Narnia (1950–1956) Wyndham Lewis’ Rude Assignment George Orwell’s Shooting an Elephant Carol Reed’s The Third Man Dylan Thomas’ Twenty-six Poems A. N. Wilson born Guy Burgess and Donald Maclean defect from Britain to the Soviet Union The Conservative party under Winston Churchill wins British general election The Festival of Britain celebrates both the centenary of the Crystal Palace Exhibition and British postwar recovery Electric power is produced by atomic energy at Arcon, Idaho W. H. Auden’s Nones Samuel Beckett’s Molloy and Malone Dies Benjamin Britten’s Billy Budd Greene’s The End of the Affair Akira Kurosawa’s Rashomon Wyndham Lewis’ Rotting Hill Anthony Powell’s A Question of Upbringing (first volume of A Dance to the Music of Time, 1951– 1975) J. D. Salinger’s The Catcher in the Rye C. P. Snow’s The Masters Igor Stravinsky’s The Rake’s Progress Reign of Elizabeth II At Eniwetok Atoll the United States detonates the first hydrogen bomb The European Coal and Steel Community comes into being Radiocarbon dating introduced to archaeology Michael Ventris deciphers Linear B script

1953

1954

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Dwight D. Eisenhower elected president of the United States Beckett’s Waiting for Godot Charles Chaplin’s Limelight Ernest Hemingway’s The Old Man and the Sea Arthur Koestler’s Arrow in the Blue F. R. Leavis’ The Common Pursuit Lessing’s Martha Quest (first volume of The Children of Violence, 1952–1965) C. S. Lewis’ Mere Christianity Thomas’ Collected Poems Evelyn Waugh’s Men at Arms (first volume of Sword of Honour, 1952– 1961) Angus Wilson’s Hemlock and After Births of Rohinton Mistry and Vikram Seth Constitution for a European political community drafted Julius and Ethel Rosenberg executed for passing U.S. secrets to the Soviet Union Cease-fire declared in Korea Edmund Hillary and his Sherpa guide, Tenzing Norkay, scale Mt. Everest Nobel Prize for literature awarded to Winston Churchill General Mohammed Naguib proclaims Egypt a republic Beckett’s Watt Joyce Cary’s Except the Lord Robert Graves’s Poems 1953 Death of Norman Cameron First atomic submarine, Nautilus, is launched by the United States Dien Bien Phu captured by the Vietminh Geneva Conference ends French dominion over Indochina U.S. Supreme Court declares racial segregation in schools unconstitutional Nasser becomes president of Egypt Nobel Prize for literature awarded to Ernest Hemingway Kingsley Amis’ Lucky Jim John Betjeman’s A Few Late Chrysanthemums William Golding’s Lord of the Flies

CHRONOLOGY

1955

1956

1957

Christopher Isherwood’s The World in the Evening Koestler’s The Invisible Writing Iris Murdoch’s Under the Net C. P. Snow’s The New Men Thomas’ Under Milk Wood published posthumously Births of Romesh Gunesekera and Alan Hollinghurst Warsaw Pact signed West Germany enters NATO as Allied occupation ends The Conservative party under Anthony Eden wins British general election Cary’s Not Honour More Greene’s The Quiet American Philip Larkin’s The Less Deceived F. R. Leavis’ D. H. Lawrence, Novelist Vladimir Nabokov’s Lolita Patrick White’s The Tree of Man Patrick McCabe born Nasser’s nationalization of the Suez Canal leads to Israeli, British, and French armed intervention Uprising in Hungary suppressed by Soviet troops Khrushchev denounces Stalin at Twentieth Communist Party Congress Eisenhower reelected president of the United States Anthony Burgess’ Time for a Tiger Golding’s Pincher Martin Murdoch’s Flight from the Enchanter John Osborne’s Look Back in Anger Snow’s Homecomings Edmund Wilson’s Anglo-Saxon Attitudes The Soviet Union launches the first artificial earth satellite, Sputnik I Eden succeeded by Harold Macmillan Suez Canal reopened Eisenhower Doctrine formulated Parliament receives the Wolfenden Report on Homosexuality and Prostitution Nobel Prize for literature awarded to Albert Camus

1958

1959

xlv

Beckett’s Endgame and All That Fall Lawrence Durrell’s Justine (first volume of The Alexandria Quartet, 1957–1960) Ted Hughes’s The Hawk in the Rain Murdoch’s The Sandcastle V. S. Naipaul’s The Mystic Masseur Eugene O’Neill’s Long Day’s Journey into Night Osborne’s The Entertainer Muriel Spark’s The Comforters White’s Voss European Economic Community established Khrushchev succeeds Bulganin as Soviet premier Charles de Gaulle becomes head of France’s newly constituted Fifth Republic The United Arab Republic formed by Egypt and Syria The United States sends troops into Lebanon First U.S. satellite, Explorer 1, launched Nobel Prize for literature awarded to Boris Pasternak Beckett’s Krapp’s Last Tape John Kenneth Galbraith’s The Affluent Society Greene’s Our Man in Havana Murdoch’s The Bell Pasternak’s Dr. Zhivago Snow’s The Conscience of the Rich Fidel Castro assumes power in Cuba St. Lawrence Seaway opens The European Free Trade Association founded Alaska and Hawaii become the forty-ninth and fiftieth states The Conservative party under Harold Macmillan wins British general election Brendan Behan’s The Hostage Golding’s Free Fall Graves’s Collected Poems Koestler’s The Sleepwalkers Harold Pinter’s The Birthday Party Snow’s The Two Cultures and the Scientific Revolution

CHRONOLOGY 1960

1961

1962

Spark’s Memento Mori South Africa bans the African National Congress and Pan-African Congress The Congo achieves independence John F. Kennedy elected president of the United States The U.S. bathyscaphe Trieste descends to 35,800 feet Publication of the unexpurgated Lady Chatterley’s Lover permitted by court Auden’s Hommage to Clio Betjeman’s Summoned by Bells Pinter’s The Caretaker Snow’s The Affair David Storey’s This Sporting Life Ian Rankin born South Africa leaves the British Commonwealth Sierra Leone and Tanganyika achieve independence The Berlin Wall erected The New English Bible published Beckett’s How It Is Greene’s A Burnt-Out Case Koestler’s The Lotus and the Robot Murdoch’s A Severed Head Naipaul’s A House for Mr Biswas Osborne’s Luther Spark’s The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie White’s Riders in the Chariot John Glenn becomes first U.S. astronaut to orbit earth The United States launches the spacecraft Mariner to explore Venus Algeria achieves independence Cuban missile crisis ends in withdrawal of Soviet missiles from Cuba Adolf Eichmann executed in Israel for Nazi war crimes Second Vatican Council convened by Pope John XXIII Nobel Prize for literature awarded to John Steinbeck Edward Albee’s Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf? Beckett’s Happy Days Anthony Burgess’ A Clockwork Orange and The Wanting Seed

1963

1964

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Aldous Huxley’s Island Isherwood’s Down There on a Visit Lessing’s The Golden Notebook Nabokov’s Pale Fire Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn’s One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich Britain, the United States, and the Soviet Union sign a test-ban treaty Birth of Simon Armitage Britain refused entry to the European Economic Community The Soviet Union puts into orbit the first woman astronaut, Valentina Tereshkova Paul VI becomes pope President Kennedy assassinated; Lyndon B. Johnson assumes office Nobel Prize for literature awarded to George Seferis Britten’s War Requiem John Fowles’s The Collector Murdoch’s The Unicorn Spark’s The Girls of Slender Means Storey’s Radcliffe John Updike’s The Centaur Tonkin Gulf incident leads to retaliatory strikes by U.S. aircraft against North Vietnam Greece and Turkey contend for control of Cyprus Britain grants licenses to drill for oil in the North Sea The Shakespeare Quatercentenary celebrated Lyndon Johnson elected president of the United States The Labour party under Harold Wilson wins British general election Nobel Prize for literature awarded to Jean-Paul Sartre Saul Bellow’s Herzog Burgess’ Nothing Like the Sun Golding’s The Spire Isherwood’s A Single Man Stanley Kubrick’s Dr. Strangelove Larkin’s The Whitsun Weddings Naipaul’s An Area of Darkness Peter Shaffer’s The Royal Hunt of the Sun Snow’s Corridors of Power

CHRONOLOGY 1965

1966

1967

The first U.S. combat forces land in Vietnam The U.S. spacecraft Mariner transmits photographs of Mars British Petroleum Company finds oil in the North Sea War breaks out between India and Pakistan Rhodesia declares its independence Ontario power failure blacks out the Canadian and U.S. east coasts Nobel Prize for literature awarded to Mikhail Sholokhov Robert Lowell’s For the Union Dead Norman Mailer’s An American Dream Osborne’s Inadmissible Evidence Pinter’s The Homecoming Spark’s The Mandelbaum Gate The Labour party under Harold Wilson wins British general election The Archbishop of Canterbury visits Pope Paul VI Florence, Italy, severely damaged by floods Paris exhibition celebrates Picasso’s eighty-fifth birthday Fowles’s The Magus Greene’s The Comedians Osborne’s A Patriot for Me Paul Scott’s The Jewel in the Crown (first volume of The Raj Quartet, 1966–1975) White’s The Solid Mandala Thurgood Marshall becomes first black U.S. Supreme Court justice Six-Day War pits Israel against Egypt and Syria Biafra’s secession from Nigeria leads to civil war Francis Chichester completes solo circumnavigation of the globe Dr. Christiaan Barnard performs first heart transplant operation, in South Africa China explodes its first hydrogen bomb Golding’s The Pyramid Hughes’s Wodwo Isherwood’s A Meeting by the River

1968

1969

1970

xlvii

Naipaul’s The Mimic Men Tom Stoppard’s Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead Orson Welles’s Chimes at Midnight Angus Wilson’s No Laughing Matter Violent student protests erupt in France and West Germany Warsaw Pact troops occupy Czechoslovakia Violence in Northern Ireland causes Britain to send in troops Tet offensive by Communist forces launched against South Vietnam’s cities Theater censorship ended in Britain Robert Kennedy and Martin Luther King Jr. assassinated Richard M. Nixon elected president of the United States Booker Prize for fiction established Durrell’s Tunc Graves’s Poems 1965–1968 Osborne’s The Hotel in Amsterdam Snow’s The Sleep of Reason Solzhenitsyn’s The First Circle and Cancer Ward Spark’s The Public Image Humans set foot on the moon for the first time when astronauts descend to its surface in a landing vehicle from the U.S. spacecraft Apollo 11 The Soviet unmanned spacecraft Venus V lands on Venus Capital punishment abolished in Britain Colonel Muammar Qaddafi seizes power in Libya Solzhenitsyn expelled from the Soviet Union Nobel Prize for literature awarded to Samuel Beckett Carter’s The Magic Toyshop Fowles’s The French Lieutenant’s Woman Storey’s The Contractor Civil war in Nigeria ends with Biafra’s surrender U.S. planes bomb Cambodia

CHRONOLOGY

1971

1972

1973

The Conservative party under Edward Heath wins British general election Nobel Prize for literature awarded to Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn Durrell’s Nunquam Hughes’s Crow F. R. Leavis and Q. D. Leavis’ Dickens the Novelist Snow’s Last Things Spark’s The Driver’s Seat Death of Vera Brittain Communist China given Nationalist China’s UN seat Decimal currency introduced to Britain Indira Gandhi becomes India’s prime minister Nobel Prize for literature awarded to Heinrich Böll Bond’s The Pope’s Wedding Naipaul’s In a Free State Pinter’s Old Times Spark’s Not to Disturb Birth of Sarah Kane The civil strife of “Bloody Sunday” causes Northern Ireland to come under the direct rule of Westminster Nixon becomes the first U.S. president to visit Moscow and Beijing The Watergate break-in precipitates scandal in the United States Eleven Israeli athletes killed by terrorists at Munich Olympics Nixon reelected president of the United States Bond’s Lear Snow’s The Malcontents Stoppard’s Jumpers Britain, Ireland, and Denmark enter European Economic Community Egypt and Syria attack Israel in the Yom Kippur War Energy crisis in Britain reduces production to a three-day week Nobel Prize for literature awarded to Patrick White Bond’s The Sea Greene’s The Honorary Consul Lessing’s The Summer Before the Dark

1975

1976

1977

xlviii

Murdoch’s The Black Prince Shaffer’s Equus White’s The Eye of the Storm 1974Miners strike in Britain Greece’s military junta overthrown Emperor Haile Selassie of Ethiopia deposed President Makarios of Cyprus replaced by military coup Nixon resigns as U.S. president and is succeeded by Gerald R. Ford Betjeman’s A Nip in the Air Bond’s Bingo Durrell’s Monsieur (first volume of The Avignon Quintet, 1974–1985) Larkin’s The High Windows Solzhenitsyn’s The Gulag Archipelago Spark’s The Abbess of Crewe Death of Nancy Mitford The U.S. Apollo and Soviet Soyuz spacecrafts rendezvous in space The Helsinki Accords on human rights signed U.S. forces leave Vietnam King Juan Carlos succeeds Franco as Spain’s head of state Nobel Prize for literature awarded to Eugenio Montale New U.S. copyright law goes into effect Israeli commandos free hostages from hijacked plane at Entebbe, Uganda British and French SST Concordes make first regularly scheduled commercial flights The United States celebrates its bicentennial Jimmy Carter elected president of the United States Byron and Shelley manuscripts discovered in Barclay’s Bank, Pall Mall Hughes’s Seasons’ Songs Koestler’s The Thirteenth Tribe Scott’s Staying On Spark’s The Take-over White’s A Fringe of Leaves Silver jubilee of Queen Elizabeth II celebrated

CHRONOLOGY

1978

1979

1980

Egyptian president Anwar el-Sadat visits Israel “Gang of Four” expelled from Chinese Communist party First woman ordained in the U.S. Episcopal church After twenty-nine years in power, Israel’s Labour party is defeated by the Likud party Fowles’s Daniel Martin Hughes’s Gaudete Treaty between Israel and Egypt negotiated at Camp David Pope John Paul I dies a month after his coronation and is succeeded by Karol Cardinal Wojtyla, who takes the name John Paul II Former Italian premier Aldo Moro murdered by left-wing terrorists Nobel Prize for literature awarded to Isaac Bashevis Singer Greene’s The Human Factor Hughes’s Cave Birds Murdoch’s The Sea, The Sea The United States and China establish diplomatic relations Ayatollah Khomeini takes power in Iran and his supporters hold U.S. embassy staff hostage in Teheran Rhodesia becomes Zimbabwe Earl Mountbatten assassinated The Soviet Union invades Afghanistan The Conservative party under Margaret Thatcher wins British general election Nobel Prize for literature awarded to Odysseus Elytis Golding’s Darkness Visible Hughes’s Moortown Lessing’s Shikasta (first volume of Canopus in Argos, Archives) Naipaul’s A Bend in the River Spark’s Territorial Rights White’s The Twyborn Affair Iran-Iraq war begins Strikes in Gdansk give rise to the Solidarity movement Mt. St. Helen’s erupts in Washington State British steelworkers strike for the first time since 1926

1981

1982

1983

xlix

More than fifty nations boycott Moscow Olympics Ronald Reagan elected president of the United States Burgess’s Earthly Powers Golding’s Rites of Passage Shaffer’s Amadeus Storey’s A Prodigal Child Angus Wilson’s Setting the World on Fire Greece admitted to the European Economic Community Iran hostage crisis ends with release of U.S. embassy staff Twelve Labour MPs and nine peers found British Social Democratic party Socialist party under François Mitterand wins French general election Rupert Murdoch buys The Times of London Turkish gunman wounds Pope John Paul II in assassination attempt U.S. gunman wounds President Reagan in assassination attempt President Sadat of Egypt assassinated Nobel Prize for literature awarded to Elias Canetti Spark’s Loitering with Intent Britain drives Argentina’s invasion force out of the Falkland Islands U.S. space shuttle makes first successful trip Yuri Andropov becomes general secretary of the Central Committee of the Soviet Communist party Israel invades Lebanon First artificial heart implanted at Salt Lake City hospital Bellow’s The Dean’s December Greene’s Monsignor Quixote South Korean airliner with 269 aboard shot down after straying into Soviet airspace U.S. forces invade Grenada following left-wing coup Widespread protests erupt over placement of nuclear missiles in Europe The £1 coin comes into circulation in Britain

CHRONOLOGY

1984

1985

1986

Australia wins the America’s Cup Nobel Prize for literature awarded to William Golding Hughes’s River Murdoch’s The Philosopher’s Pupil Konstantin Chernenko becomes general secretary of the Central Committee of the Soviet Communist party Prime Minister Indira Gandhi of India assassinated by Sikh bodyguards Reagan reelected president of the United States Toxic gas leak at Bhopal, India, plant kills 2,000 British miners go on strike Irish Republican Army attempts to kill Prime Minister Thatcher with bomb detonated at a Brighton hotel World Court holds against U.S. mining of Nicaraguan harbors Golding’s The Paper Men Lessing’s The Diary of Jane Somers Spark’s The Only Problem United States deploys cruise missiles in Europe Mikhail Gorbachev becomes general secretary of the Soviet Communist party following death of Konstantin Chernenko Riots break out in Handsworth district (Birmingham) and Brixton Republic of Ireland gains consultative role in Northern Ireland State of emergency is declared in South Africa Nobel Prize for literature awarded to Claude Simon A. N. Wilson’s Gentlemen in England Lessing’s The Good Terrorist Murdoch’s The Good Apprentice Fowles’s A Maggot U.S. space shuttle Challenger explodes United States attacks Libya Atomic power plant at Chernobyl destroyed in accident Corazon Aquino becomes president of the Philippines

1987

1988

1989

l

Giotto spacecraft encounters Comet Halley Nobel Prize for literature awarded to Wole Soyinka Final volume of Oxford English Dictionary supplement published Amis’s The Old Devils Ishiguro’s An Artist of the Floating World A. N. Wilson’s Love Unknown Powell’s The Fisher King Gorbachev begins reform of Communist party of the Soviet Union Stock market collapses Iran-contra affair reveals that Reagan administration used money from arms sales to Iran to fund Nicaraguan rebels Palestinian uprising begins in Israeli-occupied territories Nobel Prize for literature awarded to Joseph Brodsky Golding’s Close Quarters Burgess’s Little Wilson and Big God Drabble’s The Radiant Way Soviet Union begins withdrawing troops from Afghanistan Iranian airliner shot down by U.S. Navy over Persian Gulf War between Iran and Iraq ends George Bush elected president of the United States Pan American flight 103 destroyed over Lockerbie, Scotland Nobel Prize for literature awarded to Naguib Mafouz Greene’s The Captain and the Enemy Amis’s Diffıculties with Girls Rushdie’s Satanic Verses Ayatollah Khomeini pronounces death sentence on Salman Rushdie; Great Britain and Iran sever diplomatic relations F. W. de Klerk becomes president of South Africa Chinese government crushes student demonstration in Tiananmen Square

CHRONOLOGY

1990

1992

1993

Communist regimes are weakened or abolished in Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, East Germany, and Romania Lithuania nullifies its inclusion in Soviet Union Nobel Prize for literature awarded to José Cela Second edition of Oxford English Dictionary published Drabble’s A Natural Curiosity Murdoch’s The Message to the Planet Amis’s London Fields Ishiguro’s The Remains of the Day Death of Bruce Chatwin Communist monopoly ends in Bulgaria Riots break out against community charge in England First women ordained priests in Church of England Civil war breaks out in Yugoslavia; Croatia and Slovenia declare independence Bush and Gorbachev sign START agreement to reduce nuclearweapons arsenals President Jean-Baptiste Aristide overthrown by military in Haiti Boris Yeltsin elected president of Russia Dissolution of the Soviet Union Nobel Prize for literature awarded to Nadine Gordimer U.N. Conference on Environment and Development (the “Earth Summit”) meets in Rio de Janeiro Prince and Princess of Wales separate War in Bosnia-Herzegovina intensifies Bill Clinton elected president of the United States in three-way race with Bush and independent candidate H. Ross Perot Nobel Prize for literature awarded to Derek Walcott Czechoslovakia divides into the Czech Republic and Slovakia; playwright Vaclav Havel elected president of the Czech Republic

1994

1995

1996

li

Britain ratifies Treaty on European Union (the “Maastricht Treaty”) U.S.

CHRONOLOGY

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

Nobel Prize for literature awarded to Wislawa Szymborska Death of Caroline Blackwood British government destroys around 100,000 cows suspected of infection with Creutzfeldt-Jakob, or “mad cow” disease Diana, Princess of Wales, dies in an automobile accident Unveiling of first fully-cloned adult animal, a sheep named Dolly Booker McConnell Prize for fiction awarded to Arundhati Roy United States renews bombing of Bagdad, Iraq Independent legislature and Parliaments return to Scotland and Wales Booker McConnell Prize for fiction awarded to Ian McEwan Nobel Prize for literature awarded to Jose Saramago King Hussein of Jordan dies United Nations responds militarily to Serbian President Slobodan Milosevic’s escalation of crisis in Kosovo Booker McConnell Prize for fiction awarded to J. M. Coetzee Nobel Prize for literature awarded to Günter Grass Deaths of Ted Hughes, Brian Moore, and Iain Chrichton Smith Penelope Fitzgerald dies J. K. Rowling’s Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire sells more than 300,000 copies in its first day Oil blockades by fuel haulers protesting high oil taxes bring much of Britain to a standstill Slobodan Milosevic loses Serbian general election to Vojislav Kostunica Death of Scotland’s First Minister, Donald Dewar Nobel Prize for literature awarded to Gao Xingjian Booker McConnell Prize for fiction awarded to Margaret Atwood

2001

2002

lii

George W. Bush, son of former president George Bush, becomes president of the United States after Supreme Court halts recount of closest election in history Death of former Canadian Prime Minister Pierre Elliot Trudeau Human Genome Project researchers announce that they have a complete map of the genetic code of a human chromosome Vladimir Putin succeeds Boris Yeltsin as president of Russia British Prime Minister Tony Blair’s son Leo is born, making him the first child born to a sitting prime minister in 152 years Death of Keith Roberts In Britain, the House of Lords passes legislation that legalizes the creation of cloned human embryos British Prime Minister Tony Blair wins second term Margaret Atwood’s The Blind Assassin wins Booker McConnell Prize for fiction Kazuo Ishiguro’s When We Were Orphans Trezza Azzopardi’s The Hiding Place Terrorists attack World Trade Center and Pentagon with hijacked airplanes, resulting in the collapse of the World Trade Center towers and the deaths of thousands. Passengers of a third hijacked plane thwart hijackers, resulting in a crash landing in Pennsylvania. The attacks are thought to be organized by Osama bin Laden, the leader of an international terrorist network known as al Qaeda Ian McEwan’s An Atonement Salman Rushdie’s Fury Peter Carey’s True History of the Kelly Gang Deaths of Eudora Welty and W. G. Sebald Former U.S. President Jimmy Carter awarded the Nobel Peace Prize Europe experiences its worst floods

CHRONOLOGY

2003

week general strike calling for his resignation ends U.S. presents to the United Nations its Iraq war rationale, citing its Weapons of Mass Destruction as imminent threat to world security U.S. and Britain launch war against Iraq Baghdad falls to U.S. troops Official end to combat operations in Iraq is declared by the U.S. Aung San Suu Kyi, Burmese opposition leader, placed under house arrest by military regime NATO assumes control of peacekeeping force in Afghanistan American troops capture Saddam Hussein J.K. Rowling’s Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix, the sixth installment in the wildly popular series, hit the shelves and rocketed up the best-seller lists Nobel Prize for literature awarded to J. M. Coetzee

in 100 years as floodwaters force thousands of people out of their homes Wall Street Journal reporter Daniel Pearl kidnapped and killed in Karachi, Pakistan while researching a story about Pakistani militants and suspected shoe bomber Richard Reid. British-born Islamic militant Ahmad Omar Saeed Sheikh sentenced to death for the crime. Three accomplices receive life sentences. Slobodan Milosevic goes on trial at the U.N. war crimes tribunal in The Hague on charges of masterminding ethnic cleansing in the former Yugoslavia. Yann Martel’s Life of Pi wins Booker McConnell Prize for fiction Nobel Prize for literature awarded to Imre Kertész Ariel Sharon elected as Israeli prime minister Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez forced to leave office after a nine

liii

List of Contributors

FRED BILSON. Writer. Holds a bachelors in English and a masters in science. He has lectured in English, linguistics, and computer systems and works as a support tutor to university students with dyslexia. Dennis Potter, Keith Roberts

Cambridge was the 1997–1999 Brownsbank Writing Fellow, based at Hugh MacDiarmid’s former home, Brownsbank Cottage, near Biggar in Scotland. Douglas Dunn CLARE CONNORS. Lecturer in English language and literature at The Queen’s College and Merton College, Oxford, where she teaches literature from 1740 to the present day. She has published widely on various aspects of literary theory and criticism, including an essay on the early Freud in Whitehead and Rossington, eds., Between the Psyche and the Polis: Refiguring History (Ashgate, 2000). She has lectured in both the United States and Japan. Alan Hollinghurst

DAN BRAYTON. Professor of literature at Middlebury College in Vermont. Brayton received his doctorate in English from Cornell in 2001, having specialized in Renaissance drama, utopian literature, and literary and cultural theory. He is currently working on a book about Shakespeare and early modern geographical discourse. Richard Brome CORNELIUS BROWNE. Cornelius Browne has written about literature and the environment. He is currently teaching at Oregon State University. Isabella Bird

PATRICK FLANERY. Patrick Flanery is a postgraduate student at St. Cross College, Oxford University. He has a special interest in British writers of the mid-twentieth century. Nancy Mitford

SUSAN BUTTERWORTH. Adjunct professor of composition at Salem State College; freelance writer of journalism and creative nonfiction; contributor to Oxford Encyclopedia of America Literature, Cyclopedia of Literary Places, and other reference works and journals; producer of community workshops, lectures, and readings. Vera Brittain

MICHELE GEMELOS. Michele Gemelos received her Bachelor of Arts degree from Skidmore College. She has an M.Phil. in English (1880 to the present day) from the University of Oxford, where she is currently completing her doctoral work on New York City in literature. She has contributed articles to the Encyclopedia of British–American Relations (2004) and International Ford Madox Ford Studies (2004). Her research and teaching interests include regional and ethnic American fiction and transatlantic literary relations. Jan Morris

SANDIE BYRNE. Fellow in English at Balliol College, Oxford. Her publications include works on eighteenth–and nineteenth–century fiction and twentieth–century poetry. Jon Stallworthy GERRY CAMBRIDGE. Poet and Editor. Edits the Scottish–American poetry magazine, The Dark Horse (www.star.ac.uk/darkhorse.html). His own books of verse include The Shell House (Scottish Cultural Press, 1995), Nothing but Heather!: Scottish Nature in Poems, Photographs and Prose (Luath Press, 1999), illustrated with his own natural history photographs, and Madame Fi Fi’s Farewell and Other Poems (Luath Press, 2003).

GAUTAM KUNDU. Gautam Kundu is a professor of English at Georgia Southern University who has specialized in post–colonial literature, with a special interest in writers from India. Romesh Gunesekera JOHN LENNARD. John Lennard teaches at Cambridge University in England and written a

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CONTRIBUTORS number of books and articles about modern literature. He has also published a well–known introduction to poetry. Ian Rankin

tural Critique, and Victorian Literature and Culture. At Middlebury College, she has taught courses on postcolonial literature, South Asian literature and culture, and literary theory. Rohinton Mistry

ANTONIA LOSANO. Professor of English at Middlebury College in Vermont. Losano teaches 19th century literature and women’s studies. Her recent publications include an essay on women’s exercise videos and an article on the Victorian travel writer Marianne North. She is currently at work on a book project on the intersections of women’s writing and women’s painting in the 19th century. Margaret Oliphant

ROBERT SULLIVAN. Writer. Sullivan has taught at Brown University, the University of Illinois, and was a Fulbright Professor at the University of Zagreb from 1997-2000. He is the author of A Matter of Faith, Christopher Caudwell, and numerous articles on modern and contemporary literature. Currently, he is engaged on various research projects, including participation in the Modernist Journalist Project. Ayi Kwei Armah

HELENA NELSON. Writer and Lecturer. Born in Cheshire, England in 1953, Nelson holds a B.A. from the University of York and an M.A. in Eighteenth–Century literature from the University of Manchester. She has written romantic fiction and is a full–time lecturer in English and Communication Studies at Glenrothes College in Scotland. Nelson is the main writer and editor of the further education resource Core.com 2002. Her poetry collections include: Mr and Mrs Philpott on Holiday at Auchterawe, Kettillonia 2001 and Starlight on Water, Rialto Press, 2003. Robert Nye

LES WILKINSON. Les Wilkinson is senior master at Nottingham High School, England, where he has taught English for twenty–five years and where he has directed a number of major dramatic productions. His interest in Scottish literature was awakened at St. Andrews University, where he studied in the early 1970s. He writes occasionally and continues to perform traditional and modern folk music and song. James Hogg THOMAS WRIGHT. Writer. Editor of Table Talk, the first English language anthology of Oscar Wilde’s spoken stories. He has published articles in numerous English periodicals and newspapers, including the Daily Telegraph, the Independent on Sunday, and the Times Literary Supplement. Wright has written articles on Peter Ackroyd for British Writers Supplement VI, Bruce Chatwin for British Writers Supplement IX, and Oscar Wilde for British Writers Retrospective Supplement II. Vikram Seth

YUMNA SIDDIQI. Yumna Siddiqi is an Assistant Professor of English at Middlebury College, where she specializes in postcolonial studies. She is completing a book entitled Anxieties of Empire and the Fiction of Intrigue, in which she investigates nineteenth– and twentieth–century British and South Asian fiction of intrigue, stories of detection, policing, and espionage. She has published articles in Renaissance Drama, Cul-

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AYI KWEI ARMAH (1939– )

Robert Sullivan various African languages, including Egyptian hieroglyphics. Armah’s anticolonial and antineocolonial stance has been nothing if not consistent: during a book tour of the United States in 2001, a publicity blurb stated that Armah would sign only the editions of his books published by Per Ankh, inferring that those published earlier in the African Writers series by Heinemann would be proscribed. Armah’s hardened stance on colonialism’s (and neocolonialism’s) destruction of African culture and history becomes a major theme in his later fiction, and it has led some critics to accuse him of his own brand of “racial essentialism.” His allegorization of how the black and white races (Africans and Europeans, and by extension Americans) are irreducibly historical, cultural, and ideological opposites, and how the white race can only be Africa’s destroyer, begins in Why Are We So Blest? (1972) and gathers momentum in Two Thousand Seasons (1973) and The Healers (1978). The Beautyful Ones and Fragments (1970), the first two novels set in Armah’s native Ghana, are concerned more with colonialism’s immediate legacy and critique severely postindependent corruption and malaise, against which his central characters struggle to keep their integrity and sanity. During the 1980s Armah published, in the journal West Africa, a series of polemical essays and a piece entitled “One Writer’s Education” (1985), an essay that has helped commentators construct an account of his biography. He was born in 1939 in Sekondi-Takoradi, twin port cities west of Accra, in what was then the British colony of the Gold Coast. Armah was fortunate to get his secondary education (1953–1958) at the prestigious Achimota School just outside Accra, an elite institution set up by the colonists to train, predominantly, the indigenous middle class.

We’re damned souls, aborted creatures suffering in hells created by white people to sustain their crass heaven. The central fact of our lives, the central statement in all of Fanon’s work is simply this: we’re slaves. —Armah

AYI KWEI ARMAH is one of the most versatile and controversial West African writers of the past three decades. Although his output has not been vast—six novels and a few short stories in roughly twenty-eight years—the range and polemical nature of his work has drawn a considerable amount of criticism. The latter includes several book-length studies and a prodigious number of scholarly articles, some account of which is given in the “Critical Response” section toward the end of this essay. An extremely private person, Armah has given only one interview and has commented very little on his life or his work. However, his fiction traces in revealing ways Armah’s own psychobiography and geographical wanderings, from the jaundiced depiction of postindependent Ghana under Kwame Nkrumah in The Beautyful Ones Are Not Yet Born (1968) to Osiris Rising (1995), published in Senegal, where Armah now resides. Osiris Rising is published by Per Ankh (ancient Egyptian for “The House of Life”), a press that Armah helped found and which is “committed to the emergence of a quality African book industry” (jacket blurb). This enterprise is further evidence of Armah’s progressive cultural nationalism and his commitment to a pan-African vision, one that seeks to understand African culture as a totality rather than through the fragmented entities created by colonialism. Such a vision informs his later fiction and is underscored by his decision to reside in various African countries—Algeria, Tanzania, Lesotho, Senegal, and his native Ghana—and his study of

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AYI KWEI ARMAH Earth and other works, he theorized how the colonized, always treated as inferior by their masters, retained this inferiority complex even after independence. This form of psychic dependency could perpetuate a slave mentality that would cripple any real freedom unless the oppressed could destroy their oppressors, who in many significant ways they had helped to create. Moreover, Fanon theorized the phenomenon of how national independence did not necessarily bring true economic and self-determining freedom; rather, he stressed how independence should be treated as the beginning of authentic social revolution and not its end. He showed how national independence led in most cases only to the perpetuation of the status quo under a new, elitist, African bourgeois class, and how this could lead to sterility and a concomitant endemic corruption. This is indeed exactly the state of affairs portrayed in Armah’s first two novels. The third novel, Why Are We So Blest?, while still concerned with this theme of postindependence stagnation, introduces the now burgeoning theme of how multiple strategies on the part of the white race keep the African enslaved, a theme that rises to prominence in Two Thousand Seasons and The Healers. Osiris Rising, while advancing the theme of African enslavement, introduces complex contemporary issues and deserves separate treatment. During his short stay in Algeria, Armah became ill, as does the main narrator, Solo, in Why Are We So Blest? Broken in spirit and body, Armah was hospitalized first in Algiers and then back in Boston, where he had come from. He returned to Ghana in 1964, and as he relates in the same autobiographical essay, he decided to “revert to writing.” He worked for a time as a scriptwriter for Ghana Television, as does his character Baako in Fragments, but after the coup d’état that ousted the Nkrumah regime in 1966, Armah left Accra to teach in a secondary school at Navrongo in the remote north of Ghana. It is most likely that it was during this period of remoteness from the capital and the frustrations that he encountered there (his hero Baako is driven to distraction by ineptitude and corruption) that Armah began work on his first two novels, The Beautyful Ones

Such educational institutions, which could only help perpetuate a neocolonial presence, were to come in for criticism in Armah’s third novel, Why Are We So Blest? Like the novel’s hero, Modin Dofu, Armah won a scholarship enabling him to go to the United States, and in 1959, just two years after Ghana’s independence, he went to the Groton School in Massachusetts and later to Harvard University, where he read sociology. In Why Are We So Blest? Modin abandons his studies at Harvard because of what he sees as various white strategies for maintaining a “slave mentality” among blacks, as well as his desire to leave the academic world in order to take up a more revolutionary posture. After he left Harvard, Armah went to Algeria by way of Mexico (he had considered Cuba) and worked for a time as a translator for Révolution africaine. His experience in Algeria (he arrived in 1963, just a year after independence) must have been a great disappointment if his fictional account in Why Are We So Blest? is any guide. The novel in part recounts how the impetus of revolutionary movements can be arrested when they are hijacked by self-seeking bureaucrats and a new bourgeois elite. Such a state of affairs is fictionalized with more particular relevance to Ghana in the previous two novels, The Beautyful Ones and Fragments. Whether he was motivated to go to Algeria because of his reading of Frantz Fanon, the great theorist of colonialism and neocolonialism who lived and worked in Algeria, or whether Armah studied Fanon’s writings during his sojourn in Algeria, there is no doubt about Fanon’s influence on his writing. Indeed, Armah acknowledges a debt to Fanon in his essay “African Socialism: Utopian or Scientific?,” published in Présence africaine (1967), and in another essay, “Fanon the Awakener,” published in Negro Digest (1969). However, even without the knowledge of these essays, it would be evident how Fanon’s theories of revolution and postcolonial dependencies are dramatized in Armah’s early work. Fanon, a psychiatrist by training, was as much interested in the incarceration of the colonized mind as he was in the chains that at times bound the colonized body. In texts such as The Wretched of the

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AYI KWEI ARMAH bus on his way to work, and although he does not see it, the reader is witness to the first act of ever-increasing corruption and its association with putrescence. As the bus conductor, unaware of the sleeping man, counts the money he has been able to swindle from his passengers, we read how he smells his ill-gotten gains: that the money is “so very rotten that the stench itself of it came with a curious, satisfying pleasure” (p. 3; Heinemann edition, 1988). This trope of contaminated, tainted money is part of a more complex figural plane in the novel that links postcolonial corruption with excrement. Seen here in its first miniscule appearance, this metaphoric representation of the decay and putrescence of a political and social system as human waste, this “excremental vision,” gathers momentum throughout the text until it reaches its nauseating conclusion. So persuasive is this rank and squalid view of postcolonial Ghanaian society that even what could be termed “incidental” similes find their register in this vein, as when—to give one of many examples—a native Ghanaian attempting to speak like a colonist is described as being like “a constipated man, straining in his first minute on top of the lavatory seat” (p. 125). The man, caught in the filthy mire of this corruption (his wife compares him to the chichidodo bird, which “hates excrement with all its soul” but must feed on the maggots that breed best in that environment), struggles daily to maintain a clean bill of mental and moral health (p. 45). Like Baako in Fragments, the man himself at times sees his behavior as perverse, as running against the living stream of “normal” life: “The foolish ones are those who cannot live life the way it is lived by all around them, those who will stand by the flowing river and disapprove of the current” (p. 108). This is certainly his wife’s point of view, and it is at the conjunction of the personal and the social that we find the man’s most intense feeling of alienation, what he terms the “hurt” or “reproach” of “the loved ones.” In a very moving passage, we read that after his day’s work the man feels “no hurry” because “at the other end there was only home, the land of the loved ones.” And he is described most poignantly

Are Not Yet Born and Fragments. Restless as ever, he left Ghana in 1967 and went to Paris, where for a time he worked on the journal Jeune Afrique. Whether to hone his creative writing skills or simply to spend more time in the United States, Armah left France in 1968 and studied for an M.F.A. in creative writing at Columbia University, which he had completed by 1970. He then went back to Africa, this time to teach at the College of National Education at Chamg’omge, Tanzania, where he stayed until 1976. It was during this sojourn that he published Two Thousand Seasons and The Healers under the imprint of the Eastern African Publishing House. Perhaps to widen his knowledge of postcolonial Africa, Armah then went to teach at the National University of Lesotho. For a short period in 1979 he worked as a visiting professor in the African Studies Department at the University of Wisconsin before returning to Africa to live and work in Senegal, where he still resides.

THE BEAUTYFUL ONES ARE NOT YET BORN AND FRAGMENTS

These two novels are set in Armah’s native Ghana and deal with the immediate postcolonial maladies of that country. Both “the man” in The Beautyful Ones and Baako Onipa in Fragments share the same fate of being alienated not only from their society but from their families as well. They also share the paradoxical fate of believing themselves to be acting perversely because the environment they inhabit is so comprehensively corrupt that their integrity begins to seem like an eccentricity. Indeed, “the man”—as if to underscore his anonymity, he carries this appellation throughout the novel—bears an alienation so chronic that for a great deal of the novel he abides in an existential terrain bereft of any social comforts. Baako’s alienation in Fragments leads eventually from exasperation through despair to breakdown, and he ends up in an asylum for the insane. Such are the vicissitudes of living in a Fanon-like postcolonial nightmare and trying to sustain some form of integrity. When we meet “the man” in the first few pages of The Beautyful Ones, he has fallen asleep on a

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AYI KWEI ARMAH been a coup “here in Ghana!” (p. 157). When he arrives home his wife is waiting for him with the news that Koomson, his erstwhile classmate, is hiding in the man’s house in fear of his life now that the military regime has taken power. It is at this point in the novel that we see the central metaphor of an excremental environment reach its sickening crescendo. Koomson, by now soiling himself because of the fear of imminent arrest, must escape from the man’s house (surrounded now by soldiers) through that very same latrine hole that in an earlier visit he had deemed too dirty for his own defecation: “‘Push!,’ the man shouted ѧ then there was a long sound as if he were vomiting down there. But the man pushed some more, and in a moment a rush of foul air coming up told him the Party man’s head was out” (p. 168). It now remains only for the fleeing Koomson to make his escape to the Ivory Coast by bribing his way onto the boat he has helped purchase with his ill-gotten gains. The man goes part of the way with him but eventually swims ashore. As he makes his way home, he comes across a police checkpoint at which a small bus waits its turn to pass. It is at this barrier, representative of the new order, that the man, unseen, witnesses the driver give the police officer a bribe. As the bus continues on its way, the man notices that it bears an emblem (most vehicles in Ghana of this type bear similar signs) that reads “The Beautyful Ones Are Not Yet Born,” and in the same oval containing the inscription is the representation of “a single flower, solitary, unexplainable, and very beautiful.” As he makes his way homeward, he ponders this “sign” and another, of a bird singing “over the school latrine,” but these relatively optimistic tokens seem to be negated by the novel’s ultimate closure, when the man thinks of home and “everything he was going back to” (p. 183). Armah’s second novel, Fragments, is to a large extent a continuation of the themes he had explored in his first. Again we are witness to a central protagonist’s alienation from both family and social environment in a postcolonial Ghana rife with nepotism and political inertia. The novel tells the story (and given what we know of Ar-

as walking “with the slowness of those whose desire has nowhere to go” (p. 35). This remorse is particularly acute when the man and his wife, Oyo, are visiting his old classmate Koomson, now the ultimate “Party man,” who has benefited greatly from his position and whose house is replete with things he has acquired for himself, his wife, and, most importantly for the man, for his children (p. 144). Oyo’s desire to have nice things for her and her children causes friction between husband and wife, especially now seeing as she does the conspicuous affluence surrounding her husband’s one-time fellow student. It is mainly because of these conflictful feelings that the man goes to see his old mentor, “Teacher,” a character who functions as a kind of choric commentator, as does Ocran, Baako Onipa’s mentor in Fragments. Looking for some kind of hope and reassurance, the man finds in his old friend only a cynical despair, a point of view that at times conjectures whether “the rot and the weakness were not after all the eternal curse of Africa itself” (p. 91). The man’s interview with Teacher toward the end of chapter 5 and again at the beginning of chapter 7 is “interrupted” by the man’s reflections as he surveys postwar Ghanaian history and his own childhood during this period, a rumination that makes up the long, discursive chapter 6. In this chapter, the protagonist describes how as a small boy he is witness to the injustices of colonial rule, a time when “there were tales of white men with huge dogs that ate more in single day than a human Gold Coast family got in a month” (pp. 66–67). But at least there was hope then, in the guise of a young new politician, perhaps one of the “beautiful ones” that would help lead the country from what many had come to believe was the “curse of its leaders.” This “new man” (the historical Kwame Nkrumah) came to the people in all his honesty, but such promise did not last, and this new leader too succumbs to all the temptations that attend power. Nkrumah was deposed in 1966, a historical event that was to afford Armah the dramatic closure to his novel. In the thirteenth chapter, the man is at work as usual when one of his junior colleagues arrives with the news that there has

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AYI KWEI ARMAH society and family that celebrated Baako’s going would also, only much more so, mark his return. This tainted ritual foreshadows a more tragic one when, against Baako’s and his grandmother’s wishes, Baako’s mother, Efua, and sister, Araba, connive to have the ceremonial “outdooring” of Araba’s new baby only five days after its birth, instead of waiting through the traditional time period, because this would coincide with a time of the month when guests would have more money to contribute. Left on show in the heat of the day while Araba and Efua elicit subscriptions for the child’s “welfare,” the baby succumbs to the chill produced by a powerful fan blowing over the crib. In the diminuendo-like concluding chapter, Naana prepares for her own death and ponders the events that have recently passed: how their fragmentary nature only serves to accentuate the breakdown (both psychic and social) of traditional African social and familial values; how “things [are] only broken and twisted against themselves.” She is well aware of the psychic consequences of such fragmentation and of how the moral stand she and her grandson have taken (the symmetry of their names accentuating their alliance) has alienated them both from family and contemporary Ghanaian society The psychic fragmentation Baako suffers takes place within the larger framework of a postcolonial Ghana that has lost its sense of identity and, as Fanon had theorized, suffers the kind of trauma associated with the legacy of colonialism. This theme is laid out in the second chapter, entitled “Edin” (all the chapters have titles in the Akan language), which roughly translates as “identity.” It is here that we meet Juana, a psychiatrist who has come to Ghana from her native Puerto Rico with the idealistic purpose of helping in the “struggle.” If in her introductory discourse Naana provides a kind of timeless and ancestral collective African consciousness that sets the stage for Baako’s return, then Juana’s reflections offer a much more densely textured introduction to the vicissitudes of living in contemporary Accra. Depressed by her work at Korle Bu hospital, she is compelled to “leave the whole aborted town ѧ to forget all the reminders of futility” (p. 17) by driving out along the coast and away from the

mah’s biography, it is a semiautobiographical story) of Baako Onipa, a young Ghanaian who has left Achimota School to study in the United States, and when the narrative begins he is returning after a five-year absence. We learn that, like Armah, he has had a mental breakdown while living abroad, brought about in part by insecurities concerning his writing but also because of his fear of “the return” to Ghana. The novel traces the attempts by Onipa (his name translates as “solitary” or “alone,” as of course does “Solo” in Why Are We So Blest?) to contribute something constructive and creative to his society as well as his desire to bridge the gap of estrangement between him and his family. However, his efforts, both creative and familial, meet only with frustration and despair. Although he tries to come to terms with it, his family’s bourgeois acquisitiveness drives him to distraction, and his creative enthusiasm meets only indifference or hostility. What begins in trepidation of “the return” modulates into anger and frustration at a social structure that seems concerned only with perpetuating the culture of its erstwhile white oppressors. This state of “dis-ease” eventually becomes one of acute alienation, bringing on Baako’s old “sickness,” and we leave him near the close of the narrative inside the walls of a mental asylum. However, the narrative does not begin with Baako Onipa, nor does it end with him. As a way of framing Baako’s story, Armah has his grandmother Naana (her name connotes wisdom and respect) reflect in the opening chapter on her grandson’s departure and his imminent return. Naana fulfills the role of both blind “seer” and keeper of traditional beliefs, and in the opening incantatory chapter she tells the reader of how the traditional ways and rituals of African society have been undermined by neocolonial greed. She remembers especially the defilement of Baako’s going-away ceremony, at which his Uncle Foli had been entrusted with the customary ritual of appeasing the spirits by pouring a libation: “when at last he began to pour it out he only let go of little miserly drops” so that he would have more for “his own dry mouth” (p. 7; Heinemann edition, 1974). It is a small enough example but a significant harbinger of how the acquisitive

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AYI KWEI ARMAH nial Ghana, and he warns Baako that the “place is run by this so-called elite of pompous asses trained to do nothing” (p. 116). When Ocran warns Baako that if he wants to do anything “serious” in Ghana he will have to work alone, it is a prediction that becomes painfully true. Late in the narrative, shortly before his final collapse, Baako burns his manuscripts and television treatments, and he reflects on the hope he once had for them and the indifference or animosity of their reception at Ghanavision. His telescripts “The Root” and “The Brand,” both of which are allegories of colonialism, neocolonial corruption, and a concomitant slave mentality, foreshadow Armah’s own scripting of such themes in Two Thousand Seasons and The Healers. Fragments closes on an ambiguously optimistic note similar to that of The Beautyful Ones. In the penultimate chapter, entitled “Obra” (Life), which concludes the linear narrative (Naana’s circumlocutory commentary has yet to come), Juana, always an advocate for perseverance and “life,” goes home after visiting Baako in the asylum: “Walking around the house, she saw only lifeless things, till the idea came to her that she should prepare the unused room” (p. 277). A positive enough note, but it is Naana who has the last word. Her reflections on contemporary bourgeois materialism, the diminution of African values, and their linkage with slavery (pp. 283–284) sound a more ominous note, one that her creator will take up in his next novel and expand in those that follow.

city. We learn that this need is a recurrent one, a need that “was in some ways a cure for her own long unease, this leaving Accra to come out for air, with the used portion of the day behind her lined with the wrecked minds it was her job to try and repair” (p. 21). One of the “wrecked minds” she will meet is that of her eventual lover Baako Onipa. When Baako tells Juana in their first interview that he knows what he is “expected to be” but that it is not what he wants to be, she remarks that he is “going against a general current” and that he would need “a lot of strength” (p. 147). Eventually Baako’s strength runs out. Like the “the man” in The Beautyful Ones, the conflict he faces is between his own moral steadfastness and the “things” his Moview Video Mosaic Player 1.1.65 Free Download with Crack desires, and like the hero of the previous novel, he ultimately comes to see his behavior as somehow “perverse.” Shortly before his ultimate crisis Baako engages himself in a comparative anthropological “study” of the “been-to” (the Ghanaian term for someone who has lived abroad and who is expected to return with the material evidence) and Melanesian cargo cults (religious belief centered on cargo worship). Had he himself conformed to the “traditional” profile of the beento, it is more than likely his fate would have been different. Such a profile is provided for us by Henry Robert Hudson Brempong (the name betraying the caricature), whom Baako meets on the plane home. Brempong, who plays a similar role to Koomson in The Beautyful Ones, is a frequent traveler and a bringer of various kinds of “cargo” to his family members. Despite his caricatured portrayal, it is Brempong who warns Baako of the realities of life and work in Ghana. He says that Baako does not understand the need to “know people”; that if he were “a white man, it wouldn’t matter,” but with his “black face like their own” he will get “no respect” (p. 68). This proves to be so much the case that Baako eventually secures his post at Ghanavision only through the intervention of Ocran, his erstwhile mentor from Achimota School. Ocran’s function in this novel is very similar to that of Teacher in The Beautyful Ones. He too has reached a cynical resignation with regard to the state of postcolo-

WHY ARE WE SO BLEST?

Armah’s third novel is a pivotal work in his oeuvre. Whereas the first two novels dwell for the most part on neocolonial corruption and the mediated “slavery” of the African elitist rulers, Why Are We So Blest? explores the origins and ideological forms of how such African intellectuals have become assimilated to Western ways and how this leads them to their destruction. “Destruction” is a key term in this narrative, and in this sense the novel looks forward to the two books that follow it: Two Thousand Seasons and The Healers are both allegorical epics that utilize

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AYI KWEI ARMAH death. Solo’s reading and retrospective analysis of the various entries in the notebooks are not presented to us chronologically; rather, the narrative is rendered in a mosaic way, with Modin’s journal entries interleaved with those of Aimèe’s, along with Solo’s editorial chapters. Modin Dofu, a Ghanaian student who has won a scholarship to Harvard, meets and becomes involved with a young American woman, Aimèe, who specializes in African studies and, it would seem from one journal entry (pp. 143–145), is a specialist in proffering sexual favors in the service of her research. Modin becomes more and more disturbed by what he sees as his privileged position, indeed his grooming to become one of the colonizer’s clones who will return to Africa and perpetuate the colonial system. At one point in his reflections he compares himself to that of a “factor,” the African middleman who served as negotiator between the white slavers and his own people. Modin is also presented as the academically privileged African and told time and time again how fortunate he is to be at Harvard. It is one of these occasions that serve as a catalyst in his decision to quit his studies. One of his fellow students expatiates on an article in the New York Times, occasioned by the advent of Thanksgiving, entitled “Why Are We So Blest?” which extols the advantages of living in America (p. 99). The debate surrounding this article makes Modin more aware of the attempts to assimilate him into Western culture at the cost of his African heritage, and it is this piece that gives the novel its ironic title. Tired of the Eurocentric curricula and driven by guilt to contribute in some practical way to Africa’s freedom, Modin decides to go to Laccryville and offer his services to the Bureau of People’s Union of Congheria. He is accompanied by Aimèe, whom he had met while earning money as a subject in a psychology experiment at Harvard. It is on their arrival at the bureau that they meet Solo Nkonam who, given his own embittered experience, is immediately suspect of their interracial relationship. Solo tries to warn the couple that the possibility of their being recruited by the cynical cadres who run the bureau is unlikely. His prophecy is

the register of history and myth to depict the destructiveness of the European expansion into Africa. In Why Are We So Blest? this destructiveness remains as yet on a personal level in that the two major male African characters, Modin Dofu and Solo Nkonam, have their aspirations crushed by two women who serve allegorically as representatives of white colonialism. This novel, with its ideological distinctions between black and white—the irreconcilable differences between the wholly negative pole of destructive whiteness and the wholly positive pole of a benevolent and healing blackness—marks the beginning of a vision that burgeons into what some have called a fully-fledged “racist” ideology in the novels that follow. The narrative of Why Are We So Blest? plunges us immediately into an alienated consciousness, an alienation that has both personal and political causes. Solo Nkonam, a would-be writer who hasn’t yet written anything, opens the narrative by describing himself as a “ghost,” a totally disillusioned outsider. Feeling himself a failure in the practice of revolution, he has come to Laccryville (a thinly disguised Algiers) in the hope of working for Advanced Installer Architect 18.6 Crack + License Key Free {2021} political wing of the “Bureau of the People’s Union of Congheria” but has met only with frustration and disappointment; when we meet him in the novel he has turned to translating articles for the periodical Jeune nation. Solo’s embitterment and disillusion come about through both personal and political disappointment. Once, he tells us (p. 12), he had believed in love as a power that would transcend the differences between black and white, colonized and colonizer. But his Portuguese girlfriend Sylvia, during his time as a student in Lisbon, has to make a choice between him and “the pull of her race,” and she chooses the latter. It is a reiteration of such a betrayal that Solo reads in(to) the narrative of Modin and his girlfriend, Aimèe, and which he extrapolates into a full-blown cultural and historical conspiracy of whiteness against blackness, of the destruction of Africa itself (pp. 207–209; Heinemann edition, 1981). The “story” of Modin Dofu and Aimèe Reitsch is related by Solo, who, we learn near the close of the novel, has been given both their journals by Aimèe after Modin’s

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AYI KWEI ARMAH scenes of Modin’s torture that moves the reader over, as it were, to the latent allegorical plane of the novel, and it points forward to Armah’s new vision in Two Thousand Seasons and The Healers, novels that are less concerned with the destruction of any individual than they are with the drawn-out destruction of Africa itself.

correct, and after waiting several weeks the couple set out for the southern frontier in the hope of joining up on their own with the revolutionary forces. After some time wandering on the periphery of the Sahara, Modin, fatigued in spirit and body, his revolutionary spirit simply withered away, wants to return to Laccryville. Indirectly due to Aimèe, they are eventually picked up by four French irregulars who drive them a small distance into the desert. There, in a bizarre danse macabre, both are sexually tortured, and Aimèe is eventually raped by the four men. Modin, who is naked and tied to the vehicle, is continuously aroused by the proximity of Aimèe’s naked body, which the men hold against him. They eventually castrate him and leave him to die in the desert, but not before Aimèe has taken Modin’s penis once more into her mouth, as if to suck the last drops of blood from his dying body. She makes her way back to Laccryville and entrusts both her own and Modin’s notebooks to Solo, who, when she asks for them back, refuses to return them. It is from these journals, or notebooks, that Solo constructs their story and hence the novel Why Are We So Blest? The bizarre scenario of the desert scene described above brings to a resounding crescendo the underlying politico-sexual allegorical plane of the novel, in which European (and by extension, American) women are figured as destroyers, leading their black partners to either literal (Modin) or symbolic (Solo) castration. After reading and synthesizing Modin’s painful reflections, Solo summarizes what has become the central ideological thrust of the novel: through a continual process of assimilation and/or the concomitant loneliness that will result if it is resisted, Western white culture sucks the lifeblood out of the African, just as Aimèe had sucked the last drops of Modin’s blood after he was castrated by the representatives of colonialism. In a rhetorical move reminiscent of Melville’s story of Bartleby, Solo summarizes Modin’s individual plight and equates it with the collective plight of Africa in an expression that approximates “Ah Modin, Ah Africa” (pp. 207–209). The closing of Why Are We So Blest? is sickening, if not entirely realistic. But it is this very difficulty in reading these

TWO THOUSAND SEASONS AND THE HEALERS

One of Modin’s diary entries in Why Are We So Blest? notes that if there is any hope for Africa and the African it lies in the kind of egalitarian society that existed before the European invasion, and that “war against the invader should be the educational process for creating new antiEuropean, anti-imperial, anti-elitist values” (p. 222). A little later in the narrative his alter ego, Solo, reflects that “only one issue is worth our time: how to end the oppression of the African, to kill the European beasts of prey” (p. 230). It is these twin sentiments that form the main narrative thrust of the two novels that follow. However, although the two later novels share and extensively advance this burgeoning vision of the white race as natural predator, Armah’s readers could hardly have been prepared for the stylistic and narrative strategies he would choose to advance this vision. Unlike the complexly wrought and modernist mode of presentation in Why Are We So Blest?, Armah chose to adopt, or adapt, the mode of the oral historian for these two narratives. Indeed, both read less like novels than chronicles of an African past without division, reconstructing through myth, legend, and racial memory an Edenic time before the imperialist incursions of Arab and European expansionism. They depict a time of precolonial aggression and resistance, a time before the aggression and resistance brought by colonialism, of indigenous social formations premised on equality (especially gender equality), “reciprocity,” and “connectedness”; what the plural narrative voice of Two Thousand Seasons calls “the way”: “Our way is reciprocity. The way is wholeness. Our way knows no oppression. ѧ The way destroys only destruction” (p. 39; Heinemann edition, 1979).

8

AYI KWEI ARMAH It is just this social and ethical system, this “collectivity,” that the European and Arab “marauders”—first as “guests,” then as masters— pull asunder, destroying both the unity of the African continent and the African consciousness. The novel’s italicized prologue utilizes the metaphor of the spring, the source, and its selfdestructive flow to the desert: “Springwater flowing to the desert, where you flow there is no regeneration ѧ it is not in the nature of the desert to return anything but destruction” (p. xi). This metaphor then broadens into an analogue of Africa’s death wish, as it at first embraces and then seeks a compromise with the destroyers who come from the North (the Islamic incursion) and the European imperialists who come from the sea. It is a prophet who forecasts the one thousand seasons wandering in the wilderness and another thousand seasons attempting to once again find “the way.” This social structure resembles a kind of primitive communism based on equality and reciprocity, in which women play as significant a role as their male counterparts. An early section of the narrative relates how these women massacre the first “Arab predators” during their annual feast celebrating the end of Ramadan. There is a terrible excess in the descriptions of how these would-be enslavers die, some of them gasping their last breath 4k video downloader license key text - Crack Key For U they lie in their own excrement and urine (pp. 20–30), betraying an awful hatred in this racial memoir, not to mention a defamation of the Islamic religion itself. After this initial success against “the destroyers,” the narrative describes how the inauguration of chiefdoms allows the enemy to divide and conquer, utilizing those “factors” of whom Modin had spoken in Why Are We So Blest? The plural voice of the first four chapters (the narrational “we”) recounts their exile and epic migrations in search of a homeland. The later chapters become less mythically diffuse and focus on the activities of a band of young male and female initiates as they seek a new homeland and a reestablishment of “the way.” They are trained by various experts, of whom Isanusi (earlier driven into exile by the corrupt King Koranche) is the most versatile. It is he “whose vocation it was to keep the knowledge of

our way, the way, from destruction; to bring it back to an oblivious people” (p. 89). Isanusi, who teaches resistance but not revenge, dies in the struggle against the aggressors, but his younger followers carry on and achieve a victory of sorts. Anachronous as it may seem, it is they who are perhaps the “beautyful ones” who were not as yet born in Armah’s first novel. The fictional mode of Two Thousand Seasons was no doubt chosen by Armah to suit his subject matter—the depiction of the trials and tribulations of a legendary pan-African nation—but it is not entirely satisfactory. The plot, as in the novel that follows, is episodic, the characters are more tokens than conflicted beings, and the narrative is replete with anecdotal excess: “There is nothing white men will not do to satisfy their greed” (p. 78), for example. This is not, one believes, a diminution of Armah’s powers as a novelist but rather an intentional AnyDVD HD 8.2.7.0 Full Download - Free Activators of these fictive methods to suit his new vision. It is as if he is less interested in the aesthetics of the novel as such than in the delineation of an ideological premise: the ruination of a virtuous, Edenic Africa by the “white destroyer” in collusion with its sycophantic quisling collaborators, the chiefs and kings of a divided Africa. Toward the end of Two Thousand Seasons, the anonymous narrator remarks on the “disintegration,” the “bloody desolation the whites have stretched over this land!” and that the “destroyed fragments begin to call out for healing” now that the “destroyers cannot reach beyond these two thousand seasons” (pp. 202–206). If this novel dramatizes the loss of “the way” and the severing of the collectivity on which it was based, then The Healers seeks to tell the story of its attempted restoration. Although it bears the italicized subtitle “an historical novel,” The Healers has a similar narrative mixture of myth and legend and a similar cast of unconflicted characters. It is “historical” in the sense that Armah sets the picaresque adventures of his epic heroes within the historical context of the fall of the great Ashanti empire and the consolidation of British imperialism in the territory that was to become the Gold Coast, later Ghana. The historical aspect of the novel moves through the As-

9

AYI KWEI ARMAH need the work of healers but also “a people can be diseased in the same way,” that “sometimes a whole people needs healing work” (p. 82). These healers, of whom Damfo is the most skillful, resemble proto-psychoanalysts in their work with individuals, and in their search for the restoration of an integral pan-African society based on reciprocity and equality they enact a program that is almost Fanon-like in its intentions. These twin responsibilities of the healers, that of offering individual therapy sessions as well as the restoration of pan-African spiritual health, come together in what is virtually the center of the novel, when Damfo tends to the troubled Ashanti general who will lead his forces against the British. Asamoa Nkwanta suffers from recurring dreams and nightmares brought about (Damfo explains) because of the split in his “soul” caused by his guilt in trying to serve Ashanti royalty at the cost of his peoples’ welfare as a whole. It is during these analytical sessions with the emaciated and depressed general that we get the visionary and ideological center of the novel. Damfo addresses the general as follows: “If the past tells you the Akan and the black people were one in the past, perhaps it also tells you there is nothing eternal about our present divisions. We were one in the past. We may come together again in the future” (p. 176). Damfo is aware that such a possibility may take “millennia,” and the utter rout of Asamoa Nkwanta and his allies by the British forces (history records that General Wolseley ended his campaign successfully in less than two months, entering Kumasi in January 1874) would seem to confirm this pessimistic view. However, as if to bring the novel to a satisfactory, if ambiguous, close, the narrative allows for an ironic reunification of the kind the defeated healers had sought to achieve. Shortly after the victorious Wolseley sails from Cape Coast and the defeated peoples from all over Africa are assembled under the gaze of their rulers, Ama Nkroma, one of the female healers, remarks in the closing paragraphs of the novel, as follows:

hanti wars and employs “real” historical places and characters (even Queen Victoria gets a mention) and at times utilizes a detailed realism. But superimposed on this linear tale of adventure and quest—and, one imagines, intended to take precedence in Armah’s narrative and ideological design—is that of a symbolic, or metaphoric, or visionary plane that seeks to explore the divisions that created the black diaspora and how these may be repaired. Consistent with Armah’s vision of a once-unified African continent, the narrative associates the defeat of the Ashanti empire with the defeat of Africa itself. The blurb on the back cover of the novel describes this succinctly: A century ago one of Africa’s great empires, Ashanti, fell. The root cause of that fall, symbolic of Africa’s conquest, was not merely Europe’s destructive strength. It was Africa’s disunity: divisions among kindred societies; divisions within each society between aristocrats, commoners, slaves.

Two Thousand Seasons had documented this chronic disunity. The Healers sets out to describe how these numerous fissures in African society might be made whole again. Unlike the vatic voice that introduces us to the epic sweep of Two Thousand Seasons, the one that opens The Healers sounds more like that of the conventional novel: “In the twentieth year of his life, a young man found himself at the centre of strange, extraordinary events.” The young man is Densu, and the “event” that starts the narrative on its detective-story-like course is the murder of his friendly rival, the young Prince Appia. Thus begins the linear or metonymic plane of the novel, as Densu sets out to clear his name and begins a series of episodic adventures that eventually lead him to the great healer Damfo, keeper of “the way.” The metaphoric or symbolic plane of the text, reliant more on schematic dualisms (“the Manipulators” versus “the Inspirers,” the evil Ababio versus the virtuous Densu), is less concerned with novelistic realism than with an aesthetic associated with myth. This strand of the novel explores the need for healing, both corporal and psychic, in an Africa riven by imperialist machinations. Damfo explains to his apprentice Densu that not only do individuals

But look at all the black people the whites have brought here. Here we healers have been wondering about ways to bring our people together again. And

10

AYI KWEI ARMAH chy, the aristocracy, slavery” (p. 35). As with Armah’s previous two novels, the actual “story,” or plotline, of Osiris Rising serves a didactic or parabolic purpose: it is an analogue of how truly democratic and progressive movements in Africa are undermined not only by neocolonial and imperialist influences but also by the machinations of a fifth column of corrupt and acquisitive indigenous men seeking power. And as the title from the Osiris myth suggests, the novel considers also the possibility of a regeneration, a resurrection, of the African unity that had existed before its various dismemberments. The vision is laudable, but the fictional carrier that delivers it is a strange mélange (some might say “hodgepodge”) of genres and concerns. It is at once a satire of African Americans who “return” to Africa to seek their roots; a Bond-like thriller, with villains who house their sophisticated weapons of mass destruction in high-tech bunkers; a melodrama that opposes sacrificial virtue against corrupt and ruthless power mechanisms; and a classic depiction of triangular desire as played out between the three main characters, Ast, Asar, and the despicable Seth Spenser Soja. The narrative begins with Ast, an assistant professor of African studies at Emerson University who was taught Egyptian hieroglyphics by her grandmother. She decides to relinquish her post and offer her teaching services in Africa because, as she explains later in the narrative, “in Africa, there could be a coming together of souls experiencing life as shared work and reward ѧ instead of this brute competition between individuals and factions” (p. 70). Shortly before her departure she receives a communication from the secret society of the Ankh, and this piece of subversive literature is detected when she arrives at the fictitious African country of Hapi. She is taken into custody and is eventually interrogated by the deputy director of security himself, who, it turns out, was a contemporary at Emerson, as was Asar, the leader of the subversive and progressive movement she is to join. Asar, who fought in the liberation wars in the South and who eschews a brilliant career in order to teach at the provincial Teacher Training College at Manda, is goodness personified. Seth Spenser

the whites want ways to drive us farther apart. Does it not amuse you, that in their wish to drive us apart the whites are actually bringing us work for the future? Look! (p. 309)

History has defeated them, but their vision is unvanquished.

OSIRIS RISING

Armah’s sixth novel and first fiction published under the imprint of his publishing collective in Popenguine, Senegal, has the following signature on the last page of text: “Mussuwam, 17 February 1984; Popenguine, 18 January 1994.” It is difficult to believe that it took him some ten years to complete this novel, with its stereotypical cast of characters and straightforward narrative structure, and one assumes that he held it back until he had established Per Ankh, his African publishing company. He remarked in a rare interview that he had “not been publishing” [because] he did not want to give his books to “multinational companies” and that he would “keep his books in [his] drawer” until either a suitable “black publisher” came along or until he and his fellow writers could “get together and organize [their] own publishing house” (in Gurnah, p. 23). Given his choice of name for the new publishing company, it comes as no coincidence then that the plot of Osiris Rising centers around the renewal in modern Africa—and the suppression by governmental forces—of the ancient Egyptian collective known as the Ankh movement. The novel reflects Armah’s burgeoning belief that ancient Egypt was a black civilization and that the peoples of West Africa can trace their origins to the Nile Valley, a thesis advanced by Cheikh Anta Diop, a thinker mentioned numerous times in Armah’s nonfiction and lectures and who is invoked in Osiris Rising. The society of the Ankh is reminiscent of the idealistic social structure promulgated in The Healers, and from the point of view of presentday authority in Osiris Rising “a dangerous secret society that tried at one time to destroy all existing social and political institutions here: monar-

11

AYI KWEI ARMAH elite, the “manipulators,” are in turn bribed and manipulated by neocolonial interests. However, much of this critique is delivered in what is closer to a lecture format than the kind of dramatic representation rendered in the first two novels, and this latent tendency becomes manifest in the sections of the novel dealing with the “Proposals for a New Curriculum,” where even the typography serves the didactic purpose (pp. 213–223). Eventually it transpires that Ras Jomo, the fake Prince Woosen, and others have conspired with Seth Soja to plant weaponry in Asar’s living quarters so that Soja might have a reason for killing his old rival. Symbolically enough, Asar dies trying to communicate with Ast as she approaches his little boat, held captive on Soja’s Bond-like motor launch:

Soja (SSS), the power-hungry deputy director and onetime school rival of Asar, is his ethical opposite. Such is the basic binary structure of the novel, but there are lesser examples as well, similar to the “Manipulators/Inspirers” model of The Healers. After an unsuccessful attempt to win over Ast to his side, Soja attempts, rather unconvincingly, to rape her. It is unconvincing from the aesthetics of realism, but not from the novel’s parabolic plane, as we witness the syphilitic Soja attempting to contaminate the pure and virtuous Ast (pp. 62–66). It is shortly after this that, while walking on the beach, Ast, as if by some cosmic plan of coincidence, sees Sheldon Tubman, a onetime civil rights activist now known as Ras Jomo Cinque Equiano and leader of a bizarre cult whose chosen names, ironically, had been “better left to rot in peace” (p. 96). He, his three wives (Ast rescues Jacqueline Brown, a possible fourth), and a motley crew of characters including the fake Ethiopian Prince Woosen—at one time a New York drug peddler and convicted felon—are introduced into the plot. The action of the novel and its ideological focus now moves to the college at Manda where Ast goes to join Asar in his struggle to reform the Eurocentric curriculum as well as his work to “turn [his] dismembered continent into a healing society, Africa” (p. 112). These pages of the novel include several “conversations” between Ast and Asar, the would-be lovers who betray Armah’s recent predilection for writing fiction as thinly disguised political polemic. For example, the scene just before they make love for the first time (pp. 116– 117) reads more like a monologic political speech than natural dialogue, but this is only one example of how the fictional apparatus is there only to carry a message. It is not that novels should not convey a critique of political systems or embody visionary ideals, but these can be handled in more artistically dramatic ways, as they are in The Beautyful Ones and Fragments, for example. As in those novels, there is much valid criticism in Osiris Rising of how supposedly “independent” African countries are still controlled by multinational corporations (Kaiserlever in this case), and how the African

She saw Asar raise his arms to cup his hands round his mouth, to repeat his query. The first bullet struck, giving him no time to register surprise. His body pivoted left. Other bullets reversed it. ѧ Ast saw Asar totter upright in a flash, arms still in the communicant attitude of his last question. Then he exploded silently into fourteen starry fragments, and the pieces plunged into the peaceful water. (p. 305)

Climactic as it is, this is not the true closure of this morality tale. It is the execrable Seth Spenser Soja who brings it to its ambiguous ending when in the last sentence he whispers to Ast, the ultimate object of his desire, “When you are ready, come.”

CRITICAL RESPONSE

There are literally scores of scholarly articles on Armah’s first few novels alone, and several booklength studies take into account his fiction up to the publication of The Healers. A representative number of these are listed in the bibliography to this essay, but only a selected few can be addressed here. Since The Beautyful Ones burst upon the literary scene, there has never been any dispute concerning the originality and power of Armah’s writing, although some have more recently suggested a waning of that early strength.

12

AYI KWEI ARMAH mah’s somewhat eccentric publishing history, Fraser remarks on the tendency of critics to concentrate on the early books, especially The Beautyful Ones, “without any systematic attempt being made to place the asperity of that work within a broader picture of the writer’s vision” (p. 1). This is exactly what Fraser sets out to do in the five chapters of his study, each of which is devoted to one of the first five novels. Importantly, Fraser attempts to link style with content as he examines the evolution of Armah’s oeuvre, arguing that the complexity of form of the first few novels mirrored the subject of the alienated artist figure, whereas the protagonists of the later books—firmly ensconced in a community— ushered in the need for a communal voice as narrator. In his conclusion, Fraser asks whether or not Armah might have “paid too high a qualitative price for the dogmatic thrust he introduces into the more recent novels” (p. 106). The above question is answered in two radically different ways in full-length studies of Armah by Neil Lazarus (1990) and Ode Ogede (2000). Lazarus’ book, Resistance in Postcolonial African Fiction, is less concerned with narrative or stylistic strategies than it is with situating Armah within “postcolonial African intellectualism” (p. ix). This is a densely textured discourse on influences that shaped the ideological matrices of Armah’s texts, both fictional and otherwise. It is at once a brilliant investigative study and a curiously lopsided one, with the late postrealist novels getting scant attention (around fifteen pages of text) and the novel Why Are We So Blest? alone taking up some sixty-seven pages. This is because Lazarus sees the latter as the marker of what could be called the “ideological break” in Armah’s output, signaling a shift from an “ethics of resistance” in the first two novels to what is tantamount to a racist stance. Lazarus notes the beginnings of Armah’s “manichean” vision in this text and condemns it as “both a racist and a poisonously misogynistic work” (p. 118). Although less emphatically condemnatory about Two Thousand Seasons and The Healers, Lazarus does note that “the essentialist language, in terms of which ideologies and social tendencies are cast as natural and

Most disagreements have concerned either the “Africanness” of his fiction (the early novels), or the ideology that imbues his later work, especially Two Thousand Seasons and The Healers. Generally speaking (and this is to generalize mercilessly), the early negative critiques centered on the lack of an “African” texture and vision in Armah’s novels; such critiques accused him of adhering more to a Western sensibility and a vision wherein his protagonists seemed more like existentialist outsiders than indigenous Africans. Indeed, Charles Larson’s (1978) seemingly incredible indictment, that there were “few Africanisms” in Armah’s early work, prompted one of the few statements on his work by the author himself (see Armah, “Larsony, or Fiction as Criticism of Fiction,” 1976). Derek Wright, who has written extensively on Armah’s work, has done us good service by bringing together twenty-two previously published articles in his Critical Perspectives on Ayi Kwei Armah (1992). These range from “general essays” to groups of essays centered on particular novels. In his brief introduction, Wright discusses some of the central issues brought to task in the individual essays, especially the early criticisms of Chinua Achebe and Kofi Awoonor, who formed in part (Wright colorfully suggests) a kind of “Un-African Activities Committee of the literary imagination” (p. 4) that called for a clearly recognizable style of documentary realism. Wright also suggests an intriguing correspondence between Armah’s career to date with Frantz Fanon’s “tripartite scheme for the decolorized writer” (p. 6). The Beautyful Ones corresponds to Fanon’s “assimilation phase,” whereas the next two novels fit into “the second phase of disturbance and painful liberation.” The last two books (Two Thousand Seasons and The Healers) are then “fighting books” that “adopt the militant postures of Fanon’s ‘fighting phase’” (p. 6). By the time Robert Fraser had completed his book-length study (1980), he had both the advantage of surveying the prodigious critical output on Armah’s earlier work as well as being able to consider the radical shift marked by Two Thousand Seasons and The Healers. Noting Ar-

13

AYI KWEI ARMAH tion marks a continuation of Armah’s earlier themes and concerns, particularly with those of Osiris Rising. In KMT, the narrator, Lindela, searches not only for self-fulfillment in Africa (as did Ast in Osiris), but also through her study of hieroglyphics she seeks the answers to why Africa, once so full of promise, has fallen into decay. Her investigations into what residual panAfrican values might lie under the ruins of centuries of colonial expansion and exploitation mirror those of her creator Ayi Kwei Armah. His work over the past thirty years could be characterized as the fictional “excavation” of such possibilities.

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party sites, says the former Face- Facebook, which likely is close to ing the Federal Reserves aggres-
Stocks Fall On Egypt, Earnings Googles AdSense and book employee. having 600 million members, re- sive efforts to boost growth and
-2
use Like to target ads -4
4 Stocks suffered their biggest losses in
months on Cairos chaos and disappoint-
ing earnings. The Nasdaq tumbled 2.5% and
REAPER 6.15 Free Download with License key Crack Say Joe wrote that he Likes the
XYZ restaurant he read about on a
blog in the Facebook Like pro-
portedly generated $1.2 billion in
revenue through the first nine
months of 2010, the great majority
fl studio 12 crack - Crack Key For U bring down unemployment.
Theres increasing evidence
that the expansion is becoming
-6
-8
snapped a 4-day win streak. The NYSE com- BY PETE BARLAS gram. from ads. Google had revenue of more and more self-sustaining, Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4
posite and S&P 500 fell 1.8%. Volume surged INVESTOR'S BUSINESS DAILY
An ad for XYZ might appear on $20.8 billion in that span, 97% said Jay Bryson, global economist 08 09 10
Sources: Commerce Dept., Datastream
across the board. Losing stocks trounced A long-rumored Facebook ad net- the blog near Joes comment. from ads. In the third quarter, 30% at Wells Fargo Investments.
winners 5-to-1 on the NYSE and 4-to-1 on work ads Facebook will place on Whatnobodyreallyunderstands of Googles revenue came from ThelevelofrealGDP$13.38tril-
the Nasdaq. The major indexes ended the third-party sites, not just its own about Facebook and their vision is ads placed on partner sites. lion finally surpassed its prior It also resulted in a big drop in
week modestly lower. More on this page site is a reality that could soon that they basically want to com- peak in Q4 2007, when the econo- business inventories, with stock-
up the ante in the No. 1 social net- pete with Google, the person said. Facing Up To IPO my was starting its slide into a pile building slowing to a $7.2 bil-
works escalating rivalry vs. No. 1 Facebooks push to integrate its Facebook is searching for more deep recession. For all of 2010, lion annual pace from Q3s $121.4
GDP Grew At 3.2% Pace In Q4 online search engine Google. service with retail, magazine and revenueafter recentlyclosing a pri- GDP grew 2.9%, the best since billion rate. That subtracted 3.7

5 That was a bit less than expected, but


was the 2nd straight quarter of accelera-
tion as the economy finally passed its Q4 07
So says a former Facebook em-
ployee with knowledge of the
plan,whospoke on condition of an-
news sites is all the more impor-
tant with the possibility of intro-
ducing ads to the mix, says Debra
vate round of funding that valued
the company at about $50 billion.
Thenear certainty of an initial pub-
2005,aftershrinking2.6%in2009.
But stocks tumbled on Egypts
mass protests and weak results
points from gross domestic prod-
uct, but could bode well for
bandicam crack bagas31 - Free Activators growth. Orders to restock inven-
peak. Consumer spending rose at a 4.4% an- onymity. Aho Williamson, an analyst with lic offering by April 2012 makes it from FordF, AmazonAMZN and oth- tory should be a positive for the
nual rate the best since Q1 06 as dura- Facebook denies it has any plans research firm eMarketer. moreimportant thatFacebookfind ers. The S&P 500 fell 1.8% and the economy in the first half of 2011,
ble buys shot up 21.6%. Exports were a big for an ad network. Ive been saying for some time ways to bring in more revenue. Nasdaq 2.5%. Oil, gold, the dollar particularly in the auto sector,
help.TheU.S. isno longerrelyingon invento- The ex-employee says Facebook that Facebook has really been put- Its a ticklish task to make reve- and Treasury prices rebounded as Hoffman said.
ries to prop up growth. More on this page, A2 plansto use its Like button to tar- ting all of the pieces together to de- nue from those visitors in a way investors sought safe havens. Spending on durable goods rose
get ads to other websites. The velop some form of an ad net- that doesnt turn off users. Analysts expect moderate at a 21.6% rate, the best since Q4
Like button lets Facebook mem- work, she said. It does sound Plenty of websites let users post growth to continue despite debt 2001, as demand for cars and
Ford Hit By Higher Commodities bers alert their Facebook friends like there is a bigger reason for items from the site to Facebook woes and austerity in Europe, po- trucks rebounded. Manufactur-

6 The carmakers Q4 EPS dropped 30% to


30 cents, a surprise decline vs. views of
48 cents, as raw material and vehicle launch
about content and other things
they like online.
Defraggler Professional 2.22.995 Crack Serial key Free Like other than thumbs up, Im in-
terested in a brand or a product.
With some failures behind it and
Sandboxie 5.51.6 Crack + License Key Full Free Download 2021 pages. Since April, websites can in-
clude a Facebook Like button.
Moview Video Mosaic Player 1.1.65 Free Download with Crack Facebook already is targeting ads
liticalunrest inthe Mideast and in-
flation pressures around the
world due to higher commodity
ing has been a main driver of the
economic rebound along with
business spending, which slowed
costs Iperius Backup Crack. Ex its divested Volvo, revenue Whats The Story? an uneasy relationship with some on its site to Like. But the ad net- costs. But they said the expansion to a 0.4% rate.
rose 5% to $32.5 bil, beating views of $29.3 Last week, Facebook took a step users about how it uses their infor- work that Facebook is trying to de- likely wont be strong enough to Exports rose at an 8.5% rate,
bil. Its European unit swung to a loss. FordF in this direction when it started a mation, Facebook has been care- velop would place ads on the third- quickly bring down the unemploy- while imports fell at a 13.6% pace.
sees all units making money in 2011, though Sponsored Stories ad program, ful about rolling out ad programs. party sites, alongside the com- ment rate, which has remained Trade added 3.4 percentage
commodity costs are seen rising more this in which companies can use It has yet to place ads on sites ments of the Facebook user who above 9% since the recession points to GDP, as U.S. companies
year than 2010. Shares sank 12%. Like comments in ads that ap- other than its own. likes the content or site. ended in June 2009. benefited from strong overseas
pear on Facebook pages and that Placing ads on partner sites is a The ad ideally would be tied to The world has problems out growth and a weaker dollar.
just a users followers would see. model long used by search en- content in the comments. (If the there, but I dont think the prob- Residential investment, long a
Reborn BankUnited Up Post-IPO Facebook illustrated the pro- gines. Facebook user doesnt post a com- lems are so big or threatening that drag on GDP, contributed 0.1

7 The resurrected Fla. bank that collapsed


in 2009 rose 5% in its NYSE debut. It
sold 29 mil shares at $27 a pop the IPOs
gram with Facebook user Joe,
whoremarked that he went toStar-
bucksSBUX twice that day.
GooglesAdSenseuses contextu-
al targeting software to place ads
on sites where those ads are likeli-
ment, its unclear if Facebook
f.lux Crack Download - Crack Key For U would put a targeted ad on the
third-party site.)
they will set back the U.S., said
Stuart Hoffman, chief economist
at PNC Financial.
point to growth.
Government spending shrank
on a drop in defense outlays and
size and price both above views. Investors Starbucks used that comment est to get clicked. MicrosoftMSFT Say a user is on a movie site, Still, he added, Its a hollow vic- cutbacks by debt-laden state and
sold 25 mil of those shares, getting 86% of above a Starbucks ad that ap- and YahooYHOO do the same with SEE FACEBOOK ON A4 tory if you grow but you dont local governments.
the $783 mil in proceeds. They had bought peared with all the other ads on
BankUnitedBKU from the FDIC after it failed the right side of Joes Facebook
on bad real estate loans. page. THE BIG PICTURE
Joesfollowers could see theStar-
bucks ad along with his com-
Chevron Beats, Reserves Worry
8 Q4 earnings jumped 73% to $2.64, easily
beating analyst views of $2.41. Revenue
ments, which presumably would
give the ad more weight with Joes
friends.
Market Falls Broadly And Sharply As Trade Picks Up
rose 11% to $54.03 bil, missing views. Like Introducing third-party ads via growth investors have already in- four of them. Disappointing earn-
ConocoPhillipsCOP and Occidental Petro- the Like program will help Face- BY PAUL WHITFIELD
INVESTOR'S BUSINESS DAILY
MARKET PULSE creased their cash position. If so, ings from Ford MotorF and Ama-
leumOXY earlier, ChevronCVX got a boost from bookchallenge GoogleGOOG for rev- let the market prove its true inten- zon.comAMZN further pressured
higher oil prices. But its slim oil reserve Stocks careened lower Friday as Fridays action: tions before switching to an ag- stocks.
growth disappointed investors. Shares fell unrest in Egypt fed uncertainty Down in rising volume gressive stance. Ford plunged 13%. Amazon tum-
1.5% despite crudes Egypt-led surge. CONTENTS and some key earnings fell short. Investors who have significant bled 7%. Both stocks sank below
The Nasdaq plunged 2.5% while Current outlook: exposure need to be prudent. Sell their 50-day moving averages.
Amex Tables .B15 Internet & Technology A3 Uptrend under pressure
the S&P 500 and the NYSE com- stocks that drop 7% or 8% below Economic news Friday was
Honeywell Misses, Sells CPG Unit Big Picture.A1
Commodity Futures .B16
Investor's Corner .B7
Issues & Insights .A16 posite slid 1.8% each. ThePhiladel- Distribution days: your purchase price. mixed. The Reuters-University of

9 The consumer and industrial product


giants Q4 EPS fell 48% to 47 cents, miss-
ing views by 40 cents. Sales rose 12% to
Company Index .A2
Credit Markets .B17
Leaders & Success .A5
Low Price Stocks .B15
Managing For Success A7
phia semiconductor index, a lead-
er in January, fell 2.8% its big-
gest percentage loss since August.
4 for Nasdaq and NYSE
composite, 2 for S&P 500
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iTools 4.5.0.6 Crack with License Key Free Download Latest 2021] index was better than expected.
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Daily Stock Analysis.B11
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Dividends News.B4
wellHON seesEPS of $3.60-$3.80, below views Option Tables .B6 major exchanges. Brigham ExplorationBEXP base construction or lock in gains. omy, increased 3.2%. The Street
Earnings News .B2
of $3.83. Separately, it sold its Consumer Research Tables .B9 The action slapped the major in- NetflixNFLX Unrest in Egypt raised worries. had expected 3.7%. If 3.2% GDP
Economic News.A2
Products Group to private Rank Group for Stocks In The News .B10 dexes with a distribution day a A regime change in Egypt would growth continues, it wont dent
Editorials .A16 To The Point .A2 Leaders down in volume:
about $950 mil in cash. Shares fell 1%. ExchangeTraded Funds .A14 clear sign that institutional inves- Amazon.comAMZN add one more unknown to the unemployment much, according
Week In Review .B2
Funds & Finance .A9 World News Briefs .A2
tors were dumping shares. More- StarbucksSBUX GraftechGTI mix. Oil leapt 4% Friday. Gold, the to economists.
General Market.B8 over, the sell-off revived the pres- China MediaExpressCCME traditional fear gauge, rose 1%. For the week, the Nasdaq lost
Spain Jobless Rate: 13-Year High IBD 50 .B1
World Stocks .B12
sures that the market seemed to MicrosemiMSCC The stock market offered few 0.1% while the S&P 500 and the

10 Unemployment rose to 20.33% at the


end of 2010, up from 18.83% in 2009.
After relying on a huge construction boom
Industry Groups.B8
Industry Snapshot .A8
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Nat'l Bus. Marketplce B17
be overcoming. Todays IBD Mar-
ket Pulse shows the market up-
trend under pressure, just two ses- bulls vs. bears survey, a secondary
places to hide Friday. For every
stock that rose on the Nasdaq,
more than five fell. On the NYSE,
NYSE composite slipped 0.5%
each. IBD 50 stocks on average
were up 0.2% for the week.
last decade, the euro zones No. 4 economy E2011 Investors Business Daily Inc. sions after the uptrend resumed. indicator, is at frothy levels some- four stocks fell for every one that
is barely growing. Spains govt OKd raising Recent breakouts among top- times associated with market rose. 00 M O R E C O V E R A G E O N B 8
the retirement age to 67 from 65 with the rated stocks havent made much tops. Among IBDs 197 industry 00 I N T R A D A Y M A R K E T U P D A T E S
support of labor unions, averting threatened progress. Several triggered the 8% Given the scarcity of successful groups, only a few rose. Gold min- AVAILABLE EIGHT TIMES A DAY
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A2 MONDAY, JANUARY 31, 2011 INVESTORS.COM

VITAL SIGNS Consumer spending Business investment Inventories Net exports


Consumers, Exports Lead GDP Growth 20% Annual rate Total 25% Annual change, $100 Annualized change, -$300 Annualized,
Durables in billions in billions -400 in billions
Consumer spending rose at a 4.4% annual rate in Q4, 15 50
the best since Q1 2006. Spending on autos and other 10 0 0 -500
durables shot up 21.6%, the strongest in 9 years. 5 -50 -600 Q4:
-25 Nonresidential fixed investment
Business investments pace cooled, but the trade 0 Equipment and software -100 Q4: -700 -$392.2 bil
deficit narrowed sharply. And the U.S. is no longer $7.2 bil
-5 -50 -150 -800
relying on inventories to prop up economic growth.
09 10 09 10 Sibelius 2019.4 Crack Serial Number - Crack Key For U 08 09 10 04 05 06 07 08 09 10
Sources: Commerce Dept., Datastream

TO THE POINT
BUSINESS BRIEFS ECONOMY NATION
Acceleration Hiccup NASA marks Challenger disaster
ENERGY TRANSPORTATION The growth rate of ECRIs leading Hundreds gathered at a NASA
U.S. index fell for the first time launch site Fri. to mark the 25th an-
Alliance Res sees demand rising J.B. Hunt tops, load counts rise since August
Week ended
1click dvd copy review - Activators Patch niversary of the Challenger disas-
The thermal coal miners Q4 EPS The trucking firm said Q4 EPS rose 20% Jan. 21: ter, receiving words of hope from
soared 160% to $1.82, 16 cents better 44% to 46 cents, beating by a penny. 3.5% the widow of the space shuttles
than estimates, helped by higher Revenue grew 16% to $1.02 bil, 10 commander. The ceremony drew
sales volume and coal prices. Reve- slightly above estimates. J.B. Hunt space agency managers, former as-
nue jumped 40% to $418.6 mil, miss- Transport ServicesJBHT said higher 0 tronauts and launch directors, and
ing viewsfor $425.3 mil. Alliance Re- sales and earnings were largely a re- family and friends of the fallen
source PartnersARLP sees coal de- sultof higher load counts in its inter- -10 crew. The space shuttle erupted on
mand rising and predicts 2011 reve- modal segment (containers that can FMA M J J A S O ND J Jan. 28, 1986 just 73 seconds into
nue of $1.75 bil-$1.85 bil, the mid- be carried by air, rail and ship), 10 11 flight killing all 7 on board, includ-
point just below views for $1.81 bil, which rose 13%. Shares climbed ing high school teacher Christa
on sales volume 5.6%-8.9% above 3.4% to 41.35. Moview Video Mosaic Player 1.1.65 Free Download with Crack FORMER CHIPS STAR Larry Wilcox, left, enters the Fort Lauderdale,
Fla., Federal Courthouse, where he was sentenced Friday to 3 years proba- U.S. grain prices to stay high McAuliffe of Concord, N.H.
2010. It sees capital spending above
2010 levels. It rose 0.5% to 68.46. Oshkosh sees lower, stable profit tion on a securities fraud conviction. The 63-year-old Wilcox admitted to Corn, soybean and wheat prices 00 Tea Party-backed GOP Sen.
The maker of specialty commercial conspiring to defraud investors by manipulating penny stocks. will fall by at most 5% this year after Rand Paul favors cutting U.S. aid to
Arch Coal misses, cites optimism and govt trucks said Q1 EPS sank soaring 50% last year, according to Israel as part of a deficit-driven
The No. 2 U.S. coal producers Q4 42% to $1.22, but it topped views by IPOs FOOD a Reuters poll of 16 analysts. As a re- effort to slash govt spending by
EPS tripled to 33 cents, but missed 33 cents as Oshkosh compensated sult, food prices will likely remain $500 bil this year, drawing criti-
views by 10 cents on problems with for lower production of an armored InterXion has strong trading debut Sara Lee to break up after sale fail near record highs, a particular con- cism from Democrats and Republi-
rail service and slow production at a military vehicle. Revenue dropped The Dutch Web storage firm rose The packaged-food company plans cern for poor countries where food cans who argue the U.S. must be
W.Va. mine. Revenue rose 15% to 30% to $1.7 bil, below estimates for 6.2% to 13.80 in its first day of trad- to divide itself into two public com- costs make up a large percentage of unwavering in its support for the
$835.4 mil. Arch CoalACI will focus $1.78 bil. Sales in most segments fell ing. The offering priced at the top of panies, after it failed to receive satis- household budgets. longtime Mideast ally.
on controlling costs and sees in- but rose for access equipment, its expected range. Including op- factory buyout bids. One company 00 U.S. employment costs rose 00 New York City might have to
creased U.S. coal consumption. It which includes lifts and platforms. will focus on N. American meat 0.4% in Q4, in line with views. They
tions given brokers, InterXionINXN lay off 15,000 teachers if the state,
sees 11 EPS of $2-$2.50, below OshkoshOSK said production of a products and carry the Sara Lee rose just 2% last year vs. 09, amid
raised $250 mil. InterXion manag- grappling with a $10 bil deficit, cuts
views for $2.80. But shares climbed new Army vehicle will help main- name, while the other unnamed weak demand for labor.
es 28 storage sites in 11 countries for the citys education budget by $1
1.8% to 33.22 after Archs CEO pre- tain profitability but at lower levels. company will focus on intl bakery
avg internet security 2020 license key lifetime more than 1,000 customers. bil, Mayor Michael Bloomberg said.
dicted better days after Q1. Shares slipped 0.1% to 37.39. and beverage operations. Sara Lee France urges bigger rescue fund
The city has around 75,000 teach-
INDUSTRIAL
SLE expects to complete the split in The size of Europes financial res-
early 2012 and include a special cue fund should be increased and ers, and Bloomberg is already plan-
$3-a-share dividend. The smaller made more flexible if necessary to ning to lay off 6,000 to help deal
Dover beats, sees more demand
*OWFTUXJUI3VMFT companies are seen becoming buy- support debt-laden nations, French with the citys deficit for the next
The industrial firm said Q4 EPS out targets. Shares fell 2.7% to 17.17. Economy Minister Christine La- fiscal year.
jumped 71% to 94 cents, beating garde said. But Germany, the re-
views by 12 cents. Revenue rose IN BRIEF gions biggest economy, and some
24% to $1.875 bil, above estimates.
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00 Lending to companies in the U.S. employee charged in killing
a 30% rise in sales of its fluid man- 22% to 62 cents, beating by 7 cents. Pakistan will pursue murder charg-
Revenue grew 5% to $283.8 mil. It 17-member euro zone unexpected-
agement and electronics products. ly fell by $33 bil in Dec., the Europe- es against a U.S. consular employee
It said higher oil prices have creat- slid 3.1% to 70.86. suspected of shooting 2 armed men
an Central Bank said.
ed demand for its pumps. It Quality Systemsa developer of
QSII during a possible robbery attempt, a
climbed 4.5% to 62.15. health care software, said Q3 EPS Japan PM vows to curb debt top prosecutor said Fri. as protest-
increased 30% to 60 cents, topping Naoto Kan will push social security ers called for the unidentified Amer-
FINANCE views by 6 cents. Revenue grew andtax reformsto slash soaringpub- ican to be severely punished. The
23% to $91.9 mil, above estimates. It lic debt, a day after S&P downgrad- killings in Lahore on Thu. have at-
lifted its quarterly dividend 17% to tracted intense media coverage,
T. Rowe Price beats, inflow rises winzip pro crack - Crack Key For U ed the nations credit rating and the
and the govt already criticized as
35 cents. Shares rose 3.8% to 77.45. IMF urged Japan to cut its budget
The fund manager reported Q4 being subservient to the U.S. will
Portfolio Manager EPS rose 26% to 72 cents, beating CarMaxKMX, which operates used-
deficit. Kan has proposed raising
the sales tax, from 5%, but that and
be under pressure to let the law run
views of 69 cents as assets under car dealerships, was upgraded by its course. Police said the American
other reforms face stiff opposition
Make the change. management increased on market
appreciation and inflow. Revenue
Oppenheimer, which raised its full-
year EPS target to $1.68 from $1.50.
in parliament. Japans debt, at dou-
told officers he had just withdrawn
money from an ATM and was act-
Work with a CAN SLIM$FSUJFE"EWJTPS. ble the size of GDP, is the highest in ing in self-defense.
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views. Two-thirds went into retire- AFGHANISTAN: A Taliban suicide
4FQBSBUFMZ.BOBHFE"DDPVOUT 4."
 ment accounts. Although T. Rowe Provident Financial ServicesPFS, a 00 Japans unemployment rate fell
N.J. bank, said Q4 EPS rose 92% to 0.2 point to 4.9% in Dec., the first bomber blew himself up inside a
$100,000 minimum account. Fee 1.5% PricesTROW inflow was down from market popular with Westerners,
$8 bil the prior quarter, its faring 23 cents, missing by a penny. Reve- time below 5% in 10 months. Also,
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advice or other services provided by the user. The user is not Sales fell 9% to $230.2 mil, also miss- views by 17 cents. Sales grew 26% to 00 Chicago PMI for Jan., 9:45 a.m. signed the ratification of a nuclear
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,QF$SSOHDQGWKH$SSOHORJRDUHWUDGHPDUNVRI$SSOH,QFUHJLVWHUHGLQWKH86DQGRWKHUFRXQWULHVL3DGLVDWUDGHPDUNRI$SSOH,QF$SS6WRUHLVDVHUYLFHPDUNRI$SSOH could initially be used as a gasoline those using traditional methods like CAN SLIM and corresponding logos are owned by Data Analy-
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DATA BUS VC investment returns Value of VC investments, by vintage VC dollars invested, by year
Venture Capital Returns Rise 40% Period ending: 9/30/09 6/30/10 9/30/10 6 Multiple of original capital, including distributions $100 In billions
30 80
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improved across most horizons, starting 20
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Qtr 1 yr 3 yrs 5 yrs 10 yrs 15 yrs 20 yrs 81-94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10
Sources: National Venture Capital Assoc., Cambridge Associates

INTERNET & TECHNOLOGY


Some Tech Super Bowl Ad Veterans Stay In Game New Website
Will Be Rival
GoDaddy, Cars.com Re-Enlist spot hovered at $2.5 million to $2.8
million. This year, the price report-
edly is $2.8 million to $3 million.
To WikiLeaks
CareerBuilder also back, 360 total security antivirus crack - Crack Key For U Parsons says privately held BY THE ASSOCIATED PRESS
but Monster sitting out; GoDaddywill likely produce $1.1bil-
lion in revenue in 2011, up from DAVOS, Switzerland A former
Salesforce is a newcomer Moview Video Mosaic Player 1.1.65 Free Download with Crack $945 million last year. WikiLeaks spokesman launched a
The Super Bowl ads, he says, are a rival website Friday, saying hell
BY PETE BARLAS eset nod32 antivirus crack 2019 - Free Activators big spark. give whistle-blowers more control
INVESTOR'S BUSINESS DAILY
Because of everything we do, the over the secrets they spill.
The Super Bowl for Internet and Super Bowl is one of those things The new platform, called Open-
other tech advertisers has become a that work absolutely the best, he Leaks, will allow sources to choose
story of a few stalwart players who said. The company parlays its Super specifically who they want to sub-
returnyear after year and some tran- Bowl TV ads into a broad online and mit documents to anonymously,
sients who suit up for a year or two, offline marketing campaign. such as to a particular news outlet,
then drop out. Cars.com will advertise during the said Daniel Domscheit-Berg.
For the Feb. 6 National Football Super Bowl for the fourth straight Wedlike to work with mediaout-
League title game, E-Trade Finan- year. The company, which helps lets that have an interest in inform-
cialETFC, CareerBuilder.com, GoDad- consumers purchase cars, will run ing the public, he told reporters on
dy.com and Cars.com have con- two ads, both in the second half. the sidelines of the World Econom-
firmed they are playing for at least a The Super Bowl has become the ic Forum meeting of top business
third straight year. Salesforce.com(left)isanewSuperBowladvertiser;GoDaddy.comwithitsborderlinesalaciousadsisastaple. best vehicle for Cars.com to pass ri- and political leaders in the Swiss re-
Another company, Motorola So- vals at a key time, says Carolyn sort of Davos.
lutionsMSI, is returning for a second MetroPCSPCS and Vizio wont show. The company didnt respond Super Bowl, he said. Crafts, chief marketing officer for The difference between his group
year after sitting out the previous say whether theyre advertising this to an e-mail to confirm its reserva- Last years Super Bowl was the Cars.com. and WikiLeaks, he said, would be
four games. time. Neither will IBMIBM, which tion. most-watched TV show in U.S. his- The beginning of the year tends that his group leaves reviewing the
There is at least one tech newcom- has been running ads during the GoDaddy deserves consideration tory, with a viewership of more to be very strong for us, as folks are material up to the publication or ad-
er: Salesforce.comCRM. NFL playoffs. as the Super Bowls most valuable than 106 million. The game, in entering the car shopping market in vocacy group chosen by the source
The company will run ads near the Last year was Googles first Super tech player. The Web domain name which the New Orleans Saints beat February and March, she said. to receive the information.
halftime show, which features the Bowl and Intels first in more than a registrar, known for its borderline the Indianapolis Colts 31-17, beat The Super Bowl is a good time for WikiLeaks has struggled to wade
Black Eyed Peas. decade. salacious ads, will be a big-game the 1983 finale of MASH, which us to get our message out. through the vast amounts of materi-
Band frontman will.i.am worked Among 2009 advertisers, Hulu sponsor for the seventh time. It drew just under 106 million view- CareerBuilder.com, a leading on- al it received particularly the hun-
with Salesforceon thead, which fea- says it wont return this year but bought two 30-second ads for the ers. Most of the other top-viewed line jobs service, plans to run a dreds of thousands of U.S. diplomat-
tures the Baby Peas puppets and will reserve a portion of its website hugely popular game. shows are Super Bowls. (Ameri- 30-second spot in the third quarter. ic cables and been criticized for
trumpets its Chatter.com worker for fans to re-watch the games com- Sitting on the sidelines on Super can Idol, the ratings champ among This is the third straight year it suits sharing the data with only a handful
collaboration product. At least mercials. Online travel company Bowl Sunday is not an option, says TV series in recent years, attracted up for the game. of media outlets around the world.
three 2010 participants, Monster Priceline.comPCLN declined to say GoDaddys chief executive,Bob Par- a little over 26 million viewers for Rival Monster will be on the side- Domscheit-Berg said giving more
WorldwideMWW, IntelINTC and Qual- whether it would return after pass- sons. its season premier on Jan. 19.) lines for the first time in three years. professional journalists and ana-
commsQCOM FLO TV which is fad- ing on last years game. We measure how all our advertis- Fox TV says that by late October it In 2009, Monster returned to the lysts the opportunity to receive and
ing out have bowed out. Groupon, the Webs top online ing generates revenue, and wed be had sold all the available ad space game after a five-year hiatus. That sift through documents would
Four others from last year coupon provider, reportedly will kind of cutting ourselves off at the for this seasons Super Bowl. year, the company became the Na- speed up the process while making
GoogleGOOG, Sprint NextelS, have an ad during the pregame knees if we didnt advertise in the Last years prices for a 30-second SEE SUPER BOWL ON A4 OpenLeaks less of a target.

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A4 MONDAY, JANUARY 31, 2011 INTERNET & TECHNOLOGY INVESTORS.COM

Ad Executives Microsofts Kinect


Like Idea Of
Like-Aimed Ads Looks Like A Winner
FACEBOOK FROM A1
clicks the Like button for the True
For Supplier JDSU
Grit trailer, and posts that he or Game Controller Is A Big Hit Milpitas, Calif.-based JDSU
she was a big fan of John Wayne. hasnt confirmed that its parts are
That movie site might show the in Microsofts Kinect gaming box.
comment, along with an ad JDS Uniphases sensor Analysts say gesture-related prod-
placed by Facebooks network for technology could help ucts accounted for more than 3% of
a new book on Wayne. Moview Video Mosaic Player 1.1.65 Free Download with Crack its sales in the quarter ended
The hope is that the Facebook
push other gesture wares Sept. 30. JDSU supplies a laser light
users comments will be read by source that sends out signals from
some of the users Facebook follow- BY REINHARDT KRAUSE the gaming box and an optical filter
INVESTOR'S BUSINESS DAILY
ers and that they would follow the that reads back motion data, ana-
comments to that movie site, see Gesture tech is getting the thumbs lysts say.
the ad and click it. up. PrimeSense provided much of the
Shares in JDS UniphaseJDSU, a motion sensor technology in Ki-
Searching For The Top? Facebook lets users share their likes, which could help the social network target ads to third-party websites. parts supplier for sensor technolo- nect.JDSU says PrimeSense isa cus-
Facebook believes it can do a bet- gy used in MicrosoftsMSFT motion- tomer, but wont say if its working
ter job than Google in targeting ads, product or service by clicking the years ago. That knowledge is a privilege and gaming system Kinect, rose as with the Israeli company on other
says the person familiar with the Like button, she said. In June 2009, Facebook hired a responsibility. much as 6.6% on Friday after Mi- projects.
program. A targeted third-party site ad pro- Greg Badros as its director of engi- Facebook has long come under crosoft reported it had shipped
With the personal comments gram could be a boon for Facebook, neering. Badros had led Googles fire for not going far enough to pro- more than 8 million Kinect units
from a friend as a lead-in, Facebook says Dema Zlotin, co-founder of Co- Adsense engineering team. tect their members privacy. since its November launch, which
ads are going to convert a heck of a vario, a marketing service firm. A year earlier, Facebook brought A December USAToday-Gallup far exceeded our expectations,
lot higher than Google Adsense, This is going to be very meaning- in former Google executive Sheryl poll of online users found that near- said Peter Klein, Microsofts chief fi-
said the former Facebook employ- ful and vastly different than any- Sandberg as chief operating officer. ly 70% dont want their Internet nancial officer. JDSU shares ended
ee. thing weve seen on the Web to Sandberg had managed Googles ad habits tracked by companies, even up 1% on a bad day for the market.
A Facebook targeted ad program date, he said. The more targeted programs. if it means seeing more relevant ads. Citibank analyst Walter Pritchard
has the potential to challenge Goog- the ad, the more the advertiser is Facebook wont say how many People get a little creeped out if estimates Microsoft will ship 5.8
le for ad network dollars, says willing to pay. Like buttons are on websites. they see evidence of tracking, said million Kinect boxes, which attach
Danielle Leitch,executive vice pres- Facebook, though, says no such ad It does say more than 2 million Greg Sterling, principal with Ster- to its Xbox 360 video game console,
ident of client strategy for MoreVisi- program is in the works. websites have adopted its Facebook ling Market Intelligence. in the six months ended June 30,
bility, an online marketing service We have no plans to start an ad Connect, which is a universal Face- Analysts say the privacy issue has and then 13.4 million in the follow-
company. network. The only ads we serve are book log-in feature that includes held back Facebooks ad push. The ing 12 months.
With a Google Adsense ad, Leitch on our own site, Annie Ta, a Face- the Like button. company is trying to be cautious, The motion-sensing technology
says, an advertiser must assume the book spokeswoman, said in an Connections with Facebook are a says the person familiar with Face- used in Microsofts Kinect system is
user likes the content on that page. e-mail. plus for websites and make those books ad network efforts. the best-known example of gesture-
Since the user did a Google search The person familiar with the pro- sites more attractive to advertisers, (Facebook) users are getting recognition technology to appear in Actor Michael Cera plays Kinect at
to get to that page, thats a logical as- gram insists the ad network is being says Covarios Zlotin. more and more used to seeing Face- a consumer product. the devices world premiere.
sumption but not a certainty. developed, but says there is no time- They are laying in the founda- book (messages) off of Facebook, Microsofts system uses cameras
But I think an advertiser might table for launching it. tion, he said. They now have this the person said. The more they Zoner Photo Studio X 19.2103.2.324 Crack Free Serial Key to read game players hand gestures Gesture technology has been over-
even be willing to pay more when Despite Facebook denials, ana- army of sites that have this Like but- used to that, then they can roll out and body movements, a step up hyped, despite Microsofts success
somebody has raised their hand to lysts say the company started laying ton, so they know an awful lot their social adsense product and from controller technology used with Kinect, says Stephen Prentice,
show they are interested in that the groundwork for such a program (about their members). compete with Google Adsense. earlier in Nintendos Wii console. an analyst withmarket tracker Gart-
Analysts expect gesture technolo- ner. Gesturing controls will be com-
gy a follow-on to human-device mon in gaming consoles, but rede-
interfaces such as the computer
Is Facebook Facebook Pacts Mixed mouse and TV remote controls to
appear in more consumer and com-
signing user interfaces for business
applications in retail, teaching and
Moview Video Mosaic Player 1.1.65 Free Download with Crack health care will take many years,
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At the Mobile World Congress in
he said.
Cost Remains An Issue
February, more smart phones are
Ad Growth? No Gains In Searches home page and other Yahoo sites.
expected to be unveiled that use
touch-based gestures. AppleAAPL
Prentice says software must be de-
veloped that converts hand or other
Focused On Consumers In October, Facebook launched a and GoogleGOOG pioneered gesture gestures into meaningful com-
partnership with Microsoft that features, such as finger-based, mands.
But both sites have seen gives Facebook users search results zoom-in controls, in the iPhone and The cost of camera-based systems
BY PETE BARLAS
INVESTOR'S BUSINESS DAILY
more visitors overall; based on the users and their Android devices. is another issue. Microsofts Kinect
Google is mutual rival friends interests. Mobile phones use tiny micro- sells for $150.
Social networking sites Facebook xforce keygen autocad 2019 64 bit free download - Free Activators Yahoo had 181 million unique visi- electro-mechanical (MEM) sen- For gesture technology to show
and LinkedIn face one ad challenge tors in November, up from 170 mil- sors. More complex gesture sys- up in TVs, PCs and other entertain-
that Google and search engines BY PETE BARLAS lion in June. Microsoft rose to 175 tems, like video gaming products, ment platforms, the cost needs to be
INVESTOR'S BUSINESS DAILY
dont an advertising divide. million from 170 million. use cameras to capture movements. lower, analysts say.
Facebook is consumer-oriented, LinkedIn founder Reid Hoffman For Yahoo and Microsoft, sepa- Google slipped to 179 million in At the Consumer Electronics Intel says the shopping mall of the
while LinkedIn is business-orient- uses ads to boost the sites revenue. rate partnerships with social net- November down from 180 mil- Show in Las Vegas this month, future could be filled with gesture-
ed. That would seem to limit each work leader Facebook have proved lion in both September and October many companies demonstrated ges- controlled advertising signage.
site to half of the ad pie, a problem cruiting services. to be a mixed bag. and flat with its June count. ture devices using MEM- or cam- Driving down costs will be key,
the search engines dont face. Facebook depends almost entirely Their linkups with Facebook like- Facebook, Yahoo and Microsoft era-based technology for TVs and says Beverly Harrison, a researcher
Advertisers are putting more dol- on ads, though it also offers an on- ly helped boost traffic to their sites, all share a goal in wanting to beat personal computers. And at this in Intel Labs.
lars into social media sites, but line payment service called Face- but not their share of the online Google, says Dema Zlotin, co- months retailer trade show in New There are going to be a lot of ag-
theyre very careful about market- book credits for consumers to pay search market. Traffic to Facebook, founder of Covario, an online mar- York, chipmaker IntelINTC strutted gressive maneuvers to get costsclos-
ing to the right audience, says for services such as online games. YahooYHOO and MicrosoftMSFT Web keting services firm. I see (the part- out in-store ad displays that re- er to a webcam $50 kind of range,
Danielle Leitch,executive vice pres- There is clearly more ad pressure properties all rose in last half of nerships) as a win for Facebook and spond to customer hand gestures. she said. The market is potentially
ident of MoreVisibility, an online on Facebook, says Debra Aho Will- 2010 after their pairings, while then in the medium term a win for massive, in home entertainment
marketing services firm. iamson, an analyst with research GooglesGOOG traffic slipped. Microsoft and Yahoo, he said. Its MIT Started The Action and business applications.
Our business-to-business clients firm eMarketer. Facebook has used the two portals a great way for them to counteract Gesture technology has been In smart phones, however, ges-
wouldnt necessarily be on Face- Facebook has more to prove in to boost its stature, while Yahoo the Google threat. evolving for decades at the Massa- ture technology is already becom-
book, and I wouldnt put many busi- terms of its revenue streams and and Microsoft like hitching their op- Analysts have said Facebooks chusetts Institute of Technology ing mainstream, Roger Kay, presi-
ness-to-consumer clients on how profitable it can be, she said. erations to the leading social media dominance in social media would Media Lab and other research cen- dent of market research firm End-
LinkedIn, she said. Facebook reportedly had revenue firm and its nearing 600 million help push more search traffic to ters. Aiming to push gesture tech- point Technologies, pointed out.
Facebook is the top destination of $1.2 billion in the first nine members, says Danielle Leitch, ex- Yahoo and Microsoft, but it hasnt. nology into new areas beyond gam- For now, gesture technology in
site for consumers. LinkedIn is a months. But thats still tiny rela- ecutive vice president of client strat- In December, Yahoo handled 16% ing, Microsoft in October acquired mobile phones is still touch-based
hub for business professionals look- tive to Google, Sterling said. egy for MoreVisibility, an online of all Web searches in the U.S., 3-D chipmaker Canesta. involving pinching, squeezing or
ing to further their careers. Given their global reach, they are marketing services company. down from 18.9% in June. Silicon Valleys GestureTek, Bel- swipe-type finger flicks. Wireless
There is little overlap for advertis- not making as much money as they Facebook probably got the better Microsoft handled 12%, down gium-based Softkinetic, Norways devices use digitizers, gyroscopes
ers, says Dema Zlotin, co-founder could. end of (the partnerships), but it was from 12.7% in June, says ComScore. Elliptic Labs, and Israeli-based and tiny sensors embedded behind
of Covario, an online marketing ser- Many people access their Face- probably important for Yahoo and Thats a surprise, says Debra Aho companies PrimeSense and Omek screens to read gestures.
vices firm. book accounts from work, so it is Microsoft to do it to keep some kind Williamson, an analyst for research are among a wave of startups push- There is a real drive to remove
LinkedIn on Thursday filed for an possible the site can attract some of leverage or stronghold over the firm eMarketer. Working with Fa- ing gesture technology into new old methods of input, whether its
initial public offering, and Face- business-related ads, says eMarket- users that they do have, she said. cebook, youd think it would help areas. keyboards or remotes, Kay said.
book is expected to do the same in ers Williamson. Facebook ended November as the the search shares of Microsoft and Optical device maker JDS Uni- Gesture technology likely will
the next year or so. In its filing, Also, some Facebook members No. 4 U.S. Web property, with more Yahoo, she said. phase plans to tout gesture technol- spark battles over intellectual prop-
LinkedIn said 32% of its $161.4 mil- keep separate pages for personal 151 million unique visitors, says Google continued its dominance ogy at an investor day slated for erty, analysts say.
lion in revenue for the first nine and business contacts. ComScore, a research firm. as the top search provider in the Feb. 17. Gesture recognition in In May, Apple sued Taiwanese
Источник: https://www.scribd.com/doc/49115438/IBD20110131

Profiling Shakespeare

Profiling Shakespeare The title of this collection, Profiling Shakespeare, is meant strongly in its double sense. These.


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Profiling Shakespeare The title of this collection, Profiling Shakespeare, is meant strongly in its double sense. These essays show the outline of a Shakespeare rather different from the man sought by biographers from his time to our own. They also show the effects, the ephemera, the clues and cues, welcome and unwelcome, out of which Shakespeare’s admirers and dedicated scholars have pieced together a vision of the playwright, whether as sage, psychologist, lover, theatrical entrepreneur, or moral authority. This collection brings together classic pieces, hard-to-find chapters, and two new essays. Here, Garber has produced a book at once serious and highly readable, ranging broadly across time periods (early modern to postmodern) and touching upon both high and popular culture. Marjorie Garber is William R. Kenan, Jr., Professor of English and American Literature and Language and chair of the Department of Visual and Environmental Studies at Harvard University. Her recent book, Shakespeare After All (Pantheon, 2004), was chosen as one of Newsweek’s ten best non-fiction books of the year and was awarded the 2005 Christian Gauss Book Award from Phi Beta Kappa.

Profiling Shakespeare Marjorie Garber

First published 2008 by Routledge 270 Madison Ave, New York, NY 10016 Simultaneously published in the UK by Routledge 2 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 4RN Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business This edition published in the Taylor & Francis e-Library, 2008. “To purchase your own copy of this or any of Taylor & Francis or Routledge’s collection of thousands of eBooks please go to www.eBookstore.tandf.co.uk.”

© 2008 Taylor & Francis All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilized in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers. Trademark Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identification and explanation without intent to infringe. Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Garber, Marjorie B. Profiling Shakespeare / Marjorie Garber. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN13: 978–0–415–96445–6 (hbk) ISBN10: 0–415–96445–8 (hbk) ISBN13: 978–0–415–96446–3 (pbk) ISBN10: 0–415–96446–6 (pbk) 1. Shakespeare, William, 1564-1616. I. Title. PR2899.G33 2008 822.3'3–dc22 2007037786 ISBN 0-203-93098-3 Master e-book ISBN

ISBN10: 0–415–96445–8 (hbk) ISBN10: 0–415–96446–6 (pbk) ISBN10: 0–203–93098–3 (ebk) ISBN13: 978–0–415–96445–6 (hbk) ISBN13: 978–0–415–96446–3 (pbk) ISBN13: 978–0–203–93098–4 (ebk)

For Winthrop A. Burr, with gratitude

Contents

Acknowledgments ix A Note on the Text xi Shakespeare’s Profile 1 1 Shakespeare’s Ghost Writers 4 2 Hamlet: Giving Up the Ghost 29 3 Macbeth: The Male Medusa 76 4 Shakespeare as Fetish 110 5 Character Assassination 119 6 Out of Joint 130 7 Roman Numerals 151 8 Second-Best Bed 167 9 Shakespeare’s Dogs 182 10 Shakespeare’s Laundry List 195 11 Shakespeare’s Faces 214 12 McGuffin Shakespeare 228 13 Fatal Cleopatra 253 14 What Did Shakespeare Invent? 271 15 Bartlett’s Familiar Shakespeare 278 Notes 302 Index 336

Acknowledgments

Most of the essays in this book have been previously published, either in collections of my own work or in journals and occasional volumes. A few small alterations have been made, but otherwise the essays appear in their original form. I am grateful to Sara Bartel, Sol Kim Bentley, Marcie Bianco, Emily Filler, William Germano, Eliza Hornig, Annette Lemieux, Larry Switzky, and Beth Vesel for their support at various stages of the book’s development, and for their assistance in bringing it to fruition. “Shakespeare’s Ghost Writers,” “Hamlet: Giving Up the Ghost,” and “Macbeth: The Male Medusa” were all originally published in Shakespeare’s Ghost Writers (New York: Methuen, 1987). “Shakespeare as Fetish” was first published in Shakespeare Quarterly 41.2 (1990), “Character Assassination” in Media Spectacles (Eds. Marjorie Garber, Jann Matlock, and Rebecca L. Walkowitz. New York and London: Routledge, 1993), and “Out of Joint” was in The Body in Parts: Fantasies of Corporeality in Early Modern Europe (Eds. David Hillman and Carla Mazzio. New York: Routledge, 1997). “Character Assassination,” “Shakespeare as Fetish,” “Roman Numerals,” and “Second-Best Bed” were all published in Symptoms of Culture (New York: Routledge, 1998). “Shakespeare’s Dogs” was published in Shakespeare and the Twentieth Century: The Selected Proceedings of the International Shakespeare Association World Congress, Los Angeles, 1996 (Eds. Jonathan Bate, Jill L. Levenson and Dieter Mehl. Newark: U of Delaware P; London: Associated University Presses, 1998). “Shakespeare’s Faces” (as “Looking the Part”) was published in Shakespeare’s Face (Nolen, Stephanie, et al. Toronto: Alfred A. Knopf Canada, 2002). “Shakespeare’s Laundry List” (as “Historical Correctness”) was included in Quotation Marks (New York: Routledge, 2003) and in A Manifesto for Literary Studies (Seattle: Walter Chapin Simpson Center for the Humanities: Distributed in the U.S.A. by the University of Washington Press, 2003).

x

Acknowledgments

“MacGuffin Shakespeare” and “Fatal Cleopatra,” were also in Quotation Marks. “What Did Shakespeare Invent?” was presented as a lecture at the Shakespeare Association of America meeting in New Orleans, February 2004.

A Note on the Text

Unless otherwise noted, references in the text to Shakespeare’s plays are from the following Arden Shakespeare editions: Antony and Cleopatra, ed. John Wilders (London: Arden Shakespeare, 2002); As You Like It, ed. Agnes Latham (London: Methuen & Co. Ltd, 2000); The Comedy of Errors, ed. R. A. Foakes (Walton-on-Thames: Methuen & Co. Ltd, 1962); Coriolanus, ed. Philip Brockbank (London: Methuen & Co. Ltd, 2001); Cymbeline, ed. J. M. Nosworthy (Walton-on-Thames: Thomas Nelson & Sons Ltd, 1998); Hamlet, ed. Harold Jenkins (London: Methuen & Co. Ltd, 1982); Julius Caesar, ed. David Daniell (London: Arden Shakespeare, 2000); King Henry IV, Part 1, ed. David Scott Kastan (London: Arden Shakespeare, 2002); King Henry IV, Part 2, ed. A. R. Humphreys (Walton-on-Thames: Thomas Nelson & Sons Ltd, 1999); King Henry V, ed. T. W. Craik (London: Routledge, 2005); King Henry VI, Part 2, ed. Ronald Knowles (London: Thomas Nelson and Sons Ltd, 2001); King Henry VIII, ed. R. A. Foakes (Walton-on-Thames: Thomas Nelson & Sons Ltd, 1997); King John, ed. E. A. J. Honigmann (Walton-on-Thames: Thomas Nelson & Sons Ltd, 1998); King Lear, ed. R. A. Foakes (Walton-on-Thames: Thomas Nelson and Sons Ltd, 1997); King Richard II, ed. Charles R. Forker (London: Arden Shakespeare, 2002); King Richard III, ed. Antony Hammond (London: Methuen & Co. Ltd, 2006); Love’s Labour’s Lost, ed. H. R. Woudhuysen (London: Arden Shakespeare, 2001); Macbeth, ed. Kenneth Muir (Walton-on-Thames: Thomas Nelson & Sons Ltd, 1997); Measure for Measure, ed. J. W. Lever (Walton-on-Thames: Thomas Nelson & Sons Ltd, 1998); The Merchant of Venice, ed. John Russell Brown (London: Arden Shakespeare, 2003); The Merry Wives of Windsor, ed. Giorgio Melchiori (Walton-on-Thames: Thomas Nelson and Sons Ltd, 2000); A Midsummer Night’s Dream, ed. Harold F. Brooks (Walton-on-Thames: Thomas Nelson & Sons Ltd, 1997); Much Ado About

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Nothing, ed. A. R. Humphreys (Walton-on-Thames: Thomas Nelson & Sons, 1998); Othello, ed. E. A. J. Honigmann (London: Arden Shakespeare, 2006); Pericles, ed. F. D. Hoeniger (London: Arden Shakespeare, 2000); “The Phoenix and the Turtle,” The Poems, ed. F. T. Prince (Walton-on-Thames: Thomas Nelson and Sons Ltd, 1998); Romeo and Juliet, Magic Desktop 9.5.0 Crack + License Key Free Download 2020. Brian Gibbons (Walton-on-Thames: Thomas Nelson & Sons Ltd, 1997); The Tempest, eds. Virginia Mason Vaughan and Alden T. Vaughan (London: Arden Shakespeare, 2000); Titus Andronicus, ed. Jonathan Bate (London: Arden Shakespeare, 2003); Troilus and Cressida, ed. David Bevington (Walton-onThames: Thomas Nelson and Sons Ltd, 1998); Twelfth Night, eds. J. M. Lothian and T. W. Craik (London: Arden Shakespeare, 2005); Two Gentlemen of Verona, ed. Clifford Leech (Walton-on-Thames: Thomas Nelson and Sons Ltd, 1969); Two Noble Kinsmen, ed. Lois Potter (Walton-on-Thames: Thomas Nelson and Sons Ltd, 1997); The Winter’s Tale, ed. J. H. P. Pafford (London: Arden Shakespeare, 2001).

Shakespeare’s Profile

The title of this collection, Profiling Shakespeare, is meant to incorporate the varying meanings of “profiling” in use today, from the drawing or silhouette to the record of a person’s psychological and behavioral traits. The outline of a face or head; the biographical sketch of a public figure; the personality disclosed through responses to a social science questionnaire; the description of the probable characteristics of an unknown perpetrator, developed by investigators to help identify suspects. Each kind of profile will play some part in this book. These essays show the outline of a Shakespeare rather different from the man sought so earnestly and eagerly by biographers from his time to our own. And they also show the effects, the ephemera, the clues and cues, welcome and unwelcome, out of which Shakespeare’s admirers, fans and dedicated scholars have pieced together a vision of the playwright—whether as sage, pundit, lover, philosopher, psychologist, or successful businessman. My method here might be described as the obverse of biographical investigation: in each of these essays I follow the traces, inadvertencies, odd emphases and significant repetitions that have characterized the quest for Shakespeare, from the “authorship controversy” to the “second-best bed” he bequeathed to his wife in his will. Although many of these pieces have appeared before, the impact of seeing them all together is revealing: what is produced is, in fact, just what the title promises: a “profile” of Shakespeare, in the sense used by contemporary social science and law enforcement as well as the more traditional aesthetic and biographical sense. Profiling Shakespeare contains essays on “Shakespeare’s Faces” (the over- and under-interpretation of portraits of Shakespeare to make them match the viewer’s fantasies and fears), on “Character Assassination” (the quotation and unwitting

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misquotation of Shakespeare in public affairs), on the “Second-Best Bed,” on “Shakespeare’s Dogs,” and on “McGuffin Shakespeare” (the critical practice, here described in a term borrowed from Alfred Hitchcock, of pursuing phantom clues and phrases that have entered the texts through the imaginative emendations of editors). Like the discussion of portraits, the essays on “Shakespeare’s Ghost Writers” and “Shakespeare’s Laundry List” analyze the quest to find the man behind the plays, and read that age-old quest as a cultural symptom of transference, idealization, longing for stability and authority, and a variety of other needs and wishes. “Bartlett’s Familiar Shakespeare” pursues this theme by looking at the way the authorizing phrase “Shakespeare says” has become a mantra in venues from journalism to Congress to motivational speaking, and discusses both the desire for, and the impossibility of possessing, a knowledge of Shakespeare’s true opinions. “Shakespeare as Fetish” describes the phenomenon of Shakespearean celebrity in three disparate but telling instances; “Fatal Cleopatra” looks at the doomed quest for “character” behind the magniloquent language of the plays. Two other essays, “Out of Joint” and “Roman Numerals,” look at the cultural transition of terms and practices: “Roman Numerals” begins with a discussion of the way act, scene, and line numbers in editions of Shakespeare achieved their aura of canonicity because of the effect of a numeral system that no longer had practical value and had thus become iconic. “Out of Joint” discusses the surprising omnipresence and importance of such connections and disconnections—from knees and elbows to syntax, skeletons and dismemberment—on language, puppets, and plays. As with “Hamlet: Giving Up the Ghost,” this essay engages with contemporary literary theory to assess the ways in which Shakespeare creates the language, and the critical scenario, by which critics are then able to recognize and hail him. In the introduction to a previous collection of essays, Symptoms of Culture, I describe my critical practice in a way that has remained constant over time: “to read culture as if it were structured like a dream, a network of representations that encodes wishes and fears, projections and identifications, all of whose elements are overdetermined and contingent.” Another collection, Quotation Marks, stresses the attention to the word as a signifying detail: my essays often “take as their starting points, and frequently as their points of return, a word or phrase that is uttered in quotation marks—or perhaps one should write, ‘in quotation marks.’” Nowhere is this truer, or more indicative of cultural desire, than in the case of Shakespeare. Indeed, as I wrote then, “ ‘Shakespeare’ these days is a metaphor as well as a man, a belief system and a literary standard as well as a set of works: the word ‘Shakespearean’ is likely to appear as an adjective describing cataclysmic political events, or sports contests, or massive outpourings of grief, without any but the most general reference

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to the playwright or his plays.” This is as much the case now as it was then: over the period of a few weeks the phrase “Shakespearean proportions” appeared in journalistic descriptions of the war in Iraq, the final season of the television series The Sopranos, and the denouement of a professional hockey game, to cite just three instances out of many. This “Shakespeare effect,” the conviction that Shakespeare is not of an age but for our time, has always fascinated me as a reader, a critic, and a “Shakespearean,” and informs the core quest of this book. At a time when many Shakespeare scholars are turning to biography for answers about the man Emerson said “wrote the text of modern life,” Profiling Shakespeare points in a different direction—toward the traces, hints, clues, and “evidence” (“real” and “forged,” persuasive and risible) that have led us on this high-stakes, high culture scavenger hunt to “know” Shakespeare. Returning to themes I set forth in Shakespeare’s Ghost Writers, several pieces of which are reprinted in this volume, I suggest that Shakespeare is indeed an “effect” in modern and postmodern culture. Yet Shakespeare is no less real, and no less fantasied, for being made of these disjecta membra. In fact the Shakespeare who emerges from these pages is the Shakespeare we write and cite, as well as the Shakespeare we act and read.

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—Shakespeare? he said. I seem to know the name. James Joyce, Ulysses

I Who is the author of Shakespeare’s plays? To many scholars and admirers of Shakespeare, this question has the rhetorical status of the question “Who is buried in Grant’s tomb?” It is greeted by orthodox Stratfordians with umbrage, derision, and contemptuous dismissal of so intense an order as to inevitably raise another question: what is at stake here? Why, in other words, has the doubt about Shakespeare’s authorship persisted so tenaciously, and why has it been so equally tenaciously dismissed? The issue, as participants in the controversy see it, is whether the author of the plays is in fact the man who lived in Stratford, received with his father a grant of arms making him a propertied gentleman, prospered and bought New Place, one of the finest houses in Stratford, married Anne Hathaway, and bequeathed her his second best bed. No one denies that a man named William Shakespeare lived in Stratford; what is vigorously objected to in some quarters is that it was this same man who wrote the plays. It is argued that the very paucity of literary biographical material suggests that the authorship is in doubt, or, indeed, is itself a fiction, designed to obscure the “real” author, who by virtue of rank, gender, or other disabling characteristics could not with safety have claimed the plays for his (or her) own. Here, very briefly, is the case against Shakespeare as Shakespeare:

Shakespeare’s Ghost Writers

1.

2. 3.

4.

5.

5

We know relatively little about the life, despite a significant collection of legal or business documents. Surely the greatest poet of his time would have left a more vivid record, including the comments of his contemporaries. No one in his home town seems to have thought of him as a celebrated author. Most of the encomia for “Shakespeare” were written after the death of the Stratford man, and some, like Jonson’s famous poem affixed to the Folio, praise “Shakespeare” but may not identify him with the prosperous citizen of rural Warwickshire. The plays show a significant knowledge of the law, more than could have been acquired in a casual way. Francis Bacon was a lawyer; Bacon wrote the plays. The plays are clearly written by someone at home with the court and the aristocracy, and could not have been written by a plebeian. Edward de Vere, seventeenth Earl of Oxford, was a nobleman; Oxford wrote the plays. (If this belief held general sway, Stanley Wells would now be presiding over the publication of “The Oxford Oxford.”) The plays show a significant degree of classical learning, and also a certain witty detachment about university education. The Shakespeare of Stratford may have picked up his small Latin and less Greek at the Stratford grammar school, but we have no records proving that Shakespeare attended the school, and several rival claimants (Marlowe, Bacon, Oxford, the Countess of Pembroke, Queen Elizabeth) had demonstrably more rigorous training in both language and the classics. Finally, it is pointed out that there are extant only six signatures of Shakespeare, all of which are so crabbed and illegible as to suggest illiteracy or illness. Three of the signatures appear on his will and three others on business documents, none of them in a literary connection. One scene from Sir Thomas More, a play in six distinct manuscript hands, is said to be by Shakespeare: these 147 lines, ascribed to “Hand D,” have been subjected to much scrutiny, and have given rise to elaborate conjecture about Shakespeare’s process of composition. Yet even G. Blakemore Evans, who goes so far as to include the lines in The Riverside Shakespeare, and who describes them as “affording us a unique view of what Shakespeare’s ‘foul papers’ may have looked like,”1 admits that the evidence for the attribution, which was in fact not suggested until 1871, is inconclusive.

Against these latter two arguments, orthodox Stratfordians respond in a number of ways: first, by touting the excellence of the Stratford grammar school (according to James G. McManaway in the official Folger library pamphlet on the controversy, its headmaster made as much money as his counterpart at Eton, and a person with equivalent training today would, in his words, be “a Ph.D. at Harvard”2); second, by

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insisting that Shakespeare’s father would “never deny his first-born son the privileges of schooling to which his. . position entitled him”;3 and third, by asserting that the nonsurvival of Shakespeare’s literary hand “has no bearing on the subject of authorship.”4 Manuscripts that went to the print shop prior to 1700 were universally discarded once the plays were set in type, and other English Renaissance authors (e.g., Spenser, Ralegh, and Webster) left similarly scanty paper trails. Yet no one quarrels about Spenser’s authorship, or Ralegh’s, or Webster’s, or Milton’s. This, of course, is precisely the point. Why is it different for Shakespeare? Why is so much apparently invested in finding the “real” ghost writer, or in resisting and marginalizing all attempts to prove any authorship other than that of “the poacher from Stratford” (to cite the title of a recent book on the Shakespeare authorship)? “Without possibility of question,” maintains the Folger ghost-buster, “the actor at the Globe and the gentleman from Stratford were the same man.”5 Then why does the question persist? That is the question, or at least it is the question that I would like to address. I would like, in other words, to take the authorship controversy seriously, not, as is usually done, in order to round up and choose among the usual suspects, but rather in order to explore the significance of the debate itself, to consider the ongoing existence of the polemic between pro-Stratford-lifers and pro-choice advocates as an exemplary literary event in its own right. One of the difficulties involved in taking the authorship question seriously has been that proponents of rival claims seem to have an uncanny propensity to appear a bit loony—literally. One of the most articulate defenders of the Earl of Oxford authorship is one John Thomas Looney. (An “unfortunate name,” commented Life magazine in an article on the authorship question—but, his defenders say, “an honorable one on the Isle of Man, where it is pronounced “Loney.”6 It was Looney, appropriately enough, who won Freud to the Oxford camp.) Nor is Mr. Looney the only contender for unfortunateness of name: a zealous Shakespearean cryptographer, who proves by numerological analysis that the real author could be either Bacon or Daniel Defoe, is George M. Battey (“no more fortunately named than Mr. Looney,” comments an orthodox chronicler of the controversy, and, “quite properly, no more deterred by it”7). Batty or loony, the ghost seekers’ name is legion, and they have left an impressive legacy of monuments to human interpretative ingenuity. It was not until the mid-nineteenth century that the full energies of the authorship controversy declared themselves, on both sides of the Atlantic, with the 1857 publication of Delia Bacon’s 675-page The Philosophy of the Plays of Shakespeare Unfolded, arguing the case for Francis Bacon (no relation) and of William Henry Smith’s Bacon and Shakespeare, shortly followed by the first impassioned defense, William Shakespeare Not an Impostor, by George Henry Townsend.8

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Out of these diverse beginnings has grown a thriving industry, which to this day shows no signs of abating. Some sense of its magnitude can be gleaned from the fact that when, in 1947, Professor Joseph Galland compiled his bibliography of the controversy, entitled Digesta Anti-Shakespeareana, no one could afford to publish the 1500-page manuscript.9 And that was forty years ago. The flood of publications has continued, culminating in the recent and highly acclaimed version of the Oxford case, The Mysterious William Shakespeare: The Myth and the Reality, by Charlton Ogburn, Jr. What, then, can be said about this strange and massive fact of literary history? It is significant that the Shakespeare authorship controversy presents itself at exactly the moment Michel Foucault describes as appropriate for appropriation: the moment when the “author-function” becomes, in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, an item of property, part of a “system of ownership” in which strict copyright rules define the relation between text and author in a new way. It is not until there is such a thing as property that violations of property can occur; it is not surprising that the claims for rival authorship arise at the moment at which, in Foucault’s words, “the transgressive properties always intrinsic to the act of writing became the forceful imperative of literature.”10 It may well be, therefore, that an analysis of the Shakespeare case will shed light on the general question raised by Foucault: “What is an author?” Instances of the appropriative, even mercantile nature of the controversy abound. Described by one observer as a kind of “middle-class affair,11 the debate has largely been waged by lawyers and medical men, followed by members of the clergy and retired army officers. Not surprisingly, it became a popular forensic topic and inevitably the subject of litigation. In 1892–93, the Boston monthly magazine The Arena sponsored a symposium which took testimony for fifteen months. Among the pro-Baconian plaintiffs was Ignatius Donnelly, a Minnesota Congressman who had written a book called The Great Cryptogram, in which he attempted at great length to apply a cipher invented by Bacon. Donnelly had come across the cipher in his son’s copy of a children’s magazine entitled Every Boy’s Book. By means of Bacon’s “Bi-literal cipher,” a secret “infolded” message could be placed within an innocent “infolding” text. The twenty-five-member jury in the case, which included prominent Shakespearean scholars and actors, found for the man from Stratford. A different verdict, however, was forthcoming in the 1916 courtroom battle on the tercentenary of Shakespeare’s death. Two convinced Baconians, the cryptographer Elizabeth Wells Gallup and her financial backer Colonel Fabyan, were sued by a motion picture manufacturer, William N. Selig, who hoped to profit from the tercentenary by filming some of the plays, and felt that the slur on the Stratfordian authorship would lessen the value of his product. In this case the judge, finding that “Francis Bacon is the

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author,” awarded Colonel Fabyan $5000 in damages. Although the verdict was later vacated, the case made legal history. Since both of these cases involved claims for a secret cipher, this may be the moment to say something about the role of codes and ciphers in the anti-Stratfordian cause. The purported discovery of a latent message encrypted in the manifest text provides the grounds for a startling number of cases for alternative authorship. The proliferation of ciphers can be seen as another transgressive correlative to the conception of literature as property. Here, the property violation happens not to the text but within the text. While copyright laws attempt to demarcate the bounds of literary property, cryptographers set out to uncover ghostlier demarcations, to show that the text itself is haunted by signs of rival ownership. Such codes, ciphers, anagrams, and acrostics can be as fanciful as Mrs. C. F. Ashmead Windle’s assertion that proof of the existence of a cipher was to be found in Othello: the island of Cyprus clearly was meant to be read by those in the know as “cipher us.”12 Or they can be as complex as Dr. Orville Ward Owen’s wheel, a remarkable contraption the size of two large movie reels, across which some 1000 pages of Renaissance literary texts could be wound and stretched for the better application of the cipher. Strictly speaking, Owen was not the inventor of the wheel—he credits that achievement to Bacon himself, in Bacon’s “Letter to the Decipherer,” which Owen found “infolded” in the text of the so-called Shakespeare plays. The letter to the decipherer, which is in code, contains instructions for cracking the code—useful, of course, only to one who has already done so. Owen’s commitment to the truth of his method ultimately compelled him to believe that Bacon was the author not only of the works of Shakespeare, Greene, Marlowe, and so on, but also of a posthumous translation of one of his own Latin works, heretofore credited to his literary secretary and executor, Dr. Rawley. During the writing of his book on Sir Francis Bacon’s Cipher Story, Dr. Owen received periodic visitations from Bacon’s ghost, thus becoming perhaps the first to pursue his research under the aegis of the ghost of a ghost writer. Convinced that tangible proof of Baconian authorship was to be found in a set of iron boxes, he obtained financial backing from the everoptimistic Colonel Fabyan, and began excavations for them in the bed of the River Wye. The search for buried treasure indeed often accompanies the unearthing of encrypted messages here, just as it does in Poe’s Gold Bug. Delia Bacon is notorious for having waited, shovel in hand, in Shakespeare’s tomb, suddenly assailed by doubts about what she was digging for. On that occasion, the ghost of Shakespeare (whoever he was) declined to unfold himself. But if, on the one hand, the isolated Looneys and Batteys always seem to be out there with their shovels, on the other hand examination reveals a significant degree of

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institutional as well as financial investment in the question. As recently as 1974, the most articulate contemporary spokesman for the Oxford case, Charlton Ogburn, Jr., created a scandal by publishing an article urging his views in Harvard Magazine, the alumni bulletin of his alma mater. The outcry was intense and prolonged. Harvard Professors Gwynne Evans and Harry Levin published a scathing reply in a subsequent number of the magazine, and letters deploring the threat to veritas continued to pour in for months. (“I’m amazed, shocked, and disgusted that THE magazine of the world’s greatest university should actually publish more of the stale old spinach on the Oxford lunacy”; “I am certain that Professor Kittredge is turning over in his grave”; “Charlton Ogburn is a fool and a snob,” and much more in the same vein.13) Reviving the notion of legal recourse to proof, Ogburn called for a trial to settle the issue. Philip S. Weld, a prominent newspaperman and former president and publisher of Harvard Magazine, offered to defray the costs of litigation, including “box lunches and sherry for the opposing players,” and proposed that “If no one at Harvard wishes to argue the case for the Stratfordian, perhaps you could engage someone from the Yale English Department.”14 In fact, a survey of the available literature on the “Shakespeare question” produces an uncanny number of references, often seemingly superfluous, to Harvard as an institution. The rhetorical role assigned to Harvard in the authorship controversy is not adventitious. The University itself becomes in effect a Ghost Underwriter, guaranteeing the legitimacy of whatever side invokes its name as a sign of power and authority. This is one reason why the outcry over Ogburn’s article in Harvard Magazine became so heated, moving one letter writer to characterize the published defense of the Stratford man by the Harvard professors as “paranoid, shrill, and even hysterical.”15 Something else is being defended—or attacked—here. What is the ghost that walks? At this point it might be useful to hazard a few conjectures about the kinds of investment that motivate the controversy on both sides: 1.

Institutional investments. Anti-Stratfordians accuse the “orthodox” of economic and egocentric commitment to such establishments as the Shakespeare Birthplace and the thriving tourist industry in Stratford, England; the Folger Shakespeare Library in Washington, with its handsome building, theater, and gift shop; and publishing projects like The Riverside Shakespeare, from which considerable financial benefit—as well as professional advancement—can be reaped. But there is institutionalization on the other side as well. Both Baconians and Oxfordians have established organizations to further their causes. The Bacon Society was founded in England in 1885; the Bacon Society of America in 1922;

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2.

3.

4.

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the Shakespeare Fellowship, later the Shakespeare Authorship Society, promoting the claims for Oxford, was formed in London in 1922; and its American counterpart, the Shakespeare Fellowship, in 1939. The Shakespeare-Oxford Society Newsletter and the Shakespeare Authorship Review are going concerns. Professional investments. Related to such institutions is what might be called the guild mentality of the academic community. Professors who regularly lecture and publish on the plays of Shakespeare do not as a rule write books extolling rival claimants for authorship. A Shakespearean’s identity seems to hinge on the identity of Shakespeare. This produces a schism that can be read in a number of ways: either as representatives of sanity protecting scholarly seriousness against the Looneys and Batteys, or as guardians of the ivy tower protecting their jobs and reputations against true intellectual openness and the subversive ideas of outsiders. “Psychological” investments. For some combatants, “Shakespeare” represents a juggernaut, a monument to be toppled. Thus he is fragmented, marginalized into a committee (the group authorship theory) or even a conspiracy. As the author of An Impartial Study of the Shakespeare Title puts it, “No one man in the Sixteenth Century, or in any century before or since, leaving out the God-man, our Savior, could use as many words as are found in the plays.”16 A related phenomenon follows the pattern of Freud’s family romance, which involves the desire to subvert the father, or to replace a known parent figure with an unknown, greater one, in this case a member of the nobility instead of a country fellow from Stratford. S. Schoenbaum persuasively suggests this as one reason for Freud’s own belief in the Oxford candidacy.17 “Territorial” investments. By far the greatest number of contributions, on both sides of the question, have come from Americans; in an 1884 bibliography containing 255 titles, almost two-thirds were written by Americans. In 1895 the Danish critic Georg Brandes fulminated against the “troop of half-educated people” who believed that Shakespeare did not write the plays, and bemoaned the fate of the profession. “Literary criticism,” which “must be handled carefully and only by those who have a vocation for it,” had clearly fallen into the hands of “raw Americans and fanatical women.”18 Delia Bacon, often credited with beginning the whole controversy, was, of course, both. But while she was ultimately confined to a mental hospital, she had succeeded in attracting to her defense—though not necessarily to her point of view—such distinguished allies as Hawthorne and Emerson. Nor can we ignore the redoubtable Maria Bauer, who in the late 1930s received permission to excavate in Williamsburg, Virginia, for the proof of Bacon’s authorship, and who, in her book Foundations Unearthed, exhorted her fellow Americans: “Cast your vote for [Bacon as] the great Founder, the empire-builder

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of your Nation and your Culture” by digging up the treasure trove in the “Bruton Vault.”19 This was the democratization of authorship with a vengeance. Writers as different as John Greenleaf Whittier and Mark Twain, too, professed doubts about the Stratford man. Twain, who himself wrote under a pseudonym, and who had felt impelled to correct exaggerated reports of his own death, wrote an essay entitled “Is Shakespeare Dead?” in which he faults the Stratfordians for conjecturing a life story out of little or no evidence. Twain then goes on to declare himself a “Brontosaurian,” theorizing an immense body from a few ambiguous bones. “The Brontosaurian doesn’t really know which of them did it, but is quite composedly and contentedly sure that Shakespeare didn’t, and strongly suspects that Bacon did.”20 As Emerson wrote to his brother about the forthcoming publication of Representative Men: “Who dare print, being unlearned, an account of Plato. . or, being uninspired, of Shakespeare? Yet there is no telling what we rowdy Americans, whose name is Dare, may do!”21 “We rowdy Americans” have had a variety of motivations for interest in the authorship question. First, there is what might be called an impulse to reverse colonization, a desire to recapture “Shakespeare” and make him new (and in some odd way “American”) by discovering his true identity, something at which the British had failed. Second, and in some sense moving in the opposite direction, there is an ambivalent fascination with aristocracy, as something both admired and despised. Thus the great democrat, Walt Whitman, declares himself “firm against Shakespeare —I mean the Avon man, the actor.”22 Those “amazing works,” the English history plays, could, he asserted, have only had for their “true author” “one of the ‘wolfish earls’ so plentiful in the plays themselves, or some born descendant and knower.”23 Charlie Chaplin, born in England but achieving success in America as the common man’s hero, declared in his autobiography: “I’m not concerned with who wrote the works of Shakespeare. . but I hardly think it was the Stratford boy. Whoever wrote them had an aristocratic attitude.” Authorship of the autobiography is on the title page attributed to Sir Charles Spencer Chaplin.24 A third American motivation might loosely be described as mythic or “Unitarian”—the desire to believe in Shakespeare as a kind of God, transcending ordinary biography and fact. Thus, taking a gently ironic view of the efforts of “the Shakespeare Society” to find salient facts about the poet, Emerson asserts, “Shakespeare is the only biographer of Shakespeare; and even he can tell nothing, except to the Shakespeare in us.”25 “He was,” writes Emerson, “the farthest reach of subtlety compatible with an individual self—the subtlest of authors, and only just within the possibility of authorship.”

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But attachments to Shakespeare have not always remained on this side idolatory, as the pious reference to the vocabulary of the God-man (a Holy Ghost-writer?) attests. Another American, Henry James, confessing himself to be “sort of ‘haunted’ by the conviction that the divine William is the biggest and most successful fraud ever practiced on a patient world,”26 fictionalized the skepticism as well as the fascination provoked by such bardolatry in a late short story entitled “The Birthplace.” The story is often described as being about the tourist industry at Shakespeare’s birthplace in Stratford. But the proper names never, in fact, appear. The poet is referred to throughout as “Him” with a capital “H,” and his writings, similarly capitalized, as a “Set” of the “Works.” Far from casting doubt on the story’s referent, however, James’s typical indirection is here the perfect vehicle for his subject: no direct naming could have represented as well the paradoxes of the authorship controversy. As the story opens, Mr. and Sandboxie 5.51.6 Crack + License Key Full Free Download 2021. Morris Gedge have just been hired as docents of the Birthplace. The Birthplace Trust appears in the story as the “Body,” the indwelling poet as the “Spirit,” the process of exhibition is known as the “Show,” and the “Show” includes the telling of certain “Facts” about which Gedge becomes increasingly dubious. He suggests to his wife a modification of discourse which amounts to an imposition of Jamesian style: “Couldn’t you adopt. . a slightly more discreet method? What we can say is that things have been said; that’s all we have to do with. ‘And is this really’—when they jam their umbrellas into the floor—‘the very spot where He was born?’ ‘So it has, from a long time back, been described as being.’ Couldn’t one meet Them, to be decent a little, in some such way as that?”27

In search of enlightenment, Gedge haunts the “Holy of Holies of the Birthplace,” the “Chamber of Birth,” scene of the Primal Scene, which should contain the Fact of Facts—the fact that He was born there—or indeed, born at all. “He had to take it as the place where the spirit would most walk and where He would therefore be most to be met, with possibilities of recognition and reciprocity.28 But the ghost never appears. Like Gertrude in Hamlet, Gedge sees nothing at all. In a proto-New-Critical or proto-Foucauldian move, he finally confides to a pair of visiting Americans that the author does not exist. “Practically. there is no author; that is for us to deal with. There are all the immortal people—in the work; but there’s nobody else.”29 The rest of Gedge’s career is instructive for academics, for he first makes the mistake of openly displaying his doubts—“giving the Show away,” as the representative of the Body says when he arrives to reprove him. But once reminded of his jeopardy, Gedge turns completely around, and, freed of the burden of an indwelling author, himself becomes one, gaining such fame as a raconteur that the Body doubles his stipend.

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The crucial point here is the independence—both in terms of entrepreneurship and of artistic freedom—conferred upon the Morris Gedges of the world by the absence of the author—by the hole at the center of things. In a similar spirit Mark Twain alleged rather gleefully about Shakespeare that “he hadn’t any history to record. There is no way of getting around that deadly fact.”30 Emerson, we can recall, likewise rejoiced in the picture of a Shakespeare “only just within the possibility of authorship,” and in his Journals he raises the question once more: “Is it not strange,” he asks, “that the transcendent men, Homer, Plato, Shakespeare, confessedly unrivalled, should have questions of identity and of genuineness raised respecting their writings?”31 This is in part what makes them transcendent. In fact, poets and writers who address the “Shakespeare Question” in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries tend to embrace the question as a question, preferring its openness to the closure mandated by any answer. This is as true in England as it is in America. Dickens remarks—in a letter much cited by anti-Stratfordians—that “It is a great comfort, to my way of thinking, that so little is known concerning the poet. The life of Shakespeare is a fine mystery and I tremble every day lest something should turn up.”32 With this splendid reversal of Mr. Micawber, Dickens aligns himself with the Gedge camp. Moreover, the most famous statements about Shakespeare as a creative artist— the ones we all grew up on—make very similar kinds of assertions. Coleridge characterizes him as “our myriad-minded Shakespeare.”33 Keats evolved his celebrated concept of “Negative Capability” to describe the quality “which Shakespeare possessed so enormously. . that is, when a man is capable of being in uncertainties, mysteries, doubts, without any irritable sharewareonsale winutilities pro - Crack Key For U after fact and reason,”34 and wrote that “Shakespeare led a life of Allegory; his works are the comments on it.”35 Dryden, in a phrase equally familiar, calls Shakespeare “the man who of all modern, and perhaps ancient, poets had the largest and most comprehensive soul.”36 The suggestion in all of these cases is of a kind of transcendent ventriloquism. It is as though Shakespeare is beyond authorship, beyond even the “plurality of egos” that Foucault locates in all discourse that supports the “author-function.”37 Matthew Arnold’s sonnet on Shakespeare marks out the issue clearly: Others abide our question. Thou art free. We ask and ask—Thou smilest and art still, Out-topping knowledge.38

The “foiled searching of mortality” fails to disclose the answer: “Thou, who didst the stars and sunbeams know, / Self-schooled, self-scanned, self-honored, self-secure, / Didst tread on earth unguessed at—Better so!” (8–11). Better so indeed. We have

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described the investment in various answers, but a great deal seems invested in not finding the answer. It begins to become obvious that Shakespeare is the towering figure he is for us not despite but rather because of the authorship controversy. He is defined by that controversy, as, equally, he defines it, making Foucault’s use of him as an example almost tautologous. “Shakespeare” is present as an absence—which is to say, as a ghost. Shakespeare as an author is the person who, were he more completely known, would not be the Shakespeare we know. Formulations like “What is an author?” and “the death of the author,” which have engaged the imagination of contemporary theorists, draw much of their power and fascination from “the kinship between writing and death”39—a little less than kin and more than kind. Freed from the trammels of a knowable “authorial intention,” the author paradoxically gains power rather than losing it, assuming a different kind of authority that renders him in effect his own ghost. It begins to become clear that to speak about “ghost writing” is not merely to play upon words. As Foucault writes, we find the link between writing and death manifested in the total effacement of the individual characteristics of the writer. . If we wish to know the writer in our day, it will be through the singularity of his absence and in his link to death, which has transformed him into a victim of his own writing.”40

If you want to know the author—in the text, as well as of or behind the text—look to see who’s dead. Consider, for example, the tradition that has grown up about Shakespeare as an actor in his own plays. Nicholas Rowe, in the Life printed with his 1709 edition of the Works, writes that “tho’ I have inquir’ed I could never meet with any further account of him this way, than that the top of his performance was the ghost in his own Hamlet.”41 Rowe’s edition was published ninety-three years after Shakespeare’s death—his information is hearsay, rumor, or better, but it is not an eyewitness account. It therefore belongs properly with the affect of the Shakespeare story rather than with its irreduceable facts. A less reliable account reports that Will Shakespeare’s younger brother, having been asked about the parts played by his celebrated sibling, described seeing him “act a part in one of his own comedies, wherein being to personate a decrepit old man, he wore a long beard, and appeared so weak and drooping and unable to walk, that he was forced to be supported and carried by another person to a table, at which he was seated among some company, who were eating, and one of them sung a song.”42 This part has been identified as that of Old Adam in As You Like It, who enters the scene in question (2.7) borne on Orlando’s shoulders, like Anchises borne on the shoulders of his son Aeneas.

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Both of these traditional accounts are suggestive. Each casts Shakespeare as a father figure advising his son, and placed at a disadvantage by age (or death) so that he requires the son to enact his will. Old Adam, in whom appears “the constant service of the antique world” (2.3.57) personates the dead Sir Rowland and his lost ways of civility. It is he who warns Orlando about treachery in the Duke’s court, and encourages him to seek safety in Arden. We may see this as appropriate to a playwright’s role, giving his protagonist motive for action, so that the casting acts as a kind of metadramatic shadow or reflection of the relationship between author, actor, and plot. But the role of ghost writer here is doubled. Each of these figures achieves his own erasure, first presenting or representing the imperative of the father, then disappearing from the play.

II We would search the “public” in vain for the first reader: i.e., the first author of a work. And the “sociology of literature” is blind to the war and the ruses perpetuated by the author who reads and by the first reader who dictates, for at stake here is the origin of the work itself. The sociality of writing as drama requires an entirely different discipline. Jacques Derrida, “Freud and the Scene of Writing”

Let us return, then, to our original question. Who is the author of Shakespeare’s plays? Is it possible that, in this already over-determined controversy, there is at least one more determining factor? Is there something in the nature of these plays that somehow provokes, as it responds to, the authorship controversy? Are there, in other words, explicit scenes of ghost writing in the plays themselves? It has long been noted that Shakespeare’s plays are full of questions of authority, legitimacy, usurpation, authorship and interpretation. Indeed, drama as a genre not only permits but also encodes the dissemination of authority. This is in part what authorizes such formulations as “negative capability” and “myriad-mindedness.” But can the more particular details of the authorship controversy as we have just documented it somehow be seen to be anticipated and overdetermined by the plays? Can the “Shakespeare Question” be situated within the text itself? Is the authorship controversy in part a textual effect? There are in fact an uncanny number of ways in which the plays can be seen to stage the controversy. Such scenes of encoded authorship encompass everything from ghosts that write and writers who function as ghosts, to handwriting analyses, signature controversies, the deciphering of codes, the digging of graves, the silencing of madwomen, the staging of plays that get away from their authors, and the thematizing of myriad other forms of doubt and discontinuity within authorial identity and

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control. Before I come to mention some specific instances in which ghost writing takes place in Shakespeare’s plays, however, it may be useful to set these remarks into a theoretical framework, and to give some idea of how I will be using the concept of a ghost here and in the chapters that follow. In Beyond the Pleasure Principle (1920), Freud discusses the ways in which the compulsion to repeat results from “the power of the repressed”—the ways, that is, in which that which has been repressed, because of its repression, keeps breaking through. Transference neurosis, the repetition of repressed memory as present experience, results from the retention of unconscious ideas, their refusal to become conscious and accessible to the patient and the analyst. The patient “is obliged to repeat the repressed material as a contemporary experience instead of. . remembering it as something belonging to the past.”43 We might make use of a theoretical metaphor here, and describe such repetition as restaging or replaying. Freud himself explicitly refers to the unconscious as “another theater,” and compares the reenactment involved in repetition, with its apparently paradoxical yield of pleasure even in unpleasurable experience, to the experience of drama—and, specifically, tragedy: the artistic play and artistic imagination carried out by adults, which, unlike children’s, are aimed at an audience, do not spare the spectators (for instance, in tragedy) the most painful experiences and can yet be felt by them as highly enjoyable. This is convincing proof that, even under the dominance of the pleasure principle, there are ways and means enough of making what is in itself unpleasurable into a subject to be recollected and worked over in the mind.44

A tragedy is like an unpleasurable memory – or, rather, it is like the displacement of that repressed memory into the “working through” that is “artistic imagination” but also theatrical performance. This compulsion to repeat, this “perpetual recurrence of the same thing”45 that strikes us as uncanniness in life and as structure in art, is one of the functions performed in Shakespeare’s plays by the figure of the ghost. Another useful analogue for the concept of a ghost as I am using it here can be found in what Jacques Derrida has called the “logic of the supplement.”46 The word “supplément,” in French, means both a substitute and an addition. These terms, normally thought of as mutually exclusive, come together in the supplement in such a way that the binary logic of identity and noncontradiction is replaced by a different kind of logic. Barbara Johnson glosses that other logic as follows. In this chart, all statements are to be taken as equivalent to the statement, “A is a supplement to B.” 1. A is added to B. 2. A substitutes for B.

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3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16.

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A is a superfluous addition to B. A makes up for the absence of B. A usurps the place of B. A makes up for B’s deficiencies. A corrupts the purity of B. A is necessary so that B can be restored. A is an accident alienating B from itself. A is that without which B would be lost. A is that through which B is lost. A is a danger to B. A is a remedy to B. A’s fallacious charm seduces one away from B. A can never satisfy the desire for B. A protects against direct encounter with B.47

The ghosts in Shakespeare’s plays function as supplements in many, perhaps all, of these ways. The reader can test this out by selecting a ghost (or a character performing a ghost-function) and filling in the blanks. But if A stands for the ghost, who or what is B? If A is the Ghost of Old Hamlet, for example, is B the living Old Hamlet, Hamlet, Claudius, Ophelia, Horatio, Denmark, Hamlet, Shakespeare, the England—or the court—of Queen Elizabeth, a modern theatrical audience? Yes. Such is the promiscuous supplementarity of ghosts. Such, too, is the source of their power, and their danger. A ghost is an embodiment of the disembodied, a re-membering of the dismembered, an articulation of the disarticulated and inarticulate. “Were I the ghost that walked,” says Paulina to Leontes in The Winter’s Tale, discussing his “dead” wife Hermione, I’d bid you mark Her eye, and tell me for what dull part in’t You download vpn unlimited crack for pc - Activators Patch her: then I’d shriek, that even your ears Should rift to hear me; and the words that follow’d Should be ‘Remember mine.’ (5.1.63–7)

We might notice the similarity of this scenario to Hamlet, where the ghost of the dead spouse does walk and cries “Remember me,” the import of his words entering like daggers into his wife’s ears when Hamlet, like Paulina, transmits the message.48 In both of these dramatic cases, the appearance of the ghost comes at the time when the living spouse has effected, or is about to effect, a repetition and a substitution, through remarriage.

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The effect of uncanniness produced by the appearance of a ghost is related simultaneously to its manifestation as a sign of potential proliferation or plurality and to its acknowledgement of the loss of the original—indeed, to the loss of the certainty of the concept of origin. The representation of the fear of loss through multiplication is familiar from the interpretation of dreams and myths, as for example in Freud’s essay on “Medusa’s Head” (1922), where the proliferation of swarming snakes compensates for and covers over the fear of castration, or in the “The Uncanny” (1919), where he writes that “this Voicemod Pro Crack 2.19.0.2 & License Key [Latest] 2021 of doubling as a preservation against extinction has its counterpart in the language of dreams, which is fond of representing castration by a doubling or multiplication of the genital symbol.”49 The dual question—of plurality and the lost original—is directly relevant to the phenomenology of ghosts. And it is equally relevant to the phenomenology of the work of art. It is here, in the overlapping status of the ghost and the art object, or the ghost and the text, that the further significance of Shakespeare as a ghost writer—as a writer of ghosts, and as their ghostly written—manifests itself. This peculiar characteristic of ghostliness—that the ghost is a copy, somehow both nominally identical to and numinously different from a vanished or unavailable original—has special ramifications for art forms which, like Elizabethan and Jacobean drama, are regarded by their contemporary cultures as marginal, popular, or contestatory. Consider the status of such analogous art forms as translation, photography, and film, forms that depend upon the production of “original copies.” In two important essays, “The Task of the Translator” and “The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction,” the cultural critic Walter Benjamin returns again and again to these two themes: multiplication and “the original.”50 For translation and mechanical reproduction are, precisely, means by which the original and its primacy are put in question. And thus they are ways of making—of calling up—ghosts. The two essays are uncannily concerned with the same issues, and the language in which Benjamin conducts his argument is itself suggestively ghostly—e.g., “A translation issues from the original—not so much from its life as from its afterlife,”51 or “Even the most perfect reproduction of a work of art is lacking in one element: its presence in time and space, its unique existence at the place where it happens to be.”52 “The technique of reproduction,” writes Benjamin, “detaches the reproduced object from the domain of tradition. By making many reproductions it substitutes a plurality of copies for a unique existence. And in permitting the reproduction to meet the beholder or listener in his own particular situation, it reactivates the object produced.”53 In fact, if we substitute the word ghost for translation or reproduction in any of these statements (“in permitting the ghost to meet the beholder or listener in his own particular situation. . .”) we can see how cognate the conditions of ghostliness and reproduction or nonoriginality really are. It may be objected that

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in the last passage quoted above, Benjamin refers to “a plurality of copies,” where in Shakespeare’s plays the ghosts of Hamlet’s father and Banquo and Julius Caesar are not multiply replicated, but are themselves possessed of “a unique existence.” This is certainly the case; but the “unique existence” each possesses is, I would contend, importantly different from the nonghostly existence of those characters as we encounter them (Banquo, Caesar) or hear about them (Old Hamlet) in the plays. I will have more to say about this gap between the ghost and its living “original” in the chapters that follow. For the present, though, I want to suggest that the idea of a “plurality of copies” does play an important role in the ghostly uncanniness of Shakespeare’s plays, as for example in the phenomenon of many men marching in the king’s coats (King Henry IV, Part 1 5.3.25; also King Richard III 5.4.11–12: “I think there be six Richmonds in the field; / Five I have slain today instead of him”); in the disturbing capacity of ghosts to move about (Hamlet 1.5.164: “Hic et ubique? Then we’ll shift our ground”); and in the profoundly uncanny sensation of doubleness experienced in and produced by the “twin” plays, The Comedy of Errors and Twelfth Night. In The Comedy of Errors the mechanism of textual effect is at work, as the concept of a ghostly double is transferred from that of the twin sons to their father: I see two husbands, or mine eyes deceive me. One of these men is genius to the other: And so of these, which is the natural man, And which the spirit? Who deciphers them? S. Dromio: I sir, am Dromio, command him away. E. Dromio: I sir, am Dromio, pray let me stay. S. Antipholus: Egeon art thou not? or else his ghost? (5.1.331–7) Adriana: Duke:

Perhaps the most instructive parallel suggested by Benjamin’s essay on mechanical reproduction is that of photography, and of the photographic negative, which is described as a shadow or reverse of a work that has no “original”: To an ever greater degree the work of art reproduced becomes the work of art designed for reproducibility. From a photographic negative, for example, one can make any number of prints; to ask for the “authentic” print makes no sense.54

In this connection it is interesting to recall that one of the familiar terms used in modern parlance to describe a faint, false, sometimes secondary photographic image is ghost—and that a ghost is also, in printing, a variation or unevenness in color intensity on a surface intended to be solidly tinted, a phenomenon often observed in the printing of newspapers. The photographic negative is in fact very like a ghost; it reifies

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the concept of an absent presence, existing positively as a negative image. In a negative we see light as dark and dark as light; we see, in effect, what is not there. Hamlet: Queen: Hamlet: Queen: Hamlet:

Do you see nothing there? Nothing at all, yet all that is I see. Nor did you nothing hear? No, nothing but ourselves. Why, look you there, look how it steals away! My father, in his habit as he lived! Look where he goes, even now, out at the portal! Exit Ghost. (3.4.132–8)

The analogy between a ghost and a photograph is made by Robert Lowell in a poem suggestively titled “Epilogue”: We are poor passing facts, warned by that to give each figure in the photograph his living name.55

Without the label of the “living name,” inscribed on the back of the photograph or beneath it in the album, such figures will become anonymous, dislocated from the context in which they are identifiable and identified. So writing fixes, pins down. This is ghost writing too, writing that calls up ghosts from the past, from the passing. In 1927 Abel Gance, who made the great film, Napoléon, predicted that “Shakespeare, Rembrandt, Beethoven will make films.”56 The study of films made of, or from, Shakespeare’s plays has by this time, of course, become a recognized subspeciality of Shakespeare studies, so that in that sense we can say Gance’s prediction has come true. “Shakespeare”—Shakespeare’s works—has made films. But in another sense, his words describe what Shakespeare had already achieved, in furnishing his plays with ghost writers, with writing ghosts and ghosts who demand to be written. Gance’s exultant claim for some Shakespeare of the future writes history backward, and describes not “Shakespeare” but Shakespeare, whoever he was. The appearance of ghosts within the plays is almost always juxtaposed to a scene of writing. Hamlet takes dictation from the Ghost of his father: “My tables, meet it is I set it down / That one may smile, and smile, and be a villain!” (1.5.107–8) Old Hamlet’s script is a revenge tragedy, perhaps the Ur-Hamlet. Hamlet will alter the script, will himself sign and seal what he will describe as a “play” on the voyage to England. But in this first encounter with the Ghost we see a further rewriting of authority as well.

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I’ll wipe away all trivial fond records, All saws of books, all forms, all pressures past That youth and observation copied there, And thy commandment all alone shall live Within the book and volume of my brain. (1.5.99–103)

“Thy commandment” (to revenge) replaces all the saws and pressures, or seals, of the past. In this post-Mosaic transmission of the law from father to son one kind of erasure (or “wiping away”) is already taking place. The Ghost himself is under erasure—“’tis here, ’tis here, ’tis gone”—visible and invisible, potent and impotent. But all ghosts are under erasure; that is their status.57 What Hamlet writes down in his tables is the doubled plot of the Mousetrap play, for to smile and smile and be a villain is not only a description of Claudius, but also of Hamlet, just as Hamlet glosses the figure of “one Lucianus, nephew to the King” in the Mousetrap as both a sign of his knowledge of Claudius’ guilt in the past, and a threat of his own revenge in the future. The integration of the Ghost into the composite figure of “Hamlet the Dane” begins with this scene of writing, as Hamlet writes himself into the story and writes the Ghost out, revising the revenge imperative (and the imperative of the revenge play). The ghost of Julius Caesar is appropriated as a ghost writer by Mark Antony in the funeral oration. It is clear from the moment of the assassination that the conspirators have killed the wrong Caesar, the man of flesh and blood and not the feared and admired monarch. They have, so to speak, killed the wrong author-function, the one associated with the proper name and not with the works. Brutus’s despairing cry, “O Julius Caesar, thou art mighty yet. / Thy spirit walks abroad and turns our swords / In our own proper entrails” (5.3.94–6) records his sense of Caesar as uncanny omnipresence, and conflates his two sightings of the Ghost with the self-destructive actions of the conspirators. Antony will himself become a “seizer” of opportunity, in the public reading of Caesar’s will, “under Caesar’s seal” (3.2.233), that leaves his money and pleasure-grounds to the people. In effect he makes Caesar, the dead and living Caesar of the author-function, his own ghost writer, the more effaced, the more powerful. Brutus, who actually sees great Caesar’s ghost, participates in a crucial scene of writing and authorial appropriation, an appropriation that occurs, significantly, before the assassination itself, as Brutus walks at night in his orchard. A letter is thrown in at his window, and, as he reads it, he writes it: “Brutus, thou sleep’st; awake, and see thyself. Shall Rome, etc. Speak, strike, redress.” “Brutus, thou sleep’st; awake.”

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Such instigations have been often dropped Where I have took them up. “Shall Rome, etc.” Thus must I piece it out: Shall Rome stand under one man’s awe? What Rome? My ancestors did from the streets of Rome The Tarquin drive, when he was called a king. “Speak, strike, redress.” Am I entreated To speak and strike? O Rome, I make thee promise, If the redress will follow, thou receivest Thy full petition at the hand of Brutus! (2.1.46–58)

Brutus supplies this anonymous document with what is in fact a dead (i.e., inanimate) author—“Rome.” “Rome” enjoins him to join the conspiracy. “Shall Rome, etc.”— like many of the Shakespeare ciphers—gives the interpreter considerable latitude to inscribe his own message (“thy full petition at the hand of Brutus”). The hand that rewrites here is of course also the hand that kills. The anonymity of the communication itself encodes authority—the importunings of a mere individual, like Cassius, are suspect because they are tied to a flawed human persona, and to personal motives. Receiving the letter, Brutus elects to ignore the possibility of a merely human agent, and to regard it instead as an uncanny answer to his own latent thought, about himself and his love-relationship to Rome. Here Brutus becomes his own ghost writer, and gives to the author he creates the pseudonym of “Rome.” Another kind of ghostly self-erasure can be seen in the famous “deposition scene” in King Richard II (4.1). There Richard, denying any possibility of a split between persona and role, the king’s two bodies (or the proper name of the author and his works, to use Foucault’s partition), sees himself as erased, tranformed into a shadow or ghost of himself, when he is deposed by Bolingbroke: I have no name, no title— No, not that name was given me at the font— But ’tis usurped. . O that I were a mockery king of snow, Standing before the sun of Bolingbroke, To melt myself away in water-drops! (4.1.255–62)

A “deposition” is both a forced removal from office and a piece of testimony taken down for use in the witness’s absence (as well as the term describing the lowering of Christ’s body from the cross—Richard’s view of the event). Richard here deposes at his own deposition, figuring himself as a snowman whose whiteness and impermanence is tragically vulnerable to the kingly sun. He is already a voice from the past, and the disembodied voice, the ghost of Richard II, will haunt the rest of the tetralogy with increasing power.

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Bolingbroke had faulted the “skipping king” Richard for his availability to the people. He himself, by being seldom seen, will be more wondered at, more the stuff of legend, reverence, and fantasy. Like Arnold’s vision of a Shakespeare “unguessedat—Better so!”—this strategy locates power in absence: absence of personality, absence of fact, absence of peculiarity. But the question is also one of suitability, of fitting the role. Richard is the lineal king, the king by Divine Write, by Holy Writ. But Bolingbroke, like Bacon, fits the part, with his winning manners and his “fair discourse” (2.3.6). It is striking that one of his complaints against Richard is that the king has erased his name and coat of arms from the windows of the family estate, “leaving me no sign / Save men’s opinions and my living blood / To show the world I am a gentleman” (3.1.25–7). As with a “deposition,” so with a “will”—the dead hand is a living voice replacing the original author, and open to interpretation. Thus, in The Merchant of Venice, Portia complains that in the mandatory casket choice “the will of a living daughter [is] curb’d by the will of a dead father” (1.2.23–5). Shakespeare—if it is he—puns on his own name as an absent presence enforcing desire and authority (or failing to enforce them) throughout the Sonnets, and, as we have seen, Mark Antony makes of the “will” of the murdered Caesar read aloud to the plebeians a document that encodes his own “will,” his own authority over the original conspirators. But if ghosts are often writers, so too are writers often ghosts. The question of Shakespeare’s signature, especially as it appears (three times) on his will, can also be situated within the text. A signature, as Derrida has shown, is a sign that must be iterated to be recognizable, a sign of the simultaneous presence and absence of a “living hand,” which stands for its signator in that person’s absence. “By definition, a written signature implies the actual or empirical nonpresence of the signer.”58 A signature, then, is very like a ghost, as will become explicitly the case when Hamlet on shipboard takes his father’s signet, providentially carried in his purse, and signs the name of “Hamlet” to the letter he has forged in the careful calligraphy of a professional scribe. (“I once did hold it, as our statists do, a baseness to write fair. . but, sir, now / It did me yeoman’s service” (5.2.33–6). The “changeling” letter that sends Rosencrantz and Guildenstern to their deaths is signed by Hamlet—but by which Hamlet? It is the underwritten script of the Ghost’s imperative superscribed by the son’s educated hand.

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III As the current affected the brachial plexus of the nerves, he suddenly cried aloud, “Oh! The hand, the hand!” and attempted to seize the missing member. The phantom I had conjured up swiftly disappeared, but no spirit could have more amazed the man, so real did it seem. S. Weir Mitchell, Injuries of Nerves

Again the plays are thematizing the authorship controversy: the question of the identification of signatures and handwriting (could Shakespeare write? could his parents? could his daughters? why have we no literary remains in his hand, or—if any—just the Thomas More fragment?) is a question configured in the plays not only in Hamlet and Old Hamlet, but in Edmund’s forged letter purporting to come from his brother Edgar. “You know the character to be your brother’s?” asks Gloucester, using the Renaissance term for handwriting, for letter of the alphabet, and also for cipher or code. “It is his hand, my lord; but I hope his heart is not in the contents” (King Lear 1.2.62; 67–8). The character, of course, is Edmund’s, the letter a forgery of his jealousy and not of Edgar’s. Likewise, Maria’s forged letter to Malvolio in Twelfth Night is made possible by an uncanny resemblance between her handwriting and Olivia’s. Indeed, the phenomenon of life imitating art has never been more amply demonstrated than in the proliferation of questers after the Shakespeare cipher. Their great model and predecessor, the most ingenious cryptographer of them all, is Malvolio, who opens Maria’s forged letter to discover not only ciphers and codes but an anagram as well: “Why, this is evident to any formal capacity. There is no obstruction in this. And the end: what should that alphabetical position portend? If I could make that resemble something in me! Softly! ‘M.O.A.I.’—. . ‘M.’—Malvolio! ‘M’! Why. . that begins my name!. . ‘M’—But then there is no consonancy in the sequel; that suffers under probation: ‘A’ should follow, but ‘O’ does. . ‘M.O.A.I.’ This simulation is not as the former: and yet, to crush this a little, it would bow to me, for every one of these letters are in my name” (2.5.117–41). Mrs. Windle, Dr. Owen, and Ignatius Donnelly are pale shadows of this strong precursor. In these forgeries the text itself becomes a ghost writer: the scriptwriting capacity takes on a power of its own, supplementing the plot and radically altering it. And once more, as in the plays, so in the authorized biography. Critics search in vain for the “speech of some dozen or sixteen lines” (2.2.535) that Hamlet inserts in “The Murder of Gonzago” as an indicator of his secret knowledge. In just the same way, editors have scrutinized the manuscript of Sir Thomas More for undoubted proof of Shakespeare’s authorship, and have fixed at last on the 147 lines written by “Hand D.”

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The spectral presence of the “hand” haunts the editorial tradition in another way as well, in connection with a particularly compelling example of authorial fragmentation. In Titus Andronicus Lavinia, who enters the stage with “her hands cut off and her tongue cut out, and ravished” (2.4. stage direction), is assigned the task of writing without hands. Urged by his brother Marcus to moderate his language of grief and despair, “teach her not to lay / Such violent hands upon her tender life,” Titus (who has himself been tricked into cutting off one of his own hands) retorts angrily: “What violent hands can she lay upon her life?”: Ah, wherefore dost thou urge the name of hands. . O handle not the theme, to talk of hands, Lest we remember still that we have none. Fie, fie, how franticly I square my talk, As if we should forget we have no hands, If Marcus did not name the word of hands. (3.2.25–33)

In the next scene (4.1) Lavinia begins to rifle through her nephew Lucius’s books with her stumps, turning the leaves of Ovid’s Metamorphoses, to point to the “tragic tale of Philomel. . of Tereus’ treason and his rape” (47–8) as the narrative of her own experience. But her audience is puzzled. “Give signs, sweet girl,” implores Titus (61), and Marcus devises a better plan. As so often in this play, the stage direction says it all: “He writes his name with his staff, and guides it with feet and mouth”: This sandy plot is plain. Guide, if thou canst, This after me. I have writ my name Without the help of any hand at all. (69–71)

Lavinia’s inscription on the “sandy plot” indicates the truth of her condition, identifying her rapists as the sons of Tamora. “There is enough written upon this earth / To. . arm the minds of infants to exclaims” (84–6). In-fans, unable to speak, disarmed by her mutilation, Lavinia signs her deposition with a missing hand, a hand that is both “bloody and invisible.” Given this no-holds-barred approach to the act of writing in the play, it is unsettling to notice how often phrases like “on the one hand. . and on the other” appear in criticism of the play. T. S. Eliot calls it “a play in which it is incredible that Shakespeare had any hand at all,” M. C. Bradbrook observes that in the play “Shakespeare was trying his hand at the high style,” and E. M. W. Tillyard points out admiringly that “the author holds everything in his head”—all textual effects of the play’s embarrassing power.59 J. C. Maxwell, the Arden editor of Titus Andronicus, writes of the authorship question that “in the palmy days of disintegration of the

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Shakespeare canon, almost all practising dramatists of 1585–95 were called in to take a hand in Titus”60; three times he mentions “Peele’s hand” (twice on p. xxv, and again on p. xxvi), and he comments about Kyd that “there is nothing in the writing to suggest that he had any hand in it” (xxvii). Twice in the introduction he uses the formulation “on the one hand. . and on the other” (xxxiv; xxxviii), and in the textual apparatus of the play he is fond of the technical designation “headless line” to denote a line of verse with only nine metrical feet. Thus the footnote to 2.3.115 reads, “best read as a headless line,” and 5.2.62 is described as “an effectively solemn headless line” while Titus’s multiply overdetermined request, “Speak, Lavinia, what accursed hand / Hath made thee handless in thy father’s sight” (3.1.66) is likewise described as “a headless line.” Nor is Maxwell wholly unaware of these anatomical excrescences. In a note to Act 5 scene 2, when Tamora comes to Titus’s study and finds him writing “in bloody lines,” lamenting his loss of eloquence (“how can I grace my talk, / Wanting a hand to give it action?”), the Arden editor cites B. L. Joseph, Elizabethan Acting, who quotes in turn from John Bulwer’s Chironomia (1644): “The moving and significant extension of the Hand is knowne to be so absolutely pertinent to speech, that we together with a speech expect the due motion of the Hand to explaine, direct, enforce, apply, apparrell, & to beautifie the words men utter, which would prove naked, unless the cloathing Hands doe neatly move to adorne and hide their nakednesse, with their comely and ministeriall parts of speech.”61

Here body parts and parts of speech seem inextricably intertwined. Titus asks Tamora on this occasion, “Is not thy coming for my other hand?” (5.2.27), and she later comments to herself, “I’ll find some cunning practice out of hand / To scatter and disperse the giddy Goths” (77–8). At the close of the play Marcus urges that “the poor remainder of Andronici. . hand in hand all headlong hurl ourselves” (5.3.131). It is tempting to add to this proliferating textual effect by pointing out that the style of Titus Andronicus, characterized by distortion of scale and perspective, has much in common with the late sixteenth-century expressive style known as Mannerism—a style that traces its etymology to the word “hand” (ME menere from Norman French, from OF maniere, from Vulgar Latin manuaria, “way of handling,” manner, from manuarius, of the hand, from manus, the hand). Literal ghosts, portentous Senecan stalkers from the revenge tradition, tend in Shakespeare’s plays to be male and paternal. But as the example of Lavinia suggests, there is another whole group of ghost writers in his plays who are similarly under erasure, and these ghost writers are women—women marginalized by their gender, by their putative or real madness, or by their violation. The story of Delia Bacon—overprotected by her brother, misled by a theology student into thinking he

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would marry her, gaining authority as a seer and prophetess from her rejection, and with it the license to go abroad and speak dangerous things, dying mad—this is the story of Ophelia. “Her speech is nothing,” says a Gentleman to Horatio and the Queen, Yet the unshaped use of it doth move The hearers to collection. They aim at it, And botch the words up fit to their own thoughts, Which, as her winks and nods and gestures yield them, Indeed would make one think there might be thought, Though nothing sure, yet much unhappily. (Hamlet 4.5.8–13)

To this statement, itself a foreclosure of judgment (“her speech is nothing”), Horatio adds an even more political warning? “’Twere good she were spoken with, for she may strew / Dangerous conjectures in ill-breeding minds” (14–15). The “unshaped use” of Ophelia’s speech—rather like the “questionable shape” in which the Ghost appears to Hamlet (1.4.43)—is an invitation to fill in the blank. Traditionally dressed in white, Ophelia is marked as “virginal and vacant,” as Elaine Showalter points out,62 her white dress in contrast to Hamlet’s suits of solemn black. If his costume is explicitly described (indeed, self-described) as an “inky cloak” (1.2.77), she is the blank page, the tabula rasa. But the white dress is also the sign, and the shroud, of a ghost. And just as Horatio’s word “strew,” in the passage we have just noticed, predicts Ophelia’s flower-giving, so Laertes’s description of the scene as “a document in madness: thoughts and remembrance fitted” (176–7) identifies the documentary evidence, the displacement of the written and the writable, that Ophelia’s subject position compels. The flower-giving scene and its “document” closely resemble Lavinia’s tracing on the “sandy plot.” Both incidents present women writing as ghosts. Both suggest that women’s writing is ghost writing. Similarly marginalized, similarly erased, moving through the events of her play like a ghost, Cassandra is dismissed by her brothers as “our mad sister” (Troilus and Cressida 2.2.98), but the design toward which she moves, the story she tells, is the story of the Trojan War. Cassandra’s authority is such that she speaks the truth and is not believed—and this is also the case with Ophelia and indeed with Lady Macbeth. Lady Macbeth’s sleepwalking places her physically in exactly the condition of present absence, marginal stance, and legible erasure we have come to expect of such ghosts. Indeed, perhaps the most threatening female authority of all in the plays is also the most effaced—Sycorax, Caliban’s mother, predecessor magician to Prospero, whose name is evoked as the justification for his authority and authorship on the island—and who never appears in the play. Like Claribel, who would be the next heir to Naples but is half a world away in Tunis, Sycorax exists beyond

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the play’s margins, and only Miranda remains as another figure of female selferasure in the present, eagerly accepting her father’s tutelage in the Elizabethan World Picture. Thus, again and again, the plays themselves can be seen to dramatize questions raised in the authorship controversy: who wrote this? did someone else have a hand in it? is the apparent author the real author? is the official version to be trusted? or are there suppressed stories, hidden messages, other signatures? As will become clear in the chapters that follow, the plays not only thematize these issues, they also theorize them, offering a critique of the concept of authorship and, in particular, of the possibility of origin. Authorship itself will be seen as a belated and disputable matter. When Troilus cites the fidelity of his love for Cressida as “truth’s authentic author” (Troilus and Cressida 3.2.176) for lovers “in the real world to come” (168), or when Brutus and Cassius view themselves as heroic regicides in the eyes of “ages hence” (Julius Caesar 3.1.111) they are not, as they think, standing at the beginning of the story, but somewhere in the middle. The histories of which they imagine themselves authors are already in process. Neither Troilus nor Cassius is “author of himself,” and the texts they so confidently envisage are inflected, ironically, toward tragedy. If it is a wise father that knows his own child, so it is a wise character who knows he is in search of an author. The undecidability of paternity, articulated again and again in the plays by putative fathers like Lear, Leontes, Leonato, and Prospero, is analogous to, and evocative of, the undecidability of authorship. Thus a play like Pericles, long thought to be the product of dual authorship, enacts its own family romance by dwelling insistently on the incest riddle with which it begins: He’s father, son, and husband mild; I mother, wife, and yet his child: How they may be, and yet in two, As you will live, resolve it you. (1.1.69–72)

And even this incest riddle, later rearticulated in the mystery of Marina’s parentage (5.1.90ff.) is qualified by Gower’s narrative prologue: “I tell you what mine authors say” (1.Chorus.20). The origin is always deferred. The search for an author, like any other quest for parentage, reveals more about the searcher than about the sought, for what is demanded is a revisitation of the primal scene.

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2

But the calling back of the dead, or the desirability of calling them back, was a ticklish matter, after all. At bottom, and boldly confessed, the desire does not exist; it is a misapprehension precisely as impossible as the thing itself, as we should soon see if nature once let it happen. What we call mourning for our dead is perhaps not so much grief at not being able to call them back as it is grief at not being able to want to do so. Thomas Mann, The Magic Mountain The phantom which returns to haunt bears witness to the existence of the dead buried within the other. Nicholas Abraham, “Notes on the Phantom” For here the day unravels what the night has woven. Walter Benjamin, “The Image of Proust”

A murder done in Vienna In the fall of 1897 Sigmund Freud’s mind was running on Hamlet. A letter he wrote to Wilhelm Fliess in October contained the first exposition of the Oedipus complex, later to be elaborated in The Interpretation of Dreams (1900) but here already fully articulated, both as it presents itself in Sophocles and, in a more repressed and hysterical fashion, in Hamlet: Everyone in the audience was once a budding Oedipus in fantasy, and each recoils in horror from the dream fulfillment here transplanted into reality, with the full quantity of repression which separates his infantile state from his present one.

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Fleetingly the thought passed through my head that the same thing might be at the bottom of Hamlet as well. I am not thinking of Shakespeare’s conscious intentions, but believe, rather, that a real event stimulated the poet to his representation, in that his unconscious understood the unconscious of his hero. How does Hamlet the hysteric justify his words, “Thus conscience does make cowards of us all?” How does he explain his irresolution in avenging his father by the murder of his uncle—the same man who sends his courtiers to their death without a scruple and who is positively precipitate in murdering Laertes? How better than through the torment roused in him by the obscure memory that he himself had contemplated the same deed against his father out of passion for his mother, and—“use every man after his desert, and who should ’scape whipping?” His conscience is his unconscious sense of guilt. And is not his sexual alienation in his conversation with Ophelia typically hysterical? And his rejection of the instinct that seeks to beget children? And, finally, his transferral of the deed from his own father to Ophelia’s? And does he not in the end, in the same marvellous way as my hysterical patients do, bring down punishment on himself by suffering the same fate as his father of being poisoned by the same rival?1

Less than a month before, Freud had written to Fliess the famous letter in which he reveals his “great secret”—that he has abandoned the seduction theory: “I no longer believe in my neurotica.”2 Persuaded by the surprising frequency with which such seductions by fathers of children seemed to occur in his patients, and by the fact that the unconscious contains no “indications of reality,” he had determined that such acts were plausibly to be VMware Tools 15 Free Download and How to Install as fantasies rather than as personal history: “surely such widespread perversions against children are not very probable”; “in all the cases, the father, not excluding my own, had to be accused of being perverse.”3 Reversing himself on so crucial a point, and in effect dismantling the theory he had counted on to bring him wealth and fame, Freud addresses himself, in the letter to Fliess, to his own emotions. He had expected to be “depressed, confused, exhausted,”4 but he feels just the opposite. “It is strange, too, that no feeling of shame appeared.”5 In fact, he feels impelled to take a journey, and now proposes to visit his friend in Berlin. “If during this lazy period I were to go to the Northwest Station on Saturday evening I could be with you by noon on Sunday,”6 or, if this does not suit their schedules, “do the same conditions obtain if I go straight to the Northwest Station on Friday evening?”7 The proposal for a visit is treated as a digression, from which Freud now recalls himself: Now to continue my letter. I vary Hamlet’s saying, “To be in readiness”: to be cheerful is everything! I could indeed feel quite discontent. The expectation of eternal fame was so beautiful, as was that of certain wealth, complete independence, travels, and lifting the children above the severe worries that robbed me of my youth. Everything depended on whether or not hysteria would come out right. Now I can once again remain quiet and modest, go on worrying and saving.8

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Yet this apparent digression, this detour via the Northwest Station, in fact takes him directly back to the subject: Hamlet, and the way in which “a real event” might make the unconscious understand the intentions of the hero. For in this passage Freud twice proposes a journey to the Northwest Station, a locus that suggests what is literally a new train of thought. It is Hamlet, of course, who announces that he is “but mad north-north-west” (2.2.374), feigning madness for a purpose. Freud’s slip into the Northwest Station will likewise confirm that he is not “depressed, confused, exhausted; afflicted with shame,” or “discontent,” as he might be, but actually in control of his daydreams of fortune and independence, however he appears to the outside world. His letter to Fliess concludes with the hope that he will soon hear “How all of you are and whatever else is happening between heaven and earth.”9 “There are more things in heaven and earth, Horatio, / Than are dreamt of in your philosophy” (1.5.174–5), says Hamlet to his confidant, conceiving the plan to “put an antic disposition on” (180), to present himself as mad north-north-west. Fliess is an appropriate Horatio figure, idolized as a man of superior learning. But we may even hear a faint reminder of another passage from Shakespeare’s play here, Hamlet’s halfsardonic, half-serious self-accusation to Rosencrantz and Guildenstern: “I am very proud, revengeful, ambitious. . What should such fellows as I do crawling between earth and heaven?” (3.1.124–9). Freud’s projected journey to the Northwest Station has about it something of the same quality as the Italian walk he describes in his essay on “The Uncanny” in which time after time he arrived at the same place, “recognizable by some particular landmark”10—a “factor of involuntary repetition which surrounds with an uncanny atmosphere what would otherwise be innocent enough, and forces upon us the idea of something fateful and inescapable where otherwise we should have spoken of ‘chance’ only.”11 The recognizable landmark here is both the railway terminus and Hamlet. When he came to write up his ideas about Hamlet for The Interpretation of Dreams (1900), Freud himself made the same connection, bringing the quotation to the surface: The prince in the play, who had to disguise himself as a madman, was behaving just as dreams do in reality; so that we can say of dreams what Hamlet says of himself, concealing the true circumstances under a cloak of wit and unintelligibility: “I am but mad north-north-west.”12

Hamlet is a play not only informed with the uncanny but also informed about it. The Ghost is only the most explicit marker of uncanniness, the ultimate articulation of “uncertainty whether something is dead or alive.”13 In Hamlet, as we shall see, Shakespeare instates the uncanny as sharply as he does the Oedipus complex—or, to put the matter more precisely, Freud’s concept of uncanniness finds as explicit an

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expression in the play as does his concept of the complicated sexual rivalry between father and son. The essay on “The Uncanny,” as we have already several times noted, goes out of its way to deny the status of Shakespearean ghosts per se as instances of this phenomenon. We have seen that Hamlet is the subtext for some of Freud’s own self-analysis. It is also a powerful subtext for the essay on “The Uncanny,” despite (or because of?) the explicit disavowals of the relevance of Shakespeare’s ghosts. Thus the central literary work that provides Freud with his chief enabling example of uncanniness, Hoffmann’s story “The Sand-Man,” is described in terms that closely resemble the plot of Hamlet: In the story from Nathaniel’s childhood, the figures of his father and Coppelius represent the two opposites into which the father-image is split by the ambivalence of the child’s feeling: whereas the one threatens to blind him, that is, to castrate him, the other, the loving father, intercedes for his sight. That part of the complex which is most strongly expressed, the deathwish against the father, finds expression in the death of the good father, and Coppelius is made answerable for it.14

This division of the father into loving and threatening figures, one castrating and the other protecting, is accompanied by the presence of an apparently desirable young woman who turns out to be a mechanical creation of the bad father (Coppola / Coppelius) working in collusion with her supposed father, Professor Spalanzani: “But Olympia was an automaton whose works Spalanzani had made, and whose eyes Coppola, the Sand-Man, had put in.”15 This would be an unfairly reductive description of Ophelia, to be sure, but there are striking similarities in the structures of the two situations. In both the young woman is used as a bait or lure for a transaction involving the young man, the threatening father, and the “Professor,” his colleague or accomplice. As a consequence of these events (the death of his father, the threats of the Sand-Man, the discovery of the girl-doll’s true nature, the betrayal of the old men in league against him) the young student goes mad and kills himself. Thus in not talking about Hamlet Freud is in a sense talking about Hamlet, and Hamlet’s relationships with Claudius, Polonius, Ophelia, and the Ghost. Indeed the passage on the nonapplicability of the Shakespearean ghosts to the kind of uncertainty Freud calls “the uncanny” is introduced at precisely this point in his explication of “The Sand-Man,” as a way of turning from the apparent but unimportant uncanniness of Olympia’s status (“uncertainty whether an object is living or inanimate”16) to the centrality of the castration complex as figured in the Sand-Man’s threat to put out Nathaniel’s eyes. Two kinds of things cause a sensation of uncanniness: beliefs that have been surmounted, and repressed complexes.

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An uncanny experience occurs either when repressed infantile complexes have been revived by some impression, or when the primitive beliefs we have surmounted seem once more to be confirmed. . these two classes of uncanny experience are not always sharply distinguishable. When we consider that primitive beliefs are most intimately connected with infantile complexes, and are, in fact, based upon them, we shall not be greatly astonished to find the distinction often rather a hazy one.17 The distinction between what has been repressed and what has been surmounted cannot be transposed onto the uncanny in fiction without profound modification; for the realm of phantasy depends for its very existence on the fact that its content is not submitted to the reality-testing faculty.18

Here we have returned to the distinction that Freud makes in his letter to Fliess rejecting the seduction theory, between what happened “in reality” and what happened in fantasy. In Hamlet, as I will want to suggest, such distinctions, insofar as they can be made, are presented in the guise of encapsulated artifacts, or what are often called “insets”: the play within the play, the story of Old Hamlet’s death (“sleeping within my orchard”—a dream? and if so, whose?), Ophelia’s disturbingly knowledgeable ballads with their disconcerting sexual references, so ambiguously (and ambivalently) applicable to her father, brother, and lover. But at the center of the question of uncanniness lies not only the castration complex but also the compulsion to repeat. “Whatever reminds us of this inner repetition-compulsion is perceived as uncanny.”19 Repetition, and the repetition compulsion, are figured throughout Hamlet: in the double play, dumbshow and dialogue, their double existence never satisfactorily explained despite the ingenuity of critics; in the Queen’s two marriages, the twin husbands (“Look here upon this picture, and on this, / The counterfeit presentment of two brothers” [3.4.53–4]); in the double murder of fathers, Hamlet’s father killed by Claudius, Laertes’ father killed by Hamlet. Every critical observation on doubling in the play, from the psychoanalytic (“the decomposing of the original villain into at least three father figures, the ghost, Polonius, and Claudius”; “The splitting of the hero into a number of brother figures: Fortinbras, Horatio, Laertes, and Rosencrantz-and-Guildenstern”)20 to the rhetorical (“the most pregnant and interesting of [the play’s] linguistic doublings is undoubtedly hendiadys”)21 is an implicit commentary on the compulsion to repeat. Moreover, Hamlet is a play that enacts the repetition compulsion even as it describes it. (1) The ghost of old Hamlet appears to young Hamlet and urges him to revenge; (2) the ghost of young Hamlet, “pale as his shirt,” “with a look so piteous in purport / As if he had been loosed out of hell / To speak of horrors” (2.1.81–4) appears to Ophelia in her closet and, in dumbshow, raising a sigh both “piteous and profound” (94), returns from whence he has come; (3) the ghost of Ophelia, mad,

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appears before her brother Laertes and incites him to revenge for the death of their father Polonius. What, indeed, is revenge but the dramatization and acculturation of the repetition compulsion?

The anamorphic ghost The agent of repetition here, clearly, is the ghost. And what is a ghost? It is a memory trace. It is the sign of something missing, something omitted, something undone. It is itself at once a question, and the sign of putting things in question. Thus Barnardo, one of the officers on guard duty, suggests that “this portentous figure / Comes armed through our watch so like the King / That was and is the question of these wars” (Hamlet 1.1.112–14). Onstage, as in the plot of a tale or story, a ghost is the concretization of a missing presence, the sign of what is there by not being there. “’Tis here!” “’Tis here!” “’Tis gone!” cry the sentries (1.1.145–7). Horatio’s learned disquisition, reminding his onstage hearers and his offstage audience simultaneously of events in classical Rome and in Shakespeare’s recent play Julius Caesar, offers an historical (and stage-historical) context for the ghost: In the most high and palmy state of Rome, A little ere the mightiest Julius fell, The graves stood tenantless and the sheeted dead Did squeak and gibber in the Roman streets. (1.1.116–19)

Horatio associates the appearance of a ghost with the death of Julius Caesar. Jacques Lacan associates it with the castration complex, the “veiled phallus”: The hole in the real that results from loss, sets the signifier in motion. This hole provides the place for the projection of the missing signifier, which is essential to the structure of the Other. This is the signifier whose absence leaves the Other incapable of responding to your question, the signifier that can be purchased only with your own flesh and blood, the signifier that is essentially the veiled phallus. . swarms of images, from which the phenomena of mourning rise, assume the place of the phallus: not only the phenomena in which each individual instance of madness manifests itself, but also those which attest to one or another of the most remarkable collective madnesses of the community of men, one example of which is brought to the fore in Hamlet, i.e., the ghost, that image which can catch the soul of one and all unawares when someone’s departure from this life has not been accompanied by the rites that it calls for.22

What does it mean to say that the ghost takes the place of the missing signifier, the veiled phallus? The ghost—itself traditionally often veiled, sheeted, or shadowy in form—is a cultural marker of absence, a reminder of loss. Thus the very plot of Hamlet

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replicates the impossibility of the protagonist’s quest: “the very source of what makes Hamlet’s arm waver at every moment, is the narcissistic connection that Freud tells us about in his text on the decline of the Oedipus complex: one cannot strike the phallus, because the phallus, even the real phallus, is a ghost.”23 Thus, not only is the ghost the veiled phallus, but the phallus is also a ghost. Lacan takes as his point of departure Freud’s essay on “The Passing of the Oedipus Complex” (1925), which explores the dilemma of the child caught between his desires and his fear of castration. When the inevitable conflict arises between the child’s narcissistic investment in his own body and the “libidinal cathexis of the parent-objects,” writes Freud, the object-cathexes are given up and replaced by identification. The authority of the father or of the parents is introjected into the ego and there forms the kernel of the super-ego, which takes its severity from the father, perpetuates his prohibition against incest, and so insures the ego against a recurrence of the libinal object-cathexis.24

We might think that Freud’s “super-ego” and Lacan’s “Name-of-the-Father” would both be names for the Ghost in Hamlet. Yet this Lacan seems explicitly to deny when, writing on the subject of certainty in “The Unconscious and Repetition,” he remarks on “the weight of the sins of the father, borne by the ghost in the myth of Hamlet, which Freud couples with the myth of Oedipus.” The father, the Name-of-the-Father, sustains the structure of desire with the structure of the law—but the inheritance of the father is that which Kierkegaard designates for us, namely, his sin. Where does Hamlet’s ghost come from, if not from the place from which he denounces his brother for surprising him and cutting him off in the full flower of his sins? And far from providing Hamlet with the prohibitions of the Law that would allow his desire to survive, this too ideal father is constantly being doubted.25

The Ghost is incompletely a representative of the Law, because both he and the tale he tells allow the son to doubt. He puts in question his own being as well as his message. Is he a spirit of health or goblin damn’d? Is this the real Law? Is this the truth? As long as the Law of the father is doubted or put in question, it cannot be (or is not) internalized, not assimilated into the symbolic, and therefore blocks rather than facilitates Hamlet’s own passage into the symbolic, where he will find his desire. The finding of desire is the recognition of lack, the acceptance of castration. But the doubt Hamlet experiences gives him the idea that there is something left. “It is here,” says Lacan, “that Freud lays all his stress—doubt is the support of his certainty.” He goes on to explain why: “this is precisely the sign,” he says, “that there is something to preserve. Doubt, then, is a sign of resistance.”26

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To put the matter in a slightly different way: the Name-of-the-Father is the dead father. This father—the Ghost—isn’t dead enough. The injunction to “Remember me” suggests that he is not quite dead. Hamlet must renounce him, must internalize the Law by forgetting, not by remembering. This is the only way he can be put in touch with his own desires, and with the symbolic. But Hamlet is the poet of doubt. Polonius reads aloud to the King and Queen Hamlet’s love poem to Ophelia, a paean to negation: Doubt thou the stars are fire, Doubt that the sun doth move, Doubt truth to be a liar, But never doubt I love. (2.2.115–18)

The meaning of “doubt” is itself in doubt as the phrase is repeated, shifting from something like “dispute” or “challenge” to “suspect” or “fear.” The litany of doubt here is an invitation to put things in question, at the same time that it puts in question the whole procedure of putting something in question. When we consider, additionally, the very dubious “truth” value of the statement that “the stars are fire” and “the sun doth move”—both presumptions put in question by Renaissance science—we find that a verse that purports to assert certainty and closure in fact undermines that certainty in every gesture. We should distinguish here between repression and foreclosure in the child’s experience of the symbolic order. Repression (Verdrängung) submerges or covers over unconscious thoughts that foreclosure (Verwerfung) does not permit. In other words, foreclosure preempts the experiences that repression would conceal. For both Lacan and Freud, what makes the difference here is castration, or the acceptance of castration. If a child forecloses the idea of castration, he (or she) rejects the Name-ofthe-Father in favor of the Desire-of-the-Mother. Rather than accepting the loss of the phallus, the child wishes to be the mother’s phallus, the completion of her desire, thus rejecting the limits implied by castration: the Law of the Father, the network of social roles (language, kinship, prohibitions, gender roles) that make up what Lacan calls the symbolic order. Lacan calls this “the failure of the paternal metaphor,”27 and predicts that the foreclosure of the Name-of-the-Father, of the constitution of the Law in the symbolic, can lead to psychosis, and to delusions. It is the lack of the Name-of-the-Father in that place which, by the hole that it opens up in the signified, sets off the cascade of reshapings of the signifier from which the increasing disaster of the imaginary proceeds, to the point at which the level is reached at which signifier and signified are stabilized in the delusional metaphor. But how can the Name-of-the-Father be called by the subject to the only place in which it

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could have reached him and in which it has never been? Simply by a real father, not necessarily by the subject’s own father, but by A-father.28

The failure of the paternal metaphor. This is not unrelated to what might be called paternal undecidability, or the undecidability of paternity—the fact, so often commented on in Shakespeare’s plays, that the father is always a suppositional father, a father by imputation, rather than by unimpeachable biological proof. “I think this is your daughter,” says Don Pedro to Leonato at the beginning of Much Ado About Nothing, and Leonato replies, “Her mother hath many times told me so” (1.1.97). (As if to underscore the point, Benedick interposes with interest, “Were you in doubt, sir, that you ask’d her?”) Prospero speaks to the same paternal obsession when he replies to Miranda’s question, “Thy mother was a piece of virtue, and / She said thou wast my daughter” (The Tempest 1.2.56–7). This doubt, on which paternity, legitimacy, inheritance, primogeniture, and succession all depend, is the anxiety at the root of the cultural failure of the paternal metaphor—that is, its failure because of its status as metaphor, its nontranslatability into the realm of proof. And when the failure of the paternal metaphor is regarded, not from the standpoint of the father contemplating the horror of bastardy, but from the point of view of the son, we have the dilemma of Hamlet, who simultaneously seeks and denies the authority of the law, the imprint of the father, what he calls “thy commandment” and “my word,” (1.5.102; 110)—the Ghost’s word of command, “his speech, the word (le mot), let us say of his authority” the place reserved for “the Name-of-the-Father in the promulgation of the law.”29 The more the father is idealized, the more problematic is the presence of doubt, the gap in certainty that instates paternal undecidability: the ravaging effects of the paternal figure are to be observed with particular frequency in cases where the father really has the function of a legislator, or at least has the upper hand, whether in fact he is one of those fathers who make the laws or whether he poses as the pillar of the faith, as a paragon of integrity and devotion, as virtuous or as a virtuoso, by serving a work of salvation, of whatever object or lack of object, of nation or of birth, of safeguard or salubrity, of legacy or legality, of the pure, the impure or of empire, all ideals that provide him with all too many opportunities of being in a posture of undeserving, inadequacy, even of fraud, and, in short, of excluding the Name-of-the-Father from its position in the signifier.30

Confronted with an overplus, a superfluity of fathers (psychoanalytic readers all comment on the splitting of the father into Claudius, Polonius, even old Fortinbras and old Norway), Hamlet finds both too many fathers and too few—he is too much in the son, but where is paternity, where is the law? Displacing onto these easier targets complaints he is blocked from voicing to the Ghost (because the Ghost is his father? because the Ghost is a ghost? because the Ghost is dead? but he is not dead, otherwise he would not walk, and how can he be dead without ever really having

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been alive?), Hamlet encounters doubt. Indeed, as in the case of the Medusa, where a multiplicity of penises is imagined to cover the unimaginable horror of no penis, of castration, so here the multiplicity of fathers covers the fact of lack. Covers it, in Hamlet, by foreclosing rather than repressing it. We have seen that Lacan, following Freud, sees doubt as the sign of resistance. The image that he chooses to describe this doubt in the case of dream narratives is that of the mark, spot, or stain: “that which marks, stains, spots the text of any dream communication—I am not sure, I doubt.”31 The stain is the sign of uncertainty—of the fact that one cannot be certain. And this too seems to be the function of the spot or stain in Hamlet. When Hamlet challenges his mother in her bedroom to turn her eyes, her gaze, inward, she sees “such black and grained spots / As will not leave their tinct” (3.4.90–1). These spots are not certainties but gaps, doubts—what did she do? and why? Most centrally, in his soliloquy in Act 4 on thinking and “dull revenge,” Hamlet says of himself, “How stand I then, / That have a father kill’d, a mother stain’d” (4.4.56–7), and the ambiguity of the grammatical construction is telling. He has a father who has been killed, a mother who has been stained—but by whom? Does Mixcraft Pro Studio Crack not also by the terms of this utterance assert, or acknowledge, that he has killed a father, stained a mother? In his essay on Hamlet, Lacan thus concerns himself with Shakespeare’s play as a remarkable example of the topology of human desire, “the drama of Hamlet as the man who has lost the way of his desire.”32 This is not the only case in which Lacan finds the way of his own theoretical desire by turning to a Renaissance artifact. On another occasion he examines one of the most striking of Renaissance paintings, a painting which has lately excited a good deal of commentary among literary theorists, Holbein’s portrait of 1533 called The Ambassadors. The famous work, which contains a preeminent example of the optical device known as the anamorphosis, discloses another ghost. Begin by walking out of the room, in which no doubt it has long held your attention. It is then that, turning round as you leave—as the author of the Anamorphoses describes it—you apprehend in this form. . What? A skull.33

The object half obscured beneath the feet of the ambassadors in the depiction of vanitas, the skull, cannot fail to remind us of the skull in Hamlet—which is itself, in Act 5, followed by what Lacan in fact identifies in the Hamlet essay as a vanitas: the objects wagered in the final duel scene, he writes, are “staked against death. This is what gives their presentation the character of, what is called a vanitas in the religious tradition.”34 Holbein’s skull, which is not seen as a skull except from an exceptional

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or eccentric angle, is called “the phallic symbol, the anamorphic ghost.”35 Yet, Lacan insists, what we see here is “not the phallic symbol, the anamorphic ghost, but the gaze as such, in its pulsatile, dazzling and spread out function, as it is in this picture.”36 “Look here upon this picture, and on this” (3.4.53). “The King is a thing. . of nothing” (4.2.27–9). The anamorphic ghost, the embedded, embodied, and distorted figure of a ghostly skull beneath the apparently solid feet of the ambassadors—what is this but an anamorphism of the ghost and the Ghost, the Ghost (once again, uncannily, inevitably) of Hamlet’s father? Lacan goes on: This picture is simply what any picture is, a trap for the gaze. In any picture, it is precisely in seeking the gaze in each of its points that you will see it disappear.37

“This picture is simply what any picture is, a trap for the gaze.” What is this but the play-within, the “Mousetrap,” “the image of a murder done in Vienna” (3.2.233–4). Long treated as a dramatic presentation that encodes misdirection, putting the real play in the audience, setting up Claudius and Gertrude as the real Player King and Player Queen, the “Mouse-trap,” also known as “The Murder of Gonzago,” appropriates the gaze and makes it the function of the play. Again Lacan’s description (in Four Concepts) of The Ambassadors is apposite: In Holbein’s picture I showed you at once—without hiding any more than usual—the singular object floating in the foreground, which is there to be looked at, in order to catch, I would almost say, to catch in its trap, the observer, that is to say us. . The secret of this picture is given at the moment when, moving slightly away, little by little, to the left, then turning around, we see what the magical floating object signifies. It reflects our own nothingness, in the figure of the death’s head.38 That is not how it is presented at first. . At the very heart of the period in which the subject emerged and geometral optics was an object of research, Holbein makes visible for us here something that is simply the subject as annihilated—annihilated in the form that is, strictly speaking, the imaged embodiment. . of castration, which for us, centres the whole organization of the desires through the framework of the fundamental drives.39

Holbein’s portrait shows “the subject as annihilated”—which is the subject of Hamlet, a play situated on the cusp of the emergence of what has come to be known as the modern subject.40 For there is a way in which Hamlet performs the same operation as Holbein’s painting upon the gaze and the trope of vanitas. Its final tableau of the death’s head in the graveyard scene is another critique of the subject. What then is being caught in the trap Hamlet sets for the King, the King who is a thing of nothing? Is it Claudius who is caught in the “Mouse-trap,” or Hamlet as the signifier of the modern subject, already marked by negation, already dressed in black?

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Lacan’s own theoretical fantasy of the distortion produced by an anamorphism is determinedly phallic: How is it that nobody has ever thought of connecting this with. . the effect of an erection? Imagine a tattoo traced on the sexual organ ad hoc in the state of repose and assuming its, if I may say so, developed form in another state. How can we not see here. . something symbolic of the function of the lack, of the appearance of the phallic ghost?41

“My father, in his habit as he lived!” (3.4.137), “My father’s spirit—in arms!” (1.2.255), “thou, dead corse, again in complete steel” (1.4.52). The anamorphic ghost of old Hamlet, erected to full form by the gaze, contrasts sharply with the same figure in the “state of repose,” recumbent, passive, “sleeping within my orchard” (1.5.59), who receives the poison in the ear, the incestuous rape of a brother. The Ghost recounts the fantasy-nightmare of his own castration: “Thus was I, sleeping, by a brother’s hand / Of life, of crown, of queen at once dispatch’d, / Cut off even in the blossoms of my sin” (1.5.74–6). This is what Hamlet has already fantasized, what he recalls in his ejaculation, “O my prophetic soul!” (1.5.40). And as in the case of Julius Caesar, the dead man turned ghost is more powerful than he was when living, precisely because he crosses boundaries, is not only transgressive but in transgression, a sign simultaneously of limit and of the violation of that limit, the nutshell and the bad dreams. Thus the murder empowers the Ghost and his ghostly rhetoric, the language spoken in, by, and through the Name-of-the-Father. The Hyperion-father who obsesses Hamlet in his soliloquies and in his conversations with his mother is erected from this moment, from the moment of the father’s absence and death, half-guiltily acknowledged as the son’s desire. The castration fantasy of the sleeping father in the orchard enacts both Hamlet’s desire and its repression, which are in this moment identical. Here again Lacan is suggestive, when he writes of the impossibility of not wanting to desire: what does not wanting to desire mean? The whole of analytic experience—which merely gives form to what is for each individual at the very root of his experience—shows us that not to want to desire and to desire are the same thing. To desire involves a defensive phase that makes it identical with not wanting to desire. Not wanting to desire is wanting not to desire.42

This is the condition in which we encounter Hamlet for much of the play, the condition of desiring not to desire. Look where his desires have gotten him—or not gotten him. He walks out of Ophelia’s closet and into Gertrude’s. Here again we have closet drama, and of a high order—plays not meant to be acted. Hamlet’s accusation of his mother catches her in the trap set for the gaze: “O Hamlet, speak no more! /

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Thou turn’st mine eyes into my very soul, / And there I see such black and grained spots / As will not leave their tinct” (3.4.88–91). The black spot she sees is Hamlet, Hamlet as marker, Hamlet as floating signifier, as his blackness becomes metonymically a sign of mourning, of negation, of absence, of the impossible desire to tell the difference between desire and the repression of desire.

What would your gracious figure? The ghostly phallus as anamorphosis—that is, as form—assumes a certain visibility, however veiled. The Name-of-the-Father, on the other hand, is a function of the signifier, of language as a system of signs rather than shapes. As we shall see, the ghost— in Hamlet, as well as in a number of other literary guises—presents itself not only as a trap for the gaze but also a trope for the voice. In an influential essay on prosopopeia as the “fiction of the voice-from-beyondthe-grave,” Paul de Man writes: It is the figure of prosopopeia, the fiction of an apostrophe to an absent, deceased, or voiceless entity, which posits the possibility of the latter’s reply, and confers upon it the power of speech. Voice assumes mouth, eye, and finally face, a chain that is manifest in the etymology of the trope’s name, prosopon poiein, to confer a mask or a face (prosopon). Prosopopeia is the trope of autobiography, by which one’s name, as in the Milton poem, is made as intelligible and memorable as a face. Our topic deals with the giving and taking away of faces, with face and deface, figure, figuration and disfiguration.43

The quotation from Milton with which de Man is here concerned is, perhaps inevitably, the sonnet “On Shakespeare” as cited and discussed in Wordsworth’s Essays Upon Epitaphs. De Man windows 8 download free out the thirteenth and fourteenth lines of this sixteen-line sonnet for special commentary. Then thou our fancy of itself bereaving Dost make us marble with too much conceiving.

Here de Man observes that the phrase “dost make us marble,” in the Essays Upon Epitaphs, “cannot fail to evoke the latent threat that inhabits prosopopeia, namely that by making the dead speak, the symmetrical structure of the trope implies, by the same token, that the living are struck dumb, frozen in their own death.”44 Milton’s sonnet “On Shakespeare” is dated 1630, and was published in the Second Folio of Shakespeare’s Plays in 1632. Merritt Y. Hughes speculates that “Milton’s questionable date, 1630, suggests that the poem was written some time before its publication, possibly with the expectation that the Stratford monument instead of the Droeshout portrait would be represented as the frontispiece of the

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Folio.”45 Thus the reference to “Marble,” as well as the “piled Stones” of line 2, the “Monument” of line 8 and the “Tomb” of line 16 would be pertinent to the memorial occasion, and to the illustration accompanying the memorial verses. “Dost make us Marble,” as Hughes also points out in a note, closely resembles the apostrophe to Melancholy in Il Penseroso, who is urged to “Forget thyself to Marble” (1.42). In the sonnet, however—and this is part of de Man’s point—it is the spectator, the reader, the mourner who becomes marble. As Michael Riffaterre comments, paraphrasing de Man’s argument: Chiasmus, the symmetrical structure of prosopopeia, entails that, by making the dead speak, the living are struck dumb—they too become the monument. Prosopopeia thus stakes out a figural space for the chiasmic interpretation: either the subject will take over the object, or it will be penetrated by the object.46

But in the case of the Stratford monument (or indeed, though less neatly, the Droeshout portrait), this exchange of properties has already taken place. The voice of the dead Shakespeare pictured on the tomb (and in the sonnet) speaks through the plays that succeed them in the Folio. Moreover, the same exchange has been prefigured and depicted in Shakespeare’s plays themselves, most straightforwardly—if such a figuration is ever straightforward—in The Winter’s Tale, where a statue comes to life and speaks. The awakening of Hermione, a true animation of the uncanny, is prepared for by a moment in the scene that precedes it, when an anonymous Third Gentleman reports the wonderment of the court at the reunion of King Leontes and his lost daughter Perdita. At the relation of the Queen’s death, he reports, Perdita was so moved that “Who was most marble, there changed colour” (5.2.89–90). The intimation is the more pointed because of the specific moment at which it occurs in the narrative—“the relation of the Queen’s death”—and it sets up, in dramatic terms, the mysterious finale, the revelation of a truth not known to the audience: that Hermione is alive. The awakening of the Queen itself takes the form of apostrophe, as Leontes, Perdita, and Paulina all address the “dear stone” and offer to join her in her inanimate fate: “does not the stone rebuke me / For being more stone than it? O royal piece! / There’s magic in thy majesty, which has / My evils conjur’d to remembrance, and / From thy admiring daughter took the spirits, / Standing like stone with thee” (5.3.37–42). Here a trope familiar from lyric “comes to life,” as it were, in drama, and there occurs a double uncanniness. As the statue of Hermione moves and speaks, the figure of prosopopeia likewise comes alive. The trope of the living and speaking statue, posing the question of “whether an object is living or inanimate”47 as does the “statue of Hermione” is certainly

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not unique to Shakespeare. To broaden the context of this discussion of uncanny authority, I will here briefly wander through a larger sculpture garden of ghostly animation. Molière’s Dom Juan, ou Le Festin de Pierre, first acted in 1665,48 includes a particularly “scandalous” (in Shoshana Felman’s sense) example of the trope of the talking stone. Molière’s subtitle depends on a punning doubleness in “Pierre,” which means both “stone” and “Peter,” the name of the Commander whose statue walks and talks in El burlador de Sevilla y Convidado de Piedra—a play by the Spaniard Tirso de Molina published in 1632, which was the principal source for Dom Juan. Molière’s statue has no name—it is described as “the Statue of the Commander” in the list of dramatis personae, and is addressed formally by both Dom Juan and Sganarelle as “Your Excellency the Commander.” In Molière’s play the statue first “comes to life” in Act 3 when it nods in response to an invitation to dine with Dom Juan, then returns the compliment in Act 4, inviting Dom Juan to dinner, to the “stone feast” of the subtitle. When it appears in Mozart’s Don Giovanni, and especially in Peter Shaffer’s recent drama on the life of Mozart, Amadeus, the statue becomes a reproving father, a revenger of his own death, a superego looming enormous over the philandering Dom Juan and bearing him off to hell. In Mozart’s opera, with libretto by Lorenzo da Ponte, the Commendatore is killed by Don Giovanni when he discovers Giovanni attempting to seduce his daughter.49 In Act 2 of the opera, the statue speaks, predicting Giovanni’s death. The servant Leporello thinks its voice comes from another world, but Giovanni assumes it to be that of a mortal antagonist, and strikes out with his sword. The inscription on the statue proclaims its purpose of vengeance. When the statue nods, twice, in response to the invitation to supper tended by Leporello, Giovanni demands that it speak: “Speak if you can! Shall I see you at supper?” The statue answers affirmatively, and duly appears—accompanied by the portentous music of the Overture—in Giovanni’s house, inviting Giovanni to sup with him in turn, and no longer seeking revenge, but rather repentance. Giovanni accepts the dinner invitation, but refuses to repent, and is engulfed in flames. The statue is referred to several times in this act as “the stone man,” and Leporello seems to draw attention to its stoniness and that of Giovanni when he remarks to Donna Elvira that his master “has a heart of stone.” When it disappears, the statue of the Commendatore is also, interestingly, described as a ghost, as Donna Elvira concludes that “It is surely the ghost I met,” when she left Giovanni’s house, having failed—like the statue—to persuade him to repent. In this version, the Commendatore is a punishing father figure, but specifically the father of a woman betrayed by the hero. Killed by inadvertence (as is Polonius, who occupies a similar paternal role), he reappears in the plot as an undecidable

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apparition who is read differently by the two spectators, Giovanni and Leporello. For all his differences from them, Leporello is in something of the place of Horatio and the sentries, crediting the other-worldly origin of the spectre, and eliciting only gesture —not language—from his invitation. Giovanni demands speech, responds to his intercourse with the statue with bravado, and is then disconcerted by a second visit. The transferential mention of the “heart of stone,” which is attributed not to the Commendatore, who is literally a stone man, but to Don Giovanni, who behaves like one, may remind us of Hermione and Leontes (“does not the stone rebuke me / For being more stone than it?” [The Winter’s Tale 5.3.37–8]) and also of the language of Othello as characterized by Stanley Cavell: As he is the one who gives out lies about her, so he is the one who will give her a stone heart for her stone body, as if in his words of stone which confound the figurative and literal there is the confounding of the incantations of poetry and magic. He makes of her the thing he feels (“my heart is turned to stone” [4.1.178]). . .50

An analogous transference is arguably taking place in Hamlet, as the son imputes to the Ghost commands and wishes he would like to receive from the father, and which have the dual authority of concurring with (because they personate) his own desires, and presenting themselves as externally (and paternally) motivated instructions, imposed upon rather than by the ambivalently situated son. Hamlet’s word for this stony instruction is the appropriately chosen “commandment” (“thy commandment all alone shall live / Within the book and volume of my brain” [1.5.102–3]). As Moses received the stone tablets of the law, so Hamlet sets down in his tables the words he hears from—or the words he gives to—the Ghost. There are some grounds for arguing a connection between Mozart and Hamlet. Mozart attended a production of Hamlet staged by a touring company in Salzburg in 1780, and subsequently wrote to his father, “If the speech of the Ghost in Hamlet were not so long, it would be far more effective.” In calculating the effect of a subterranean ghostly voice in the theater—in this case for Idomeneo—he was concerned that the dramatic intervention be unearthly: Picture to yourself the theatre, and remember that the voice must be terrifying—must penetrate—that the audience must believe that it really exists. Well, how can this effect be produced if the speech is too long, for in this case the listeners will become more and more convinced that it means nothing. If the speech of the Ghost in Hamlet were not so long, it would be far more effective.51

In 1789 a German newspaper, reviewing a performance of Don Giovanni, commented that “Mozart seems to have learned the language of ghosts from Shakespeare—a

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hollow, sepulchral tone seemed to rise from the earth; it was as though the shades of the departed were seen to issue from their resting-places.”52 The comparison has also appealed to the imagination of modern Mozart scholars. William Gresser compares Don Giovanni Act 2 scene 7 explicitly to Hamlet, remarking on the problem of temporality in Mozart’s second act, and on the belief that a ghost could only walk between midnight and dawn.53 Peter Shaffer’s Amadeus points out the parallel. News of the death of Mozart’s stern father Leopold is brought to him by two “venticelli,” two “little winds,” purveyors of gossip and rumor. Salieri, who is with Mozart at the time, consoles him with words that closely resemble Claudius’ to Hamlet (“Do not despair. Death is inevitable, my friend”)54 and promptly transforms himself into a father substitute, opening his arms “in a wide gesture of paternal benevolence,” as Mozart, eluding this embrace, falls on his knees and cries “Papa!” “So rose the Ghost Father in Don Giovanni!” comments Salieri, as the scene closes. The next scene (2.9) begins with “the two grim chords which open the overture to Don Giovanni,” and which also accompany on the stage “the silhouette of a giant black figure, in cloak and tricorne hat. It extends its arms menacingly and engulfingly, toward its begetter”—that is, toward Mozart. And Salieri comments to the audience, as if completing his previous thought, “A father more accusing than any in opera.”55 Mozart reports to Salieri that his wife thinks he’s mad, and that he thinks so too. He has seen a “Figure in [his] dreams” (2.13) gray and masked, who instructed him “Take up your pen and write a Requiem” (2.17). And Salieri costumes himself, deliberately, in a cloak and mask of gray, “as—the Messenger of God!” “as the Figure of his dreams! [Urging] ‘Come!—Come!—Come!. . .’” (2.15): Salieri: He stood swaying, as if he would faint off into death. But suddenly—incredibly—he realized all his little strength, and in a clear voice called down to me their words out of his opera Don Giovanni, inviting the statue to dinner. Mozart: [Pushing open the “window”] O statua gentillisima, venite a cena! [He beckons in his turn] Salieri: For a moment one terrified man looked at another. Then—unbelievably—I found myself nodding, just as in the opera. Starting to move across the street! [The rising and falling scale passage from the Overture to Don Giovanni sounds darkly, looped in sinister repetition. To this hollow music Salieri marches slowly upstage.] Pushing down the latch of his door—stamping up the stairs with stone feet. There was no stopping it. I was in his dreams!56

Shaffer, in describing the masked apparition, writes that “he was not a crudely melodramatic figure—a spooky, improbable Messenger of Death—but a more poetic and dangerous apparition, a messenger from God stepping out of Mozart’s confessed dreams.”57

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From this father–son encounter, with its reminder of the way the father can personate both Death and the Law, we are led back to Hamlet, as Freud’s walk through the provincial town in Italy led unerringly, and uncannily, back to the quarter inhabited by prostitutes. In his discussion of the Oedipus complex Freud stresses the fact that Hamlet was “written immediately after the death of Shakespeare’s father (in 1601), that is, under the immediate impact of his bereavement and, we may well assume, while his childhood feelings about his father had been freshly revived.”58 Freud adds that Shakespeare had lost his own son, Hamnet, at an early age, and thus was in a double position of bereavement, a son mourning a father and a father mourning a son. (This, of course, is the doubled situation Joyce describes in Ulysses, and the occasion for the remarkable discussion of Hamlet in that novel: “Gravediggers bury Hamlet père and Hamlet fils. A king and a prince at last in death, with incidental music.”)59 Hermione and the Commander—two stony “statues,” both taken as monuments to (and representations of) the dead, the dead parent. One “statue” actually made of stone that nods and speaks, inviting a friend to supper, the other “statue” deservedly enrobed in its quotation marks, since it is actually the queen herself, Hermione masquerading as a statue, condemned to the “fate of stone” by her husband’s skepticism. As Stanley Cavell remarks, “One can see this as the projection of his own sense of numbness, of living death. . the man’s refusal of knowledge of his other is an imagination of stone.”60 The Ghost in Hamlet resembles both of these monumental figures. Like them, he is specifically associated with the “fate of stone,” with the marble sepulchre. “Tell,” pleads Hamlet, Why thy canoniz’d bones, hearsed in death, Have burst their cerements, why the sepulchre Wherein we saw thee quietly inurn’d Hath op’d his ponderous and marble jaws To cast thee up again. (1.4.47–51)

The sudden animation of the monument, opening “his ponderous and marble jaws,” underscores the uncanniness of the apparition which is not itself a statue but is, nonetheless, a similarly idealizing representation. And the key question about this apparition, as about the others, is whether it will speak. The statue of the Commander in Molière first nods, startling the servant Sagnarelle, and subsequently speaks to Dom Juan, inviting him to supper. The final test for Hermione is articulated by Camillo: “If she pertain to life, let her speak too!” (The Winter’s Tale 5.3.113). The question of whether the Ghost will speak is a central preoccupation of the whole first Act of Hamlet, and has a great deal to do with the

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way it is described and addressed. “It would be spoke to,” says Barnardo. Horatio, as a “scholar,” is asked to do the job. Popular belief had it that “A ghost has not the power to speak till it has been first spoken to; so that, notwithstanding the urgency of the business on which it may come, everything must stand still till the person visited can find sufficient courage to speak to it.”61 Horatio valiantly tries to interview it on two occasions in scene 1, urged on by Marcellus’ apt invitation, “Question it, Horatio”: What art thou that usurp’st this time of night, Together with that fair and warlike form In which the majesty of buried Denmark Did sometimes march? By heaven I charge thee speak. Marcellus: It is offended. Barnardo: See, it stalks away. Horatio: Stay. Speak. Speak. I charge thee speak. Exit Ghost (1.1.49–54) Horatio:

Horatio:

Stay, illusion: If thou hast any sound or use of voice, Speak to me. If there be any good thing to be done That may to thee do ease, and grace to me, Speak to me; If thou art privy to thy country’s fate, Which, happily, foreknowing may avoid, O speak; Or if thou hast uphoarded in thy life Extorted treasure in the womb of earth, For which they say your spirits oft walk in death, Speak of it, stay and speak. (1.1.130–42)

The cock crows, and though Barnardo thinks “it was about to speak,” it starts away. We may notice that the constant pronoun here is it, not he, and that the “apparition” is carefully described as “like the King,” as one who “usurp’st” the time of the night (a loaded word in the circumstances) and the “fair and warlike form” of the dead King, “buried Denmark,” was wont to appear. “It” = King Hamlet. “It” is a space of conjecture, to be questioned. But the proof is to come, with the imparting of this tale to “young Hamlet.” “For upon my life,” says Horatio, “this spirit, dumb to us, will speak to him” (175). Cautiously, we may return to de Man’s definition of prosopopeia, the master trope, the trope of tropes: “the fiction of the voice-from-beyond-the-grave,”62 “the fiction of an apostrophe to an absent, deceased, or voiceless entity, which posits the possibility of the latter’s reply, and confers upon it the power of speech.”63 This description not only coincides with the dramatic circumstances of the first scene of

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Hamlet, it exemplifies it. “Our topic deals with the giving and taking away of faces, with face and deface, figure, figuration and disfiguration.64 When Hamlet is informed by Horatio of the appearance of “a figure like your father” (1.2.199) he asks, inevitably, “Did you not speak to it?” But the other question, on which he is curiously insistent, is whether the sentries saw the apparition’s face: “saw you not his face?” “look’d he, frowningly?” “Pale, or red?” “And fix’d his eyes upon you?” (228–33). We know that the Elizabethans often used its and his interchangeably but still there is something striking about Hamlet’s recurrent use of he and his after all the its of scene 1. Hamlet himself will return to the neuter pronoun after this exchange (“Perchance ’twill walk again” [243]; “If it assume my noble father’s person / I’ll speak to it” [244–45]) so that the brief gendering of the figure comes as a moment of achieved personating or animation, to be followed by a return to the objectification of it, which, as the OED tells us, is used “now only of things without life.” Is the Ghost animate or inanimate? Certainly it is animated—but the he / it distinction marks an act of naming that is an act of choice, confirmed when Hamlet sees the Ghost face to face: Horatio: Look, my lord, it comes. Hamlet: Angels and ministers of grace defend us! Be thou a spirit of health or goblin damn’d, Bring with thee airs from heaven or blasts from hell, Be thy intents wicked or charitable, Thou com’st in such a questionable shape That I will speak to thee. I’ll call thee Hamlet, King, father, royal Dane. O, answer me. (1.4.38–45)

Critical attention has usually been focused on the spirit / goblin, heaven / hell problem here—is this a false ghost or a true ghost, a delusion or a sign? But what seems equally central is the structure of address. Hamlet chooses to name the Ghost with those names which are for him most problematical: King, father, royal Dane.65 Hamlet addresses the “questionable shape” and brings it to speech, and therefore to a kind of life. Does he, in doing so, fulfill de Man’s dire prophecy: “the latent threat that inhabits prosopopeia, namely that by making the dead speak, the symmetrical structure of the trope implies, by the same token, that the living are struck dumb, frozen in their own death?”66 In the fiction of address, what Jonathan Culler suggestively terms “this sinister reciprocity”67 is always present as a threat. But if it is latent in lyric, it may become manifest in drama, and in Hamlet it does. This is the nature of revenge in Hamlet, the unremitting demand of the Ghost, leading to Hamlet’s final paradoxical declaration,

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“I am dead.” De Man elsewhere points out that “the object of the apostrophe is only addressed in terms of the activity that it provokes in the addressing subject.”68 Our attention is focused on the speaker. Culler interestingly comments on this argument that “apostrophe involves a drama of ‘the one mind’s modifications,’”69 and I would like to take his metaphor here seriously—for it is precisely a dramatic situation that is produced by this structure of address, which is why it is plausible to say that Hamlet constructs his own Ghost, makes use of the “gracious figure” of his father by utilizing the equally gracious figure of prosopopeia. Since apostrophe and prosopopeia so often involve a sensation of loss (not only in the post-Enlightenment lyric as observed by commentators like de Man, Culler, and Hartman, but in the elegaic tradition and the epitaphic texts of the Renaissance), the fiction of address itself performs a paradoxical function, not unlike that performed by Hamlet’s “I am dead”: it instates that which it mourns, makes present that which it declares absent and lost. “The poem,” says Culler, “denies temporality in the very phrases—recollections—that acknowledge its claims,” the narrator can “find, in his poetic ability to invoke [the mourned object] as a transcendent presence, a sense of his own transcendent continuity.”70 This is the transaction that takes place in Hamlet. “I am dead” and “I am alive to contemplate and mourn—and avenge—the dead” coexist in the same sensibility, in the same moment of naming. And this capacity, on the part of apostrophe and prosopopeia, is, exactly, dramatic: “Apostrophe is not the representation of an event; if it works, it produces a fictive, discursive event.”71 In Hamlet (as in The Winter’s Tale) the effect of the dramatic mode is to dis-figure the trope of address to a dead or inanimate object, and ventriloquize its response as part of the ongoing dramatic action. “Marry, how tropically!” (Hamlet 3.2.237–8) The Ghost is not—or not only—an instance of the unmetaphoring72 of prosopopeia. It is also the manifestation of that “latent threat” implicit in the trope itself. The rhetorical figure (“a figure like your father,” 1.2.199), under the operation of the uncanny, comes to life, is dis- or un-figured (“then saw you not his face,” 1.2.229), and exacts its sinister reciprocity: “that the living are. . frozen in their own death.”73

Begging the question Uncanny reciprocity is thus created by the transference of death to the living and voice to the dead. But what does the dead voice say? What kind of commandment does the ghostly father in Hamlet hand down? The Ghost’s commandment comes in the form of a double imperative: “Remember me!” and “revenge!” What I will attempt to demonstrate here is that this

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double imperative is in fact a double bind. But first, a look at the first part of the commandment, the imperative to remember. Hamlet is indeed a play obsessively concerned with remembering and forgetting. Not only does the Ghost in his first appearance call upon Hamlet to “Remember me,” and provoke his son to take that “commandment” as his “word” (1.5.91–110); when he appears again in the Queen’s closet he makes the same demand, this time in the negative: “Do not forget.” (3.4.110). Claudius, the new King, acknowledges that “Though yet of Hamlet our dear brother’s death / The memory be green” (1.2.1–2) and a fit circumstance for grief, yet insists that “we with wisest sorrow think on him / Together with remembrance of ourselves” (6–7). Hamlet, in soliloquy, is pained by the memory of his mother’s passionate attachment to his father: “Heaven and earth, / Must I remember? Why, she would hang on him / As if increase of appetite had grown / By what it fed on” (1.2.142–5). And “O God, a beast that wants discourse of reason / Would have mourn’d longer” (150–1). In a sardonic mood he laments the frailty of memory two months after his father’s death (and his mother’s remarriage): O heavens, die two months ago and not forgotten yet! Then there’s hope a great man’s memory may outlive his life half a year. But by’r lady a man must build churches then, or else shall a suffer not thinking on, with the hobby-horse, whose epitaph is ‘For O, for O, the hobby-horse is forgot’. (3.2.128–33)74

When he comes to her closet, Gertrude, chiding him for his flippancy, asks “Have you forgot me?” and receives a stinging reply: “No, by the rood, not so. / You are the Queen, your husband’s brother’s wife, / And, would it were not so, you are my mother” (3.4.13–15). When in the same scene, after the Ghost’s injunction: “Do not forget!” Hamlet reminds her that he must go to England, she answers, “Alack, / I had forgot” (201). Ophelia herself is constantly associated with the need to remember. Laertes urges her to “remember well” (1.3.84) his cautions about Hamlet’s untrustworthiness as a suitor, and she answers that “’Tis in my memory lock’d” (85). In the scene where she is “loosed” to Hamlet in the lobby he says to her, “Nymph, in thy orisons / Be all my sins remember’d” (3.1.89–90) and she offers him “remembrances of yours / That I have longed long to re-deliver” (93–4). Her next offerings of remembrance will be the flower-giving, when she gives her brother “rosemary, that’s for remembrance—pray / you, love, remember. And there is pansies, that for / thoughts” (4.5.173–5). “A document in madness: thoughts and remembrance fitted,” he concludes (4.5.176–7). Forgetting, and especially forgetting oneself, is closely connected to manners, but also to something more. Hamlet greets Horatio, whom he has not seen since

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Wittenberg, with “Horatio, or I do forget myself” (1.2.161). Much later in the play he apologizes for grappling with Laertes: “I am very sorry, good Horatio, / That to Laertes I forgot myself; / For by the image of my cause I see / The portraiture of his” (5.2.75–8). At the beginning of Act 5 scene 2 he takes up his tale of the voyage to England, checking to see if Horatio “remember[s] all the circumstance” (2). “Remember it, my lord!” Horatio exclaims (3). Hamlet describes the moment on shipboard when he opened Claudius’s death warrant, “making so bold, / My fears forgetting manners, to unseal / Their grand commission” (5.2.16–18), and comments on his pretense of aristocratic carelessness: “I once did hold it, as our statists do, / A baseness to write fair, and labor’d much / How to forget that learning, but, sir, now / It did me yeman’s service” (5.2.33–6). “Antiquity forgot, custom not known” (4.5.104), the rabble call for Laertes to be king. Hamlet presses Osric to forego courtesy and to put his hat back on his head: “I beseech you / remember” (5.2.103– 4). Hamlet’s dying request is for Horatio to tell his story, and in the final moments Fortinbras asserts that he has “some rights of memory in this kingdom” (394) which, with the support of Hamlet’s “dying voice,” he is now prepared to claim. Recent critical discussions of the two Hegelian terms for memory, Erinnerung and Gedächtnis, can shed light on the problem we are considering, the relationship between memory and revenge. Initiated by Paul de Man in an essay on “Sign and Symbol in Hegel’s Aesthetics,”75 the discourse on memory has since developed in a number of provocative directions.76 Erinnerung (“recollection”), as de Man defines it, after Hegel, is “the inner gathering and preserving of experience,”77 while Gedächtnis (“memory”) is “the learning by rote of names, or of words considered as names, and it can therefore not be separated from the notation, the inscription, or the writing down of these names. In order to remember, one is forced to write down what one is likely to forget.”78 How can this distinction help us to understand the complexity of Hamlet’s mandate to turn his mourning into revenge? When Hamlet first appears on stage, he is beset by Erinnerung, interiorizing recollection, the consciousness of loss. Loss is what he thinks he has—not just “the trappings and the suits of woe,” but “that within which passes show” (1.2.85–6). He will not relinquish this memory, which he hugs to himself. Claudius has a number of motives for calling his “obstinate condolement” “a course / Of impious stubbornness” (1.2.93–4), but he is not altogether wrong. Loss is what Hamlet has instead of both mother and father—and loss is what he must lose, or learn to live with. Freud describes such immersion, when it reaches the state of melancholia, as a kind of fetishization, a privatizing and husbanding of grief, a refusal to let go.79 In Hamlet this condition is exemplified by the first soliloquy, “O that this too too sullied flesh would

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melt” (1.2.129–58), with its longing for dissolution, its flirtation with self-slaughter, and its fragmented and particularized memory of both his father and his mother. The encounter with the Ghost disrupts his absorption in the past as recollection. Abruptly Hamlet is wrenched from Erinnerung to Gedächtnis, from symbol to sign, or, to use de Man’s terms, from symbol to allegory. From this point forward he is compelled to constitute the past by memorization, by inscription, by writing down: Remember thee! Ay, thou poor ghost, whiles memory holds a seat In this distracted globe. Remember thee! Yea, from the table of my memory I’ll wipe away all trivial fond records, All saws of books, all forms, all pressures past That youth and observation copied there, And thy commandment all alone shall live Within the book and volume of my brain, Unmix’d with baser matter. Yes, by heaven! O most pernicious woman! O villain, villain, smiling, damned villain! My tables. Meet it is I set it down That one may smile, and smile, and be a villain— At least I am sure it may be so in Denmark. [Writes.] So, uncle, there you are. Now to my word. It is, ‘Adieu, adieu! remember me.’ I have sworn’t. (1.5.95–112)

The “tables” of Act I scene 5 are writing tables, somewhat like Freud’s “Mystic Writing-Pad,”80 which is, in turn, somewhat like the operations of memory as inscription of memory, Gedächtnis. Polonius alludes to a similar kind of table when he repudiates the role of “desk or table-book” (2.2.136) in his conversation with the Queen, announcing that he could not, like such inanimate objects, merely remain “mute and dumb” (137) when he learned of Hamlet’s overmastering love for Ophelia. Polonius’ choice of mute and dumb objects is suggestive, since both desk and tablebook are surfaces for writing. His refusal to “play” the desk or table-book denies the possibility of prosopopeia, of a speaking record. Thus while Polonius declines to be such a table, Hamlet takes dictation from the Ghost so as to carry about with him the transcribed and inscribed “word,” whether his “tables” are tables of wax, of paper, or of memory.81 The writing tables, then, must take the place of another kind of “table” in Hamlet, the table at which one eats and drinks, the kind of table associated not with Gedächtnis but with Erinnerung. For the language of Erinnerung, of interiorization, in this play is

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the language of digestion, of eating: “the funeral bak’d meats / Did coldly furnish forth the marriage tables” (1.2.180–1); “Heaven and earth, / Must I remember? Why, she would hang on him / As if increase of appetite had grown / By what it fed on” (142–5). Even the famous soliloquy on the sullied-sallied-solid flesh, the wish that the flesh would “melt, / Thaw and resolve itself into a dew” (1.2.129–30) reflects this burden of interiorization. Hamlet, unable either to escape or to complete the desired Erinnerung, is caught between cannibalism and anorexia, spewing forth in language what he cannot swallow,82 taunting Claudius with a reminder of “how a king may go a / progress through the guts of a beggar” (4.3.30–1). Caught, that is, until he is catapulted into an even more difficult trap by the double pull of the paternal imperative, an imperative so indigestible that it must be written down. The feast, like the one to which the Commander invites Dom Juan, is a feast of stone.83 Jacques Derrida, writing on memory and mourning, writing in memory of and in mourning for Paul de Man, suggests that Gedächtnis and Erinnerung are central to “the possibility of mourning,” and that “the inscription of memory” is “an effacement of interiorizing recollection.”84 In the “tables” speech, Hamlet limns precisely the effacement of Erinnerung by Gedächtnis. By writing down the Ghost’s “commandment” he both inscribes and constitutes the paternal story of a past which, in its pastness, is necessarily fictive, since it is only experienced as past, as tale, as narrative. Thus Derrida writes, for Paul de Man, great thinker and theorist of memory, there is only memory but, strictly speaking, the past does not exist. It will never have existed in the present, never been present, as Mallarmé says of the present itself: “un présent n’existe pas.” The allegation of its supposed “anterior” presence is memory, and is the origin of all allegories. If a past does not literally exist, no more does death, only mourning, and that other allegory, including all the figures of death with which we people the “present,” which we inscribe (among ourselves, the living) in every trace (otherwise called “survivals”): those figures strained toward the future across a fabled present, figures we inscribe because they can outlast us, beyond the present of their inscription: signs, words, names, letters, this whole text whose legacy-value, as we know “in the present,” is trying its luck and advancing, in advance “in memory of. . .”85

Derrida’s allusion to Mallarmé is pertinent, for Mallarmé was a great admirer of Shakespeare’s Hamlet, describing it as la pièce que je crois celle par excellence, “what I consider to be the play.”86 And for Mallarmé Hamlet is already a ghost. L’adolescent évanoui de nous aux commencements de la vie et qui hantera les esprits hauts ou pensifs par le deuil qu’il se plaît à porter, je le reconnais, qui se débat sous le mal d’apparaître. [That adolescent who vanished from us at the beginning of life and who will always haunt lofty, pensive minds with his mourning, I recognize him struggling against the curse of having to appear.87]

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We may notice not only his word hantera, “will haunt,” but also the verb tenses in this passage: Hamlet “vanished,” “will always haunt,” “I recognize him,” “struggling to appear.” In this sentence, too, Hamlet himself is never present, is always a trace or an anticipation, haunting Mallarmé and other readers, other audiences.88 He struggles not only against the curse of having to appear, but also with the very difficulty of appearing (le mal d’apparaître); in this too he is like a ghost, like the Ghost. Mallarmé’s Hamlet is thus just what Derrida describes: “a figure strained toward the future across a fabled present.” What makes Mallarmé’s mind pensive is mourning— mourning for the vanished Hamlet as well as in appreciation of Hamlet’s own loss. But what, exactly, does Hamlet write? (Or does he write at all? Critics and editors divide on this question, as to whether he whips out a table or mimes the taking of dictation.)89 What he claims to record is “thy commandment,” and the conjunction of “table” and “commandment” is suggestive. Implicit in the scene, but not always explicitly noted, is its relationship to the moment in Exodus when God gives to Moses “two tables of testimony, tables of stone, written with the finger of God” (Exodus 31:18). In the Mosaic case, God writes, and Moses, angry with the idolatrous Israelites dancing about the golden calf, casts the tables out of his hands and breaks them. Moses then returns to God and pleads with Him to show him His glory. And God says to him, “Thou canst not see my face: for there shall no man see me, and live” (Exodus 33:20). Contrary to the case of prosopopeia, there must here be voice without face, speech without face. And God commands Moses to hew “two tables of stone like unto the first: and I will write upon these tables the words that were in the first tables, which thou brakest” (34:1). The tables that Moses brings to the Israelites, the foundations of the Law, are thus themselves copies, the second version written by God in substitution for the first, the originals, which were broken, which were lost. Moses breaks the tablets because the people were breaking the commandments they did not yet have. Even this law, the great original, is a copy and a substitution. When we turn our attention once again to Hamlet’s tables, we can see the operation of substitution here through erasure, the inscription on the tables of “thy commandment,” which is—to revenge? to remember? to do the one through the agency of the other? We may notice that the same word, “commandment,” is used to denote Hamlet’s other act of inscription as substitution, the “new commission” that sends Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, instead of Hamlet, to be executed in England. The Ambassador from England arrives upon the bloody scene at the close of the play, and comments—in a figure that recalls the murder of King Hamlet—“The ears are senseless that should give us hearing / To tell him his commandment is fulfill’d, / That Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are dead” (5.2.374–6), and Horatio, taking

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“his commandment” to refer to Claudius’ original intent, replies, “He never gave commandment for their death” (379). Hamlet’s writing is thus already a copy, a substitution, a revision of an original that does not show its face in the text. Whether it be the revisionary “tables,” the interpolated “dozen or sixteen lines,” or the redirected “new commission” signed with a usurped signature, Hamlet’s writing is always, in fact, ghost writing.

Forgetting the hobbyhorse Nietzsche’s theory of historical repetition suggests that the world is itself a constructed fiction, so that what is “remembered” is in fact invented as a memorial object, and put in place in the past—put, perhaps, in the place of the past. J. Hillis Miller, describing “two kinds of repetition,” the Platonic model based upon resemblance, and the Nietzschean model based upon difference, observes that “this lack of ground in some paradigm or archetype means that there is something ghostly about the effects of this second type of repetition”90 and, again, that, “the second is not the negation or opposite of the first, but its ‘counterpart’ in a strange relation whereby the second is the subversive ghost of the first, always already present within it as a possibility which hollows it out.”91 If my understanding of Hamlet is correct, the Ghost is itself a figuration of that “subversive ghost,” that “something ghostly.” Just as Shakespeare’s Richard III figures the deformation of history through his own physical deformity and the deformations detectable in language and plot throughout the play, so the Ghost in Hamlet marks the text of that play as a belated harbinger of repetition as difference. The command to “Remember me!” encodes the necessity of forgetting. Miller cites a very suggestive passage from Walter Benjamin’s essay on Proust, in which Benjamin mulls the same relationship I have been exploring—that between memory and forgetting: the important thing for the remembering author is not what he experienced, but the weaving of his memory, the Penelope work of recollection. Or should one call it, rather, a Penelope work of forgetting? Is not the involuntary recollection, Proust’s mémoire involontaire, much closer to forgetting than what is usually called memory? And is not this work of spontaneous recollection, in which remembrance is the woof and forgetting the warp, a counterpart to Penelope’s work rather than its likeness? For here the day unravels what the night has woven.92

What, then, are we to make of the reminders of remembering, the cautions against forgetting, of which the Ghost’s two visitations are the benchmarks? It might seem natural to assume that remembering would facilitate reparation, restitution, and

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recuperation—that the way to rectify an error, or expiate a crime, is through a memory of the act, and even of the historical circumstances that produced, provoked, or surrounded the act. Yet this is precisely what the play of Hamlet does not tell us. Rather than facilitating action, remembering seems to block it, by becoming itself an obsessive concern, in effect fetishizing the remembered persons, events, or commands so that they become virtually impossible to renounce or relinquish. Our contemporary sense of “hobbyhorse” as a constant preoccupation sums up this fetishizing instinct fairly well: the hobbyhorse must be forgot in order for action to follow. Consider the Ghost’s two visitations and his reiterated command. The Ghost asks Hamlet to do two things: to remember and to revenge. Repeatedly on the first occasion he urges revenge. “If thou didst ever thy dear father love. . Revenge his foul and most unnnatural murder” (1.5.23–5). “Bear it not” (81). “Let not the royal bed of Denmark be / A couch for luxury and damned incest” (82–3). Hamlet is to “[pursue] this act” (84) to revenge his father’s murder, while sparing his mother any punishment: “Taint not thy mind nor let thy soul contrive / Against thy mother aught” (85–6). But he is to act, he is to revenge. “Adieu, adieu, adieu. Remember me” (91). Remember and revenge. But these two injunctions are not only different from one another, they are functionally at odds. For the more Hamlet remembers, the more he meditates the “word” that he takes as the Ghost’s “commandment” and inscribes on his tables, the more he is trapped in a round of obsessive speculation. Far from goading him to action, the Ghost’s twice iterated instruction, “Remember me,” “do not forget,” impedes that action, impedes revenge. What Hamlet needs to do is not to remember, but to forget. Imagine the extremest possible case of a man who did not possess the power of forgetting at all and who was thus condemned to see everywhere a state of becoming: such a man would no longer believe in his own being, would no longer believe in himself, would see everything flowing asunder in moving points and would lose himself in this stream of becoming. . Forgetting is essential to action of any kind. . it is altogether impossible to love at all without forgetting. Or, to express my theme even more simply: there is a degree of sleeplessness, or of rumination, of the historical sense, which is harmful and ultimately fatal to the living thing, whether this living thing be a man or a people or a culture. To determine. . the boundary at which the past has to be forgotten if it is not to become the gravedigger of the present, one would have to know exactly how great the plastic power of a man, a people, or a culture is: I mean by plastic power the capacity to develop out of oneself in one’s own way, to transform and incorporate into oneself what is past and foreign, to heal wounds, to replace what has been lost, to recreate broken moulds.93

The “boundary at which the past has to be forgotten if it is not to become the gravedigger of the present.” This is Nietzsche, again in “The Use and Abuse of History.” Nietzsche’s gravedigger is also Hamlet’s, a talismanic figure who digs up the

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pate of a politician, the skull of a lawyer, the bones of a great buyer of land, and jowls them indifferently to the ground (5.1.75–110). It is Hamlet, on this occasion, who “consider[s] too curiously” (199), who speculates about the noble dust of Alexander stopping a bunghole, and “Imperious Caesar, dead and turn’d to clay” who “Might stop a hole to keep the wind away” (206–9). Hamlet, who is still prey to the “rumination, of the historical sense, which is harmful and ultimately fatal to the living thing, whether this living thing be a man or a people or a culture.”94 The gravedigger himself marks Hamlet’s boundaries. He came to his trade “that day that / our last King Hamlet o’ercame Fortinbras” (139–40), “the very day that young Hamlet was born” (143). Harold Jenkins in the Arden edition of Hamlet remarks, What matters is that when Hamlet came into the world a man began to dig graves and has now been at it for a lifetime. . As Hamlet’s talk with the grave-digger thus links the grave-digger’s occupation with the terms of Hamlet’s life, will it not seem to us that the hero has come face to face with his own destiny?95

Yet the gravedigger has the same uncanny valence as the Mower in Marlowe’s Edward II;96 he is the figuration of Hamlet’s mortality, as the skull of Yorick is the fragmented emblem of that mortality. Re-membering is here reconstituted through a process of dismembering, of disarticulation of parts, of dislocation of bones and members. But there is more that is uncanny in this passage of Nietzsche, for it seems throughout to be haunted by the ghost of Hamlet. “I have striven,” he writes in the foreword to “The Use and Abuse of History,” “to depict a feeling by which I am constantly tormented; I revenge myself upon it by handing it over to the public.”97 “It” is the abuse of history, the preoccupation with the past that can inhibit life, making it “stunted and degenerate.”98 Nietzsche’s revenge is to be a “meditation” he describes as “untimely”—but then it must be untimely in order to be effective: “for I do not know what meaning classical studies could have for our time if they were not untimely—that is to say, acting counter to our time and thereby acting on our time and, let us hope, for the benefit of a time to come.”99 It is not, I think, entirely fanciful to wish to juxtapose these remarks to Hamlet’s famous cri de coeur, “The time is out of joint—O cursed spite, / That ever I was born to set it right!” (1.5.196–7). And we may perhaps go further and suggest that Nietzsche in this exclamation, this profession of revenge—like Hamlet in his own professions of belatedness and determination—is himself a revenant, a ghost, a figure dislocated in and from history (“classical studies”; “earlier times”) and constituted (or self-constituted) as not only critic but critique. This is Hamlet’s use of the classical past as well as Nietzsche’s; the Pyrrhus play (“Aeneas’s Tale to Dido”) the constant reminders that his father was Hyperion

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to Claudius’ satyr, that he himself is confronted with a choice of Hercules—these too are uses of history that verge upon the abusive because they place Hamlet rhetorically on the margins of history rather than in the midst of historical process. It is only when he writes himself back into that process, with the agency of his father’s signet ring, later claiming his place in history (“This is I, / Hamlet the Dane.” [5.1.250–1]) by an act of self-naming, that he moves beyond untimely meditation, the belatedness of soliloquy, toward action. For action is inextricably bound with forgetting. Consider the cattle, grazing as they pass you by: they do not know what is meant by yesterday or today, they leap about, eat, rest, digest, leap about again, and so from morn till night and from day to day, fettered to the moment and its pleasure or displeasure, and thus neither melancholy nor bored. This is a hard sight for a man to see. . A human being may well ask an animal: “Why do you not speak to me of your happiness but only stand and gaze at me?” The animal would like to answer, and say: “The reason is I always forget what I was going to say”—but then he forgot this answer, too, and stayed silent: so that the human being was left wondering. But he also wonders at himself, that he cannot learn to forget but clings relentlessly to the past: however far and fast he may run, this chain runs with him. And it is a matter for wonder: a moment, now here and then gone, nothing before it came, again nothing after it has gone, nonetheless returns as a ghost and disturbs the peace of a later moment.100

“’Tis here.” “’Tis here.” “’Tis gone.” Nietzsche’s meditation, Nietzsche’s revenge, incorporates (or “incorpses”)101 Hamlet as a manifestation of the haunting presentness of the past. Hamlet remembers; Polonius forgets. “What was I about / to say? By the mass, I was about to say something. / Where did I leave?” Reynaldo: “At ‘closes in the consequence’” (2.1.50–3). What Polonius forgets is precisely what closes in the consequence: causality, history. “‘The reason is I always forget what I was going to say’—but then he forgot this answer, too.” Polonius forgets: Hamlet remembers. Hamlet’s own meditation on revenge and bestial oblivion is so close to Nietzsche’s that we may wonder whether Nietzsche’s complex of ideas, from revenge to the ghost to the beast to the gravedigger, does not derive in some way from Shakespeare’s great untimely meditation, and in particular, from the soliloquy in Act 4 scene 4: How all occasions do inform against me, And spur my dull revenge. What is a man If his chief good and market of his time Be but to sleep and feed? A beast, no more. Sure he that made us with such large discourse, Looking before and after, gave us not That capability and godlike reason To fust in us unus’d. Now whether it be

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Bestial oblivion, or some craven scruple Of thinking too precisely on th’ event— A thought which, quarter’d, hath but one part wisdom And ever three parts coward—I do not know Why yet I live to say this thing’s to do, Sith I have cause, and will, and strength, and means To do’t. (4.4.32–46)

Now, what does it mean to say that Nietzsche’s meditation on revenge and forgetting situates itself as a rewriting of Hamlet? Is this merely a way of repositioning Shakespeare as the great authority, the great original, in whose work all ideas, all controversies, all contestations are already present? Is Shakespeare the locus classicus (or the locus renascens) of the move to place subversion within containment? And / or is Hamlet—as I have suggested above—the play that articulates, or represents, the construction of the modern subject? I think that the last of these questions can be answered, tentatively, in the affirmative, and that this accounts at least in part for the befuddlement and irritation some contemporary critics demonstrate when they are asked to come face to face with this play. It is too close to us. What look like critiques, analyses, implementations of Hamlet to make some other point (philosophical, political, psychoanalytic) dissolve to bring us back to the play itself, not as referent, but as origin—or marker of the unknowability of origins, what Freud called the navel of the dream: “There is at least one spot in every dream at which it is unplumbable—a navel, as it were, that is its point of contact with the unknown”:102 There is often a passage in even the most thoroughly interpreted dream which has to be left obscure; this is because we become aware during the work of interpretation that at this point there is a tangle of dream-thoughts which cannot be unravelled and which moreover adds nothing to our knowledge of the content of the dream. This is the dream’s navel, the spot where it reaches down into the unknown.103

When Terry Eagleton complains that “Hamlet has no ‘essence’ of being whatsoever, no inner sanctum to be safeguarded: he is pure deferral and diffusion, a hollow void which offers nothing determinate to be known” and that “Hamlet’s jealous sense of unique selfhood is no more than the negation of anything in particular. How could it be otherwise, when he rejects the signifiers by which alone the self, as signified, comes into its determinacy?”104 He is registering a protest (though a postmodern and somewhat satisfied protest) against this Alice’s rabbit-hole quality in the play’s text. Likewise when Jonathan Goldberg, in a characteristically rich and compressed three pages on Hamlet, suggests that “Hamlet’s divided identity—and with it his delays and

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deferrals, his resistance to the ghostly plot, his inability to act and his compulsions to repeat—are the result of his identification with his father’s words,” and that “The depth of his interiority is his foldedness within a text that enfolds him and which cannot be unfolded,”105 he is at once finding within Shakespeare’s play the reflection of his own critical and theoretical moment, Derridean and Lacanian, and—at the same time, and through the same process—locating the play’s power precisely in its capacity to assume the guise of contemporaneity and timely contestation. That critics write their own Hamlets, as, for example, Coleridge, Goethe, and T. S. Eliot, have done, is something of a commonplace for us. That they are compelled to do so—that this is their compulsion to repeat—because the play limns a preconscious moment that can only be retrieved through repetition and not through memory, reinscribes the paradox of the play as itself a mise en abyme without (exactly, precisely, without) the primal scene at which it is constantly hinting, and which we are constantly on the brink of remembering, falsely, fictively. The ghost of Hamlet—the ghost in Hamlet—is this illusion of the articulation of our own perception of desire and its denial, our own conviction that “the spot where it reaches down to the unknown” can be plumbed, even if it is found to be a hollow void. Hamlet is the play of undecidability. But / and it is the play of the uncanny, the play in which the Heimlich and the Unheimlich are opposite and identical, the play that demonstrates that you can’t go home again. Why? Because you are home—and home is not what you have always and belatedly (from unhome) fantasized it to be. Hence, once again, forgetting and remembering. And revenge. In other words, transference. Freud is quite clear about the dynamic that links remembering, forgetting, and action. The patient forgets something because he / she represses it, and in order to retrieve that which has been repressed, he or she acts. The repetition-compulsion becomes a way of remembering, as well as a substitution for unretrievable or unretrieved memories. Consider this passage from the 1914 essay, “Recollection, Repetition, and Working Through”: We may say that here the patient remembers nothing of what is forgotten and repressed, but that he expresses it in action. He reproduces it not in his memory but in his behaviour; he repeats it, without of course knowing that he is repeating it. . As long as he is under treatment he never escapes from this compulsion to repeat; at last one understands that it is his way of remembering. The relation between this compulsion to repeat and the transference and resistance is naturally what will interest us most of all. We soon perceive that the transference is itself only a bit of repetition, and that the repetition is the transference of the forgotten past not only on to the physician, but also on to all the other aspects of the current situation. We must be prepared to find, therefore, that the patient abandons himself to the compulsion to repeat, which is now replacing the impulse to remember, not only in his relation with the analyst but

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also in all other matters occupying and interesting him at the time, for instance, when he falls in love or sets about any project during the treatment.106

Furthermore, the degree of resistance to the analyst and to quiescent remembering determines the degree to which acting out takes place. The greater the resistance the more extensively will expressing in action (repetition) be substituted for recollecting. . if, then, as the analysis proceeds, this transference becomes hostile or unduly intense, consequently necessitating repression, remembering immediately gives way to expression in action. From then onward the resistances determine the succession of the various repetitions. The past is the patient’s armoury out of which he fetches his weapons for defending himself against the progress of the analysis, weapons which we must wrest from him one by one.107

This last analogy sounds disquietingly like the end of Othello (“Take you this weapon / Which I have here recovered from the Moor” [5.2.238–9]: “I have another weapon in this chamber” [250]), but the pattern of resistance and repetition is uncannily like the plot of Hamlet. Indeed, it is not surprising to think of Hamlet as the story of an analysis, for what is analysis but a contemporary restaging of the pattern of deferral and substitution that we recognize in Hamlet? If our question, or one of our questions, concerns the relationship of memory and revenge, it is here answered, at least in part, by the compulsion to repeat. “As long as he is under treatment he never escapes from this compulsion to repeat; at last one understands that it is his way of remembering.” This compulsion to repeat, “which is now replacing the impulse to remember,” encompasses the killing (and not killing) of fathers, the accusation of women, the plays within the play, dumb show, and talking cure. The transferenceneurosis is induced as a kind of therapeutic substitution, which can be cured or worked on because it is present rather than lost, and because it is, in some sense, play. “We admit it into the transference as to a playground.”108 The transference thus forms a kind of intermediary realm between illness and real life, through which the journey from the one to the other must be made. The new state of mind has absorbed all the features of the illness; it represents, however, an artificial illness which is at every point accessible to our interventions. It is at the same time a piece of real life, but adapted to our purposes by specially favourable conditions, and it is of a provisional character. From the repetition-reactions which are exhibited in the transference the familiar paths lead back to the awakening of the memories, which yield themselves without difficulty after the resistances have been overcome.109

This is a reasonably appropriate description of the role played by the play within the play in Hamlet, and also by Hamlet’s role as chorus (analyst) of the “Mousetrap” (or even of the first Player’s Pyrrhus speech). Real and provisional, “adapted to our

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Hamlet: Giving Up the Ghost

purposes” with or without the addition of a dozen or sixteen lines, close enough to the original or originary situation (at least as it is fantasized or retold) yet safely “artificial” and thus able to be discounted or bounded, the play within the play does exhibit many of the symptoms of transference-neurosis, as in fact do the soliloquies that problematize the activity of others (Fortinbras, the First Player, Pyrrhus, even Laertes) as contrasted with the ruminative passivity of Hamlet. The connection between repressed thoughts and memories and the compulsion to repeat is also strongly argued in Beyond the Pleasure Principle (1920), and it is not surprising that both of these Freudian texts have been used by narratologists to develop strategies of narrative displacement, substitution, and delay. In Beyond the Pleasure Principle Freud again states that “the compulsion to repeat must be ascribed to the unconscious repressed”110 and comments on the odd but undeniable fact that people often compulsively repeat things that are not, and seem never to have been, pleasurable. How then is the compulsion to repeat related to the pleasure principle? The artistic play and artistic imitation carried out by adults, which, unlike children’s, are aimed at an audience, do not spare the spectators (for instance, in tragedy) the most painful experiences and yet can be felt by them as highly enjoyable. This is convincing proof that, even under the dominance of the pleasure principle, there are ways and means enough of making what is in itself unpleasurable into a subject to be recollected and worked over in the mind.”111

Tragedy—whether exemplified by Hamlet or by “The Murder of Gonzago”—thus can produce pleasure when it is received as a repetition. But if the illusion represented by the players conduces to pleasure when categorized as play, what of the kind of compulsion to repeat that results in a different sort of illusion—the terrifying spectacle of the ghost? “Stay, illusion” (1.1.130). Three times in Beyond the Pleasure Principle Freud evokes the image of some “daemonic” power produced by the repetitioncompulsion: What psycho-analysis reveals in the transference phenomena of neurotics can also be observed in the lives of some normal people. The impression they give is of being pursued by a malignant fate or possessed by some “daemonic” power; but psycho-analysis has always taken the view that their fate is for the most part arranged by themselves and determined by early infantile influences.112 The manifestations of a compulsion to repeat (which we have described as occurring in the early activities of infantile mental life as well as among the events of psycho-analytic treatment) exhibit to a high degree an instinctual character and, when they act in opposition to the pleasure principle, give the appearance of some “daemonic” force at work.113 It may be presumed, too, that when people unfamiliar with analysis feel an obscure fear—a dread of rousing something that, so they feel, is better left sleeping—what they are afraid of at

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bottom is the emergence of this compulsion with its hint of possession by some “daemonic” power.114

In the terms of Hamlet, this “daemonic” force or power, if it is to be ascribed to or even personified by the Ghost, is the compulsion to repeat which repression substitutes for remembering. Confronted with the Ghost’s command, “Remember me!” Hamlet remembers that he is commanded to remember, but displaces that which he is unable to remember into compulsive behavior of a kind that translates him into a daemon, into a ghost. Thus he appears as a silent spectacle in Ophelia’s closet, pale, sighing, as if “loosed out of hell” (2.1.83). The passivity of Hamlet, his apparent position of being acted on rather than acting, is also commensurate with the impression of being possessed, while in fact giving the name of “possession” to the repetition compulsion. We may note that in both of these texts Freud represents the patient as male. Interestingly, however, when he comes to speak more closely of “transference-love” he shifts genders, to describe the circumstances of a female patient—and therefore, by implication, of a male analyst. And here again there is a ghost come from the grave—or from the unconscious. But from whose? To urge the patient to suppress, to renounce and to sublimate the promptings of her instincts, as soon as she had confessed her love-transference, would not be an analytic way of dealing with them, but a senseless way. It would be the same thing as to conjure up a spirit from the underworld by means of a crafty spell and then to dispatch him back again without a question. One would have brought the repressed impulses out into consciousness only in terror to send them back into repression once more. Nor should one deceive oneself about the success of any such proceeding. When levelled at the passions, lofty language achieves very little, as we all know. The patient will only feel the humiliation, and will not fail to revenge herself for it.115

The passion evoked by the analyst should rather be put in the service of the analysis, as the same kind of “playground” (or play-ground) occupied by the transference-neurosis described above. The “spirit from the underworld” is the patient’s desire, and the denial or repression of that desire will send the ghost tunneling underground again, and prompt the analysand to revenge. But revenge upon what?

Turning the tables For Hamlet himself, who or what is the Ghost? We could say that for Hamlet the Ghost is—or at least, is supposed to be—what Lacan calls the sujet supposé savoir, the subject who is supposed to know. “As soon as the subject who is supposed to know exists

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somewhere,” says Lacan, “there is transference.”116 Who is, who can be, invested with such authority, such being-in-knowledge? For Lacan, “If there is someone to whom one can apply there can be only one such person. This one was Freud, while he was alive.”117 What a muted accolade is this—“This one was Freud, while he was alive.” And now that he is dead? Lacan does not say, or does not say directly, who is the new one, the new sujet supposé savoir. But does he need to? The King is dead, long live. . And so in Hamlet, also, the investment of authority is not without a sense of question and cost. Can the Ghost be the subject who is supposed to know only because he is dead? “O my prophetic soul,” cries Hamlet (1.5.40). The Ghost is supposed to know—that is, to confirm—what Hamlet did not know he knew. “The analyst,” says Lacan, “occupies this place in as much as he is the object of the transference. Experience shows us that when the subject enters analysis, he is far from giving the analyst this place.”118 Then when does Hamlet enter into a transferential relationship with the Ghost? When, precisely, he is given to think that his own authority is confirmed. Notice how much like an analytic situation is Hamlet’s own response to this uncanny consultant: Given that analysis may, on the part of certain subjects, be put in question at its very outset, and suspected of being a lure—how is it that around this being mistaken something stops? Even the psycho-analyst put in question is credited at some point with a certain infallibility, which means that certain intentions, betrayed, perhaps, by some chance gesture, will sometimes be attributed even to the analyst put in question, “You did that to test me!”119

For Hamlet’s testing of the Ghost (“The spirit that I have seen / May be a devil, and the devil hath power / T’assume a pleasing shape, yea, and perhaps, / Out of my weakness and my melancholy, / As he is very potent with such spirits, / Abuses me to damn me. I’ll have grounds / More relative than this” [2.2.594–600]) is really in many ways the provision of a test for himself. Does he believe the Ghost, or not? Does the Ghost have authority? The Ghost that comes “in such a questionable shape” (1.4.43) is immediately put in question, is in fact, as we have begun to see, the shape or sign of putting things in question. We could almost designate him as is done in Spanish with an inverted question mark before each appearance, before each utterance, and with another question mark following each. Plain as the Ghost’s utterances may seem, Hamlet wants them to be a riddle, a problem, a question. Be thy intents wicked or charitable, Thou com’st in such a questionable shape That I will speak to thee. I’ll call thee Hamlet, King, father, royal Dane. (1.4.42–5)

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“Certain intentions, betrayed, perhaps, by some chance gesture” seem to provoke in Hamlet a wish to name, to pin upon his sujet supposé savoir the signifier Lacan has called “le nom-du-père” [the Name-of-the-Father]. Lacan’s term derives in part from a critique of the traditional Christian invocation all too appropriate to Hamlet: “In the name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost.” Coupling this formula with the biological indeterminacy of paternity, Lacan notes that the attribution of procreation to the father can only be the effect of a pure signifier, of a recognition, not of a real father, but of what religion has taught us to refer to as the Name-ofthe-Father. Of course, there is no need of a signifier to be a father, any more than to be dead, but without a signifier, no one would ever know anything about either state of being. . insistently Freud stresses the affinity of the two signifying relations that I have just referred to, whenever the neurotic subject (especially the obsessional) manifests this affinity through the conjunction of the themes of the father and death. How, indeed, could Freud fail to recognize such an affinity, when the necessity of his reflexion led him to link the appearance of the signifier of the Father, as author of the Law, with death, even to the murder of the Father—thus showing that if this murder is the fruitful moment of debt through which the subject binds himself for life to the Law, the symbolic Father is, in so far as he signifies this Law, the dead Father.120

Lacan extends this view further by underscoring the homonymic double meaning of “nom-du-père,” which in French sounds identical to the expression “non-du-père”— “no” of the father. The father—the dead father, the symbolic father—is the Law. For Freud, of course, this symbolic father is not the Christian father but the father of Jewish law. And the law commands, “thou shalt not”: “If thou hast nature in thee, bear it not, / Let not the royal bed of Denmark be / A couch for luxury and damned incest. / But howsomever thou pursuest this act, / Taint not thy mind, nor let thy soul contrive / Against thy mother aught” (Ghost to Hamlet, 1.5.81–6, emphasis added); “Do not forget” (Ghost to Hamlet, 3.4.110, in Gertrude’s closet, emphasis added). Freud, it will be recalled, made much of the connection between the writing of Hamlet and the death of Shakespeare’s father. In The Interpretation of Dreams, he cites the Shakespearean scholar Georg Brandes121 to demonstrate that Hamlet was written immediately after the death of Shakespeare’s father (in 1601), that is, under the immediate impact of the bereavement and, as we may well assume, while his childhood feelings about his father had been freshly revived. It is known, too, that Shakespeare’s own son who died at an early age bore the name of “Hamnet,” which is identical with “Hamlet.”122

Yet there is another father involved here, as Freud’s preface to the second edition of The Interpretation of Dreams (1908) makes clear. For that masterpiece of analytic

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invention was itself written right after the death of Freud’s own father. In his preface, Freud writes: this book has a further subjective significance for me personally—a significance which I only grasped after I had completed it. It was, I found, a portion of my own self-analysis, my reaction to my father’s death—that is to say, to the most important event, the most poignant loss, of a man’s life.123

There may therefore be a connection between Freud’s interpretation of Hamlet and the death not only of Shakespeare’s father but also of Freud’s father. Similarities between Freud’s story and Hamlet’s have been noticed by recent revisionist biographers, often in connection with his recantation of (or “suppression of”)124 the seduction theory, which held that neuroses originated in actual sexual encounters—with adults, often parents, servants, or older children—experienced in childhood. Marianne Krüll, for example, argues that Hamlet’s situation—“a son dwelling with impotent rage on the ruthlessness of his mother and his uncle—had parallels with Freud’s own family.”125 The “uncle” in the Freud story was his halfbrother Philip, called “Uncle” by Freud’s niece and nephew, and represented in Freud’s own dream associations in such a way as to suggest some real or imagined sexual relationship between Philip and his (Freud’s) mother.126 Krüll’s book argues that Freud received from his father, Jacob, an ambivalent mandate: he was commanded to show filial piety, to honor his father as instructed by the Fifth Commandment, and above all not to inquire into his father’s secrets, or his past; at the same time, he was commanded to seek success in the secular world, to become a great man. The son’s resentment at this impossible double task was identical, says Krüll, to that felt by Jacob Freud toward his father, Schlomo (Sigmund’s Hebrew name). “Neither of them rebelled against his father, and both shouldered the contradictory mandate of making his own way, even while remaining dutiful sons.” 127 “To complete its hold over him” writes John Gross, “the mandate forbade him to acknowledge the feelings of resentment that it inspired, his rage against Jacob for saddling him with an insoluble problem.”128 This “mandate,” we may notice, is very like the “word” Hamlet receives from the Ghost in the “tables” scene, together with the troublesomely ambivalent command, “Remember me!” A dream mentioned by Freud in slightly different versions in the letters to Fliess and The Interpretation of Dreams129 concerns the arrangements he made for his father’s funeral, and the criticism he incurred from relatives for choosing “the simplest possible ritual”130 though he did so in accordance with his understanding of his father’s wishes. It is this dream that Krüll has in mind when she writes that like Hamlet,

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Freud too has been hotspot shield 8.7.1 crack - Activators Patch orders by his late father in a dream which, though the subject was not revenge, as in Hamlet’s case, nevertheless caused the son comparable qualms of conscience. Another reason for Freud, in my view, to feel so drawn to the Hamlet theme.131

Not only the funeral of old Hamlet, swiftly followed by Gertrude’s remarriage, but even more particularly the “hugger-mugger” interment (4.5.84) of Polonius and the “maimed rites” accompanying Ophelia’s obsequies (5.1.212; 219)—so disturbingly punctuated by Laertes’s twice iterated demand, “What ceremony else?” (5.1.216; 218)—correspond to Freud’s own anxieties about performing his duty to the dead. In the dream—which he tells Fliess took place after his father’s funeral, and which in The Interpretation of Dreams he describes as taking place before—he sees a notice-board inscribed with the phrase, “You are requested to close the eyes,” which he interprets as an ambivalent statement; in The Interpretation of Dreams the ambivalence has made its way onto the notice-board itself, so that the sign reads “either “You are requested to close the eyes” or, “You are requested to close an eye.”

I usually write this [says Freud] in the form: “You are requested to close the eye(s).”132 an

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Read reviews, compare customer ratings, see screenshots, and learn more about The Economist Espresso. Download The Economist Espresso and enjoy it on your iPhone, iPad, and iPod touch. Prayer is the greatest way to start your day Rise and shine - the great morning awaits all of God's children. LOS ANGELES, CA (Catholic Online) - This may be a well-known fact. not everyone. I've been mostly morning sickness free for several weeks now but this is my first and I've felt like we haven't been eating at all as well as we usually would. My darling husband has been trying and has learnt alot about soaking grains (he's in charge of breakfasts) and he also sourced a place for me to get. We have our doubts, but we are both certain that the man is not mentally equipped to continue watching our show, “Morning Joe.” The president's unhealthy obsession with our show has been in the public record for months, and we are seldom surprised by his posting nasty tweets about us. During the. Night showers may be leisurely and relaxing, but our writer was surprised to learn that morning showers — or even two showers a day — may be. Get the best of Well, with the latest on health, fitness and nutrition, delivered to your inbox every week. A gentle, fragrance-free cleanser is best, he said. Phillip Bryan Schofield (born 1 April 1962) is an English television presenter currently employed by ITV. He is most recognised for presenting the lifestyle programme This Morning, which he has co-hosted since 2002, and has also hosted other programmes on the channel. Schofield has co-presented numerous television. Subsequently, exposures in periods identified as consistently critical were examined in depth using adjusted regression models; (3) Results: Life-course plots identified morning fat and carbohydrate (CHO) intake at 3/4 years and 7/8 years as well as changes in these intakes between 3/4 years and 7/8. Superfoods/Additives: Greens Powder, Collagen, Tumeric, Bee Pollen, Goji Berries, Raw Gluten Free Granola, Cocoa Nibs, Ginger, Chia Seeds, Sunflower Seeds, Coconut flakes, Sea Salt. Superfoods can be used as a fun topping or add to your smoothie for supplemental needs. We make suggestions for. Morning, Well, Good, GIF. GIF Good, morning, well, good morning, buenos dias, animated GIFs free Animated GIF good, well, morning, buenos dias, good morning. On this animated GIF: well, good, morning, Download GIF buenos dias, good morning, or share You can upload gifs and share in twitter, facebook or instagram. You can read about the worst breakfast foods here: 10 Worst Foods to Eat in the Morning. However, eating the. Therefore, people with celiac disease or gluten sensitivity should choose oats that have been certified as gluten-free. One cup of. Combine all ingredients in a bowl and mix well. Cover bowl. Good morning rituals can not only help you have a great day but also a happy life and thus a peaceful, technology free morning routine and some time for yourself is important before you go out and work for 9 hours for someone else or yourself. The first three hours of the morning are vital, by that I don't. Mix up your morning meal and try one—or a few—of these 5 healthy breakfast foods that help you lose weight. My go-to of the bunch when pressed for time, Need2Know is a free weekday morning email digest that distills the most important news of the moment into easy-to-understand, relatable summaries. For pop culture junkies that want their highbrow intel, too, Need2Know offers a satisfying mix of the latest in breaking news. This option is probably the closest to dairy, in terms of texture and taste, and it froths well. Note, that if gluten-free, you may want to make your own using gluten-free oats, as store-bought options will commonly contain gluten. Oat milk is also very budget-friendly and economical when made at home. Good morning, beautiful :) feels good to finally wake up and smile thinking about you after the last 9 mornings of tears. I love you so much baby. Hope you slept well and I hope you have a good day! I never thought I would miss telling someone good morning until I no longer sent a good morning text to a great woman. 1 Aug 2016Hosted by Kay Adams, Nate Burleson, Peter Schrager and Kyle Brandt, Good Morning. That said, I'm recovering from an illness so I get a pass. You don't. Keep your work, television, and anything that requires you to be conscious out of your bedroom. Well, as much as possible anyway. If the bedroom is where you sleep and only where you sleep, your body will not associate them with sleep. Start your day off right with the Global News Morning on Global BC. News, traffic and weather beginning weekday mornings at 5:00. Early in his life, Benjamin Franklin, one of the primary framers of the American Constitution, outlined his perfect morning routine: “…I rise early almost every morning, and sit in my chamber without any clothes whatever, half an hour or an hour, according to the season, either reading or writing.” In Franklin's. Drinking in the morning is a risky habit, and you may simply be delaying the appearance of symptoms until the alcohol wears off again. on a regular basis; spread your drinking over three or more days if you regularly drink as much as 14 units a week; if you want to cut down, try to have several drink-free days each week. When you start your Moview Video Mosaic Player 1.1.65 Free Download with Crack with a calm morning routine, ease will naturally punctuate the rest of your day. In fact, research. Don't forget to sign up for my e-letter and get access to all the free self-development resources (e-books, mini-guides + worksheets) in the Always Well Within Library. May you be happy. Good Morning Arizona takes you around Arizona to show you the great things about AZ. Training your new puppy can be a little overwhelming, but making sure they are socialized and trained ensures that your dog will be happy, confident and well-behaved. Chandler program offers high school students free prom attire. Find great food recipes and healthy eating on This Morning with ITV. Quick & tasty, easy to follow and celebrity chefs. Free from. His chargrilled yogurt chicken served with asparagus, feta, flatbreads and a tasty salad is a guaranteed crowd pleaser, as well as being healthy and simple to cook! Taken from My Kind of. Emergency contraception( the morning after pill as well as the copper coil) is available from the Community Gynaecology Department, Royal Free Hospital during office hours 9 am to 5Pm Mon, Tuesday and Thursday. Community Gynaecology can also be contacted on Wednesday on 02078302495 to arrange for. I love breakfast. I used to be a coffee and muffin girl but over time I have figured out that my breakfast was setting me up to crash and burn. Now on most mornings, I fire up the blender and make a smoothie with protein powder. I find this makes a big difference in my energy, and I have fewer cravings. Cervical Smears; Pregnancy testing and referrals (a small fee may apply for tests); Contraception and the-morning-after pill; Sexual health screening and treatment; Wound-care. Whānau. Diabetes; Wound-care; Physical health checks. To get in touch with one of our nurses please contact the Choices clinic closest to you:. Are you a morning person, a night person, or somewhere in between? Answer each question, keeping a running tally of your scores. At the end of the quiz, add them up to reveal your type. What time would you get up if you were entirely free to plan your own day? A. 5 to 6:30 a.m. (5 points) B. 6:30 to 7:45 a.m. (4 points) This is especially true if your morning routine includes not just getting yourself out the door, but one or more little people as well. If over time you discover that certain things need to be done in a different order, feel free to adapt them—but give yourself enough repetitions of the first way before you decide. Shine sends you free daily text messages with motivational quotes, positive affirmations and actions you can take every morning. Offering pay-what-you-wish New York walking tours as well as food, bike and bus tours. Pay-what-you-wish New York tours are tours for every budget! Going gluten-free doesn't mean giving up baked goods, quiche, bars, or pizza (yeah, you read that right) as a morning meal! The only English-language socialist daily newspaper in the world, published six days a week. Perhaps I shouldn't have been surprised at how powerful Morning Pages proved, from day one, at calming anxieties, producing insights and resolving dilemmas. After all, the psychological benefits of externalising thoughts via journalling are well-established. And that bleary-eyed morning time has been. Follow the Doctor's Orders. What do you learn after treating 11,000 train wrecks? How to avoid them. We talked to Dr. Jason Burke of Hangover Heaven (read about his treatments here) about the best ways to stay hangover free. Don't go to sleep. At least not right away. “When you pass out, your organs. You'll get a quick burst of energy, but by mid-morning your blood sugar will crash, and you'll be hungry, tired, and unfocused. oil won't keep you full for more than an hour or two, but a true Bulletproof Coffee made with mold-free beans, grass-fed butter, and Brain Octane Oil gives you steady energy for an entire morning. Upgraded Coffee, which Asprey says is free of harmful mycotoxins, which are essentially fungi and mold, thanks to his top-secret roasting process. (More on this in just a bit.) 2. On my commute into the office I felt more alert than usual–though it may well have been a placebo effect. Reading the morning. How the day's economic and political developments will affect your wealth • The latest investment opportunities, and how you can profit. PLUS we'll send you our FREE investing report, The buy to let timebomb: what property investors need to know now! It'll arm you with everything you need to become a well-informed. Good morning!!! I hope you are doing well and that you had a great weekend. My wife and I are thinking about going to Chengdu and visiting the Giant Panda Breeding Research Base and having our picture taken with a panda (just like your awesome picture!!!). I would like to ask you how you were able to achieve this? The Saturday Morning Math Group and Austin Math Circle are UT sponsored outreach programs aimed at junior high and high school students, their teachers, and their parents. For each program, a. Both programs are free and no pre-registration is required. All regular SMMG. Please join us here as well! Both Saturday. I'm writing this at 6:00AM – and I'm loving it. For many years now I have been ranting about getting up early to jump start your morning. Sometimes I see my audience nod in agreement, sometimes they give me that yeah-right-skinny-guy look, and sometimes they just laugh. But I know if they also joined the Morning Club. They care mighty little for the distant result of wise measures and free government, when set in opposition to immediate tangible benefit to themselves and to those. and for the purposes of a sure re-election, a morning well employed in Downing-street, is worth many an evening spent in this House, To hear the language of. Then set your alarm for well before 5am when registration for the maximum of 120 daily viewing places starts. If you arrive later in the morning there is still a lot to see. Check the market website before setting off as the market doesn't operate every day. Note also that the market will be moving in the future. Former WH staffers on 'Treating People Well'. 04/12/18 11:55AM. Former White House social secretaries Lea Berman and Jeremy Bernard joined Morning Joe on January 10, 2018 to discuss their new book 'Treating People Well: The Extraordinary Power of Civility at Work and in Life.' watch. save. The dawn phenomenon is a natural rise in blood sugar that happens before a person wakes up. It does not cause noticeable effects in people with safe blood sugar levels but has a more severe impact on people who have diabetes. This MNT Knowledge Center article explores how the phenomenon affect. The AAHRS mission is to advance the art and science of hair restoration by licensed, experienced physicians who are qualified to practice this type of medicine and who do so with the highest degree of skill and artistry. We encourage the free interchange of ideas, knowledge and experience among members who aim to. It is marked by a bronze plaque on the well which reads:-"On August 1st, 1834, the Proclamation of Emancipation was read in the territory of the Virgin Islands proclaiming 5,133 Negro slaves free. This historic site, popularly known as the Sunday Morning Well is one of the sites where the order was read, abolishing the. So, you know how doughnuts are one of the best foods ever? (Especially festive ones like this). But every time you have a hankering for one you're all like: I want a doughnut, but I really shouldn't. Well, my friends, there's a way to have your doughnut and eat it too: Philadelphia Runner has teamed up with. H i have come across this and i can say that it is great but for the lemon when you cut a slice of it off and then what to to with the rest well do not throw it away. once you have your lemons then slice them into 8 slices 1 for each morning or even 2 slices depends on how you like your lemon water. once you. Over the past few days we have been blessed with some unreal sunrises and clean lined up swell. I chose to start the mornings out early by suiting up and swimming out around 6:45am to photograph the ocean. On the first morning of clean swell I met up with Chris Tincher and manged to link up on a few. Good Morning Alarm Clock. Price: Free / $0.99. DOWNLOAD ON GOOGLE PLAY. Good Morning Alarm Clock is one of the relatively newer clock apps. It also tries to track your sleep as well as wake you up. Of course, that means sleeping with your phone in your bed. Aside from that, it works well. Some of. No one ever complains about having too much storage space. In contrast, most homeowners don't have enough space to store their stuff in the house. If it sounds like you, then you need a shed. Sheds help us accommodate all of our 'stuff' and keep our properties a little more organized. Well, if you are on the hunt for the. TV's morning-show battles have reached a new extreme thanks to a fluctuating dynamic between ABC's "Good Morning America" and NBC's "Today". But the networks use the most-viewed measure to brag about whose show matters more in the A.M. And it can help woo audiences as well as in the effort. Bernie Sanders's ideas mostly poll well. There's a catch. And most Americans think one might be necessary, according to a new poll conducted by Morning Consult and Vox. Fifty-four. (Morning Consult Intelligence members can head to their site to view the poll's full toplines and crosstabs.) Liberals and. It's well integrated into iOS – though also runs on Mac and now Windows – and automatically updates and stores your files across all connected devices. What you get for free: The free version comes with 5GB of storage which you can use to backup photos, videos, mail, notes, calendars, app data, contacts and documents. SINGAPORE – Free morning pre-peak hour travel will cease from Dec 29, the Public Transport Council (PTC) announced on Monday (Oct 30) after its latest review, but discounts of up to 50 cents will be given to commuters who tap in at any MRT or LRT station before 7.45am. The discount will apply r. Research on young adults suggests that larks and owls differ in terms of well-being and susceptibility to psychiatric illness. Both retired older adults and, to a lesser extent, undergraduate students, are relatively free to determine morning rising times, and it is unclear how this may have influenced the. Latest News. Scholastic Books Order at the YWCA International Kids Club · summer_enrolment. Special Notice: Summer Term Enrolment Postponed · Gut_health. Coffee Morning & Free Seminar - Gut health and its importance on your well-being FULL · Easter Giveaway and Egg Hunt · kids_play_basketball. YWCA Asia. If that goes well, increase by another two minutes and do that for a week. If all goes well, by increasing just a little at a time, you'll be meditating for 10 minutes a day in the 2nd month, which is amazing! But start small first. Do it first thing each morning. It's easy to say, “I'll meditate every day,” but then forget to. We had to end the free samples and created a waitlist until we could figure out how to handle the demand. Our waitlist continued to explode in the coming week from the Product Hunt exposure. It led us to our first round of media coverage in over 20 different outlets as well as conversations with our first. Because it's easy to imagine our heroes as unflappable juggernauts, who conquer insecurity with a majestic mental karate chop every morning. This is, of course, an illusion. Is it because of the 100x more inbound, which decreases a feeling of self-directed free will? A feeling that you're constantly. Yum! After a tough workout this morning I decided to treat myself with a well-deserved delicious breakfast. Lately, I've been on an oatmeal kick so I decided to put together some of my favorite ingredients (banana, chocolate and peanut butter) into one delicious combo! This recipe takes minutes to make and. 1 day ago. All internationals will be broadcast on Fox Sports and simulcast on Channel 7. In Big Bash, 23 matches receive the same treatment. While the new deal may not be as good for men's cricket with less broadcast on free to air, in the women's game has done well. More free coverage, more eyes on the game. The museum hosts a variety of free family programs as well, from drop-in art classes on Saturdays and Sundays to museum tours with family-friendly guides. Be Inspired at the American Visionary Art Museum. The exterior of the American Visionary Art Museum is almost as interesting as what you'll find inside. The building is.


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